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Results 351 - 400 of 1063
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Coffey Vernon G - - 2007
Skeletal muscle is a malleable tissue capable of altering the type and amount of protein in response to disruptions to cellular homeostasis. The process of exercise-induced adaptation in skeletal muscle involves a multitude of signalling mechanisms initiating replication of specific DNA genetic sequences, enabling subsequent translation of the genetic message ...
Hoppeler Hans - - 2007
A number of molecular tools enable us to study the mechanisms of muscle plasticity. Ideally, this research is conducted in view of the structural and functional consequences of the exercise-induced changes in gene expression. Muscle cells are able to detect mechanical, metabolic, neuronal and hormonal signals which are transduced over ...
Lehti T Maarit - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated bouts of exercise on the cytoskeletal proteins titin, desmin, and dystrophin. Rats were made to run downhill for 90 min 1 or 5 times separated by 14 days. Samples were taken from quadriceps femoris muscle 3, 48, 96 ...
Koopman René - - 2007
Resistance exercise is a powerful stimulus to augment muscle protein anabolism, as it can improve the balance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown. However, the intake of food during post-exercise recovery is necessary for hypertrophy to occur. Therefore, athletes need to ingest protein following exercise to attain a positive protein ...
Gibala Martin J - - 2007
Prolonged endurance exercise stimulates whole-body protein turnover (synthesis and degradation) but it remains contentious whether this translates into an increased net protein oxidation or dietary requirement for protein. Skeletal muscle is the major energy consumer during exercise and the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is increased several-fold, suggesting an ...
Hawley John A - - 2007
During the past 30 years, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular factors regulating fuel metabolism during exercise. In particular, advancements in the fields of exercise biochemistry and cell signalling have helped elucidate the mechanism(s) by which perturbations in energy status are monitored inside ...
Rodriguez Nancy R - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whereas diet and exercise have been shown to influence whole-body protein utilization, little is known about the impact of these factors on skeletal-muscle protein turnover. We highlight the role of dietary protein in modulating skeletal-muscle protein turnover in response to endurance exercise. Effects of endurance exercise on ...
Niess Andreas Michael - - 2007
In the last 30 years, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in exercise physiology has received considerable attention. Acute physical exertion has been shown to induce an augmented generation of ROS in skeletal muscle via different mechanisms. There is evidence that ROS formation in response to vigorous physical exertion ...
Dash Ranjan K - - 2007
The alterations in skeletal muscle structure and function after prolonged periods of unloading are initiated by the chronic lack of mechanical stimulus of sufficient intensity, which is the result of a series of biochemical and metabolic interactions spanning from cellular to tissue/organ level. Reduced activation of skeletal muscle alters the ...
Campbell Bill - - 2007
The following seven points related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals constitute the position stand of the Society. They have been approved by the Research Committee of the Society. 1) Vast research supports the contention that individuals engaged in regular exercise training require more dietary protein than ...
Tunstall Rebecca J - - 2007
Endurance exercise transiently increases the mRNA of key regulatory proteins involved in skeletal muscle metabolism. During prolonged exercise and subsequent recovery, circulating plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are elevated. The present study therefore aimed to determine the sensitivity of key metabolic genes to FA exposure, assessed in vitro using L6 ...
Ruderman Neil B - - 2006
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic hormone that has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a fuel-sensing enzyme that among its other actions responds to decreases in cellular energy state by enhancing processes that generate ATP and inhibiting others that consume ATP but are not acutely necessary ...
Olfert I Mark - - 2006
Thrombospondin-l (TSP-1) is believed to be an endogenous angiogenic inhibitor. In this study, we report that a single 1 h bout of treadmill running increases TSP-1 mRNA 3-4-fold (p < 0.001). Interestingly, with short-term training (up to 5 days, 1 h/day) the acute response of TSP-1 mRNA to exercise was ...
Quinlan John G - - 2006
We sought to determine the effectiveness of poloxamer 188 (P188) in protecting dystrophin-deficient, mdx skeletal muscle fiber membrane against exercise-induced breaches. mdx mice were treated with either P188 or placebo via intraperitoneal injections and run on a treadmill for 60-90 min. Membrane breakdown was quantified in cross-sections of rectus femoris ...
Kim Jaeyeon - - 2007
A mathematical model of the whole-body metabolism is developed to predict fuel homeostasis during exercise by using hormonal control over cellular metabolic processes. The whole body model is composed of seven tissue compartments: brain, heart, liver, GI (gastrointestinal) tract, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and "other tissues". Each tissue compartment is ...
Wright David C - - 2007
Exercise results in rapid increases in expression of the transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. PGC-1alpha regulates and coordinates mitochondrial biogenesis, and overexpression of PGC-1alpha in muscle cells results in increases in mitochondrial content. In this context, it has been proposed ...
Lee Jang Kyu - - 2007
Both regular physical exercise and carnitine supplementation exert a role in energy metabolism and may improve endurance capacity. We investigated whether a combination of long-term carnitine ingestion and exercise training reveals any interactive effects on cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein (FABPc) expression and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity in human skeletal ...
Fritz Tomas - - 2006
Physical exercise provides health benefits for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, partly by enhancing skeletal muscle insulin action. We tested the hypothesis that changes in expression of key genes in skeletal muscles relate to exercise-induced improvements in type 2 diabetic patients. We determined mRNA expression of 20 selected genes ...
Treebak Jonas T - - 2007
We investigated time- and intensity-dependent effects of exercise on phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) in human skeletal muscle. Subjects performed cycle exercise for 90 min (67% VO2 peak, n=8), 20 min (80% VO2 peak, n=11), 2 min (110% of peak work rate, n=9), or 30 s (maximal ...
Felici Francesco - - 2006
Physical exercise promotes a wide spectrum of short and long term responses of different organs and apparatuses. While skeletal muscle adaptations to the different training regimens are conveniently known and described, the neural counterpart of them are still to be described in full. In this paper, an attempt is made ...
Birk J B - - 2006
5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and is regulated in muscle during exercise. We have previously established that only three of 12 possible AMPK alpha/beta/gamma-heterotrimers are present in human skeletal muscle. Previous studies describe discrepancies between total AMPK activity and regulation of its target acetyl-CoA-carboxylase ...
Frydelund-Larsen Lone - - 2007
Exercise induces a marked increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and protein expression within skeletal muscle fibres. Interleukin-8 belongs to a subfamily of CXC chemokines containing a Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif. CXC chemokines with ELR motifs are potent angiogenic factors in vivo, and IL-8 has been shown to act as an angiogenic ...
Pupim Lara B - - 2006
Decreased dietary protein intake and hemodialysis (HD)-associated protein catabolism predispose chronic HD (CHD) patients to deranged nutritional status, which is associated with poor clinical outcome in this population. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) reverses the net negative whole-body and skeletal muscle protein balance during HD. IDPN is costly and restricted by ...
Greig Carolyn A - - 2006
CONTEXT: Little is known about the expression of skeletal muscle-specific isoforms of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene in response to exercise in humans. Data for women are sparse and the influences of age and physical training status are unknown. Here we aimed to describe the expression of mRNA for ...
Gavin T P - - 2006
AIMS: In humans, skeletal muscle capillarization and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA response to acute exercise are lower in aged compared with young. The exercise-induced increase in VEGF mRNA has been proposed to involve hypoxic regulation of VEGF and is believed to be fibre type-dependent. We hypothesized that ...
Tschakovsky Michael E - - 2006
Common approaches to understanding control of muscle blood flow in exercise focus on the contributions of various putative vasoregulatory mechanisms to the magnitude of the steady-state response. The application of systems-control principles offers a unique approach to characterizing and quantifying the non-steady-state adaptation of muscle blood flow with exercise onset. ...
Chong Raymond K Y - - 2006
That different amplitudes of muscle activities during various abdominal exercises not only reflect the inherent differences in motor control but movement speed as well was hypothesized. 20 healthy adults (M age = 23 yr.) performed three exercises that involved varying amounts of trunk control: the partial sit-up, full sit-up, and ...
Guelfi Kym J - - 2006
Quantitative proteomics is a technique that allows for large-scale comparison of the levels of individual proteins present in a biological sample. This technique has not previously been applied to examine the response of skeletal muscle proteins to an acute bout of exercise. In the present study, quantitative proteomics was applied ...
Willoughby D S - - 2007
This study examined 10 wks of resistance training and the ingestion of supplemental protein and amino acids on muscle performance and markers of muscle anabolism. Nineteen untrained males were randomly assigned to supplement groups containing either 20 g protein (14 g whey and casein protein, 6 g free amino acids) ...
Smith James A H - - 2007
In vitro binding assays have indicated that the exercise-induced increase in muscle GLUT4 is preceded by increased binding of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) to its cis-element on the Glut4 promoter. Because in vivo binding conditions are often not adequately recreated in vitro, we measured the amount of MEF2A that ...
Jørgensen Sebastian B - - 2007
We investigated the role of AMPKalpha2in basal, exercise training-, and AICAR-induced protein expression of GLUT4, hexokinase II (HKII), mitochondrial markers, and AMPK subunits. This was conducted in red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscle from wild-type (WT) and alpha2-knockout (KO) mice after 28 days of activity wheel running or daily ...
Morifuji Masashi - - 2006
Exercise training and regular physical activity increase oxidation of fat. Enhanced oxidation of fat is important for preventing lifestyle diseases such as hypertension and obesity. The aim of the present study in rats was to determine whether intake of dietary soya protein and exercise training have an additive effect on ...
Huang Zhi-Guo - - 2006
Male Kazak sheep and Xinjiang fine wool sheep, six for each different age group (days 2, 30, 60, 90 and 120), were used in the present study to investigate the tissue distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin mRNA expression in abomasum; however, there was no 120-day-old Kazak sheep. After measurement ...
Matsumoto Naoko - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to clarify skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after renal transplantation. METHODS: We examined muscle oxygenation and metabolism by using noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy in 10 patients (age, 12.4 +/- 3.1 years) 1 week before and 4 ...
Manninen A H - - 2006
Dietary supplements and other ergogenic aids are popular among athletes. Recent studies have shown that nutritional mixtures containing protein hydrolysates, added leucine, and high-glycaemic carbohydrates greatly augment insulin secretion compared with high-glycaemic carbohydrates only. When post-exercise hyperinsulinaemia is supported by hyperaminoacidaemia induced by protein hydrolysate and leucine ingestion, net protein ...
Wadley G D - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition decreased basal and exercise-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four treatment groups: NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, ingested for 2 days in drinking water, 1 mg/ml) followed by ...
Tipton Kevin D - - 2007
Timing of nutrient ingestion has been demonstrated to influence the anabolic response of muscle following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that net amino acid uptake was greater when free essential amino acids plus carbohydrates were ingested before resistance exercise rather than following exercise. However, it is unclear if ingestion of whole ...
Toigo Marco - - 2006
Abstract Physical activity relies on muscular force. In adult skeletal muscle, force results from the contraction of postmitotic, multinucleated myofibres of different contractile and metabolic properties. Myofibres can adapt to (patho-)physiological conditions of altered functional demand by radial growth, longitudinal growth, and regulation of fibre type functional gene modules. The ...
Takekoshi Kazuhiro - - 2006
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in response to adenosine triphosphate depletion caused by the metabolic and nutritional state. Mammalian AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme composed of a catalytic alpha subunit and 2 regulatory subunits (beta and gamma). Although much attention has been focused on exercise-induced AMPK activation in ...
Dreyer Hans C HC University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555-1144, - - 2006
Resistance exercise is a potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis and muscle cell growth, with the increase in protein synthesis being detected within 2-3 h post-exercise and remaining elevated for up to 48 h. However, during exercise, muscle protein synthesis is inhibited. An increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity ...
Frydelund-Larsen Lone - - 2007
Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy ...
Hannukainen Jarna C - - 2006
We investigated heredity-independent effects of increased physical activity and aerobic fitness on skeletal muscle free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, perfusion, and their heterogeneity at rest and during exercise. Also, the relationship between local skeletal muscle FFA uptake and perfusion was studied. Nine young adult male monozygotic twin pairs with significant ...
Roepstorff Carsten - - 2006
Women have been shown to use more intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during exercise than men. To investigate whether this could be due to sex-specific regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and to use sex comparison as a model to gain further insight into HSL regulation, nine women and eight men performed bicycle ...
Melling C W James - - 2006
Exercise induces the expression of the cardioprotective protein, Hsp70, through the activation of its transcription factor HSF1. Recently, we reported that administration of a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor suppressed exercise-induced hsp70 gene expression, suggesting a role for PKA in the regulation of HSF1 activation in vivo. While the mechanism ...
Frisbee Jefferson C - - 2006
Reduced skeletal muscle microvessel density (MVD) in the obese Zucker rat (OZR) model of the metabolic syndrome is a function of a chronic reduction in vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Previous studies suggest that exercise can improve NO bioavailability and reduce chronic inflammation and that low vascular NO bioavailability may ...
Haus J M - - 2007
Relatively little is known about the dynamics of the skeletal muscle protein pool following aerobic exercise. Myofibrillar protein synthesis has recently been shown to be substantially elevated for 3 days after a strenuous 60 min bout of one-legged aerobic exercise, and this increase was surprisingly equal to or greater than ...
Gardiner P - - 2006
Evidence is presented that one locus of adaptation in the "neural adaptations to training" is at the level of the alpha-motoneurons. With increased voluntary activity, these neurons show evidence of dendrite restructuring, increased protein synthesis, increased axon transport of proteins, enhanced neuromuscular transmission dynamics, and changes in electrophysiological properties. The ...
Kraniou Giorgos N - - 2006
To examine the influence of exercise intensity on the increases in vastus lateralis GLUT4 mRNA and protein after exercise, six untrained men exercised for 60 min at 39 +/- 3% peak oxygen consumption (V(O2 peak)) (Lo) or 27 +/- 2 min at 83 +/- 2% V(O2 peak) (Hi) in counterbalanced ...
Deshmukh Atul - - 2006
Skeletal muscle contraction stimulates multiple signaling cascades that govern a variety of metabolic and transcriptional events. Akt/protein kinase B regulates metabolism and growth/muscle hypertrophy, but contraction effects on this target and its substrates are varied and may depend on the mode of the contractile stimulus. Accordingly, we determined the effects ...
Mutlu Ece A - - 2006
While high protein diets are increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on their potential adverse effects. We describe two patients on high protein supplements and exercising for physical fitness. Both developed intermittent abdominal pain, transient elevations in transaminases and hyperalbuminemia without there being any identifiable cause. The ...
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