Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1065
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Vissing Kristian - - 2008
Women exhibit an enhanced capability for lipid metabolism during endurance exercise compared with men. The underlying regulatory mechanisms behind this sex-related difference are not well understood but may comprise signaling through a myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulatory pathway. The primary purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the ...
Boonsong T - - 2007
SREBP-1c (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c) is a transcription factor that regulates genes associated with glucose and fatty acid metabolism and exhibits responsiveness to insulin and exercise. We have examined the effects of exercise on basal and insulin-mediated changes in the activation (phosphorylation) of the signalling molecules involved in the regulation of ...
Mackenzie M G - - 2007
Resistance-exercise training results in a progressive increase in muscle mass and force production. Following an acute bout of resistance exercise, the rate of protein synthesis increases proportionally with the increase in protein degradation, correlating at 3 h in the starved state. Amino acids taken immediately before or immediately after exercise ...
Aizawa Katsuji - - 2008
Sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, play important roles in developing both strength and mass of skeletal muscle. Recently, we demonstrated that skeletal muscle can synthesize sex steroid hormones. Whether there are sex differences in basal steroidogenesis or acute exercise-induced alterations of steroidogenesis in the skeletal muscle is ...
Mascher Henrik - - 2008
The gain in muscle mass as a result of resistance training is dependent on changes in both anabolic and catabolic reactions. A frequency of two to three exercise sessions per week is considered optimal for muscle gain in untrained individuals. Our hypothesis was that a second exercise session would enlarge ...
Kristensen Jonas Møller - - 2007
5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) exists as a heterotrimer comprising a catalytic alpha subunit and regulatory beta and gamma subunits. The AMPK system is activated under conditions of cellular stress, indicated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, as observed, e.g. in muscles during contractile activity. AMPK was originally thought to ...
Melling C W James - - 2007
An issue central to understanding the biological benefits associated with regular exercise training is to elucidate the intracellular mechanisms governing exercise-conferred cardioprotection. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), most notably the inducible 70-kDa HSP family member Hsp70, are believed to participate in the protection of the myocardium during cardiovascular stress. Following acute ...
Tupling A R - - 2007
To investigate the time course of fiber type-specific heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in human skeletal muscle after acute exercise, 10 untrained male volunteers performed single-legged isometric knee extensor exercise at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with a 50% duty cycle (5-s contraction and 5-s relaxation) for ...
Jørgensen Sebastian B - - 2007
The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an intracellular fuel sensor that affects metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated in skeletal muscle in response to exercise and is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. This review first focuses ...
McGee Sean L - - 2007
Exercise increases the metabolic capacity of skeletal muscle, which improves whole-body energy homeostasis and contributes to the positive health benefits of exercise. This is, in part, mediated by increases in the expression of a number of metabolic enzymes, regulated largely at the level of transcription. At a molecular level, many ...
Ji James W - - 2007
VEGF is a key promoter of angiogenesis and a major target of proangiogenic therapy for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Greater understanding of VEGF angiogenic signaling and guidance by gradients for new capillaries will aid in developing new proangiogenic therapies and improving existing treatments. However, in vivo measurements of VEGF concentration ...
Gavin Timothy P - - 2007
Ischaemia-induced skeletal muscle angiogenesis is impaired in aged compared with young mice. In humans, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein following an acute exercise bout are lower in aged compared with young untrained men. We hypothesized that exercise-induced skeletal muscle angiogenesis would be attenuated in aged compared with ...
Campbell Wayne W - - 2007
Resistance exercise training helps older people treat sarcopenia. The consumption of diets that include sources of high-quality protein and total protein intakes that are moderately above the recommended dietary allowance of 0.8 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) while regularly performing resistance exercises can help older people retain or increase whole-body ...
Kivelä Riikka - - 2007
Blood and lymphatic vessels together form the circulatory system, allowing the passage of fluids and molecules within the body. Recently we showed that lymphatic capillaries are also found in the capillary bed of skeletal muscle. Exercise is known to induce angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, but it is not known whether ...
Anderson Ethan J - - 2007
Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression increases dramatically in skeletal muscle under metabolic states associated with elevated lipid metabolism, yet the function of UCP3 in a physiological context remains controversial. Here, in situ mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission and respiration were measured in permeabilized fiber bundles prepared from both rat and mouse (wild-type) ...
de Moraes R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We have shown previously that exercise training enhances endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vascular relaxation in rabbit kidney. This study aimed to investigate protein expression changes in the rabbit renal cortex induced by chronic dynamic exercise. DESIGN: Kidneys were obtained from New Zealand rabbits either confined to pens (n = 8) ...
Lam, Polly
With the recent identification and characterization of a monocarboxylate transporter (KFMCT) in killifish Fundulus heteroclitus, this study examined the presence of MCT proteins in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti) and the Spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Using western blot analysis, it was found that the anti-KFMCT-antiserum could not detect any antiserum-specific ...
Koopman Rene - - 2007
Resistance exercise can effectively result in an increase in muscle mass, or hypertrophy, which generally becomes apparent after several weeks of training. Muscle hypertrophy requires muscle protein synthesis to exceed protein breakdown during an extended time period. It has been firmly established that the interaction between exercise and nutrition (i.e., ...
Tipton Kevin D - - 2007
Adaptations to exercise training are determined by the response of metabolic and molecular mechanisms that determine changes in proteins. The type, intensity, and duration of exercise, as well as nutrition, determine these responses. The importance of protein, in the form of intact proteins, hydrolysates, or free amino acids, for exercise ...
Huang H - - 2007
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived factor that plays a pivotal role in lipid and glucose metabolism. Recently, two types of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) were identified. While, although physical exercise is useful for improving insulin sensitivity, the effect of physical exercise on adiponectin and adiponectin receptors are still unclear. In ...
Oh Yoon Sin - - 2007
It is well known that exercise can have beneficial effects on insulin resistance by activation of glucose transporter. Following up our previous report that caveolin-1 plays an important role in glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells, we examined whether exercise alters the expression of caveolin-1, and whether exercise-caused changes ...
Howarth Krista R - - 2007
The branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCOAD) is rate determining for the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in skeletal muscle. Exercise training blunts the acute exercise-induced activation of BCOAD (BCOADa) in human skeletal muscle (McKenzie S, Phillips SM, Carter SL, Lowther S, Gibala MJ, Tarnopolsky MA. Am J Physiol Endocrinol ...
Fujita Satoshi S Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA. - - 2007
Low-intensity resistance exercise training combined with blood flow restriction (REFR) increases muscle size and strength as much as conventional resistance exercise with high loads. However, the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the hypertrophy and strength gains induced by REFR are unknown. We have recently shown that both the mammalian target of rapamycin ...
Gavin T P - - 2007
AIMS: Both aerobic and resistance exercise training promote skeletal muscle angiogenesis. Acute aerobic exercise increases several pro-angiogenic pathways, the best characterized being increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that acute resistance exercise also increases skeletal muscle angiogenic growth factor [VEGF and angiopoietin (Ang)] expression. METHODS: Seven young, ...
Adhihetty Peter J - - 2007
Mitochondrial myopathy patients (MMPs) have impaired oxidative phosphorylation and exercise intolerance. Endurance training of MMPs improves exercise tolerance, but also increases mutational load. To assess the regulation of mitochondrial content in MMPs, we measured proteins involved in 1) biogenesis, 2) oxidative stress, and 3) apoptosis in MMPs and healthy controls ...
Frøsig Christian - - 2007
We investigated if acute endurance-type exercise interacts with insulin-stimulated activation of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and insulin signalling to peptide chain elongation in human skeletal muscle. Four hours after acute one-legged exercise, insulin-induced glucose uptake was approximately 80% higher (N = 12, P < 0.05) in previously exercised muscle, ...
Paulsen Gøran - - 2007
In this study the stress protein response to unaccustomed maximal eccentric exercise in humans was investigated. Eleven healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric actions with the quadriceps muscle. Biopsies from vastus lateralis were collected at 30 min and 4, 8, 24, 96, and 168 h after exercise. Cellular regulation and ...
Kostek Matthew C - - 2007
Resistance training using lengthening (eccentric) contractions induces greater increases in muscle size than shortening (concentric) contractions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. Using temporal expression profiling, we compared changes in gene expression within 24 h of an acute bout of each type of contractions conducted simultaneously in the ...
HIROFUJI, Chiyoko
Cross-sectional areas and oxidative enzyme (succinate dehydrogenase) activities of fibers in the deep, middle, and superficial regions of the mouse tibialis anterior muscle were examined and compared after 30 days of increased muscle activity with voluntary running exercise. Eight 19-week-old male mice were assigned randomly to either a sedentary control ...
Mascher H - - 2007
AIM: Exercise induced alterations in the rate of muscle protein synthesis may be related to activity changes in signalling pathways involved in protein synthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such changes in enzyme phosphorylation occur after endurance exercise. METHODS: Six male subjects performed ergometer cycling ...
Cuppini R - - 2007
Brain derived growth factor (BDNF) gene of rat has a complex structure: at least four 5' untranslated exons regulated by different promoters and one 3' exon containing the encoding region. BDNF is expressed by skeletal muscles in an activity-dependent manner. In this study, BDNF mRNA was analysed by RT-PCR in ...
Pedersen Bente K - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent findings with regard to the regulation of muscle-derived interleukin-6 as well as the possible physiological and metabolic roles of interleukin-6 in response to exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: Contraction-induced transcription and release of interleukin-6 is primarily regulated by an altered intramuscular milieu in response to exercise. ...
van den Ham Eugénie C H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is common in hemodialysis (HD) and renal transplant (RTx) patients and is related to muscle weakness. Its pathogenesis may vary between these groups leading to a different response to exercise. The aim of the study was to compare intrinsic muscular parameters between HD and RTx patients and ...
McConell Glenn K - - 2007
The major isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in skeletal muscle is the splice variant of neuronal NOS, termed nNOS mu. Exercise training increases nNOS mu protein levels in rat skeletal muscle, but data in humans are conflicting. We performed two studies to determine 1) whether resting nNOS mu protein ...
Cheema Bobby - - 2007
Skeletal muscle wasting is common and insidious in patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis treatment for the management of ESRD. The objective of this study was to determine whether 12 wk of high-intensity, progressive resistance training (PRT) administered during routine hemodialysis treatment could improve skeletal muscle quantity and quality versus usual ...
Conley Kevin E - - 2007
Innovative noninvasive methods open a new window on the cell in vivo. This window reveals that the tempo of mitochondrial dysfunction with age varies among muscles and in proportion to Type II muscle fiber content. Exercise training can reverse age-related dysfunction, thereby providing an intervention to slow the pace of ...
Binder Kyle W KW Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, - - 2007
Exercise training is known to enhance skeletal muscle blood flow capacity, with high-intensity interval sprint training (IST) primarily affecting muscles with a high proportion of fast twitch glycolytic fibers. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of new arteriole formation and lumenal arteriolar remodeling to enhanced ...
Bar-Shai Marina - - 2008
In the early 1980s, the concept of threshold of age in exercise and aging was proposed. In several studies it was shown that subjecting young animals to short periods of moderate to intense exercise improved the biochemical and morphological status of their skeletal muscles. This was not the case for ...
Smith Angela C - - 2007
Derangements in skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism associated with insulin resistance in obesity appear to involve decreased FA oxidation and increased accumulation of lipids such as ceramides and diacylglycerol (DAG). We investigated potential lipid-related mechanisms of metformin (Met) and/or exercise for blunting the progression of hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle ...
Fujita Satoshi S Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-0460, - - 2007
Muscle protein metabolism is resistant to insulin's anabolic effect in healthy older subjects. This is associated with reduced insulin vasodilation. We hypothesized that aerobic exercise restores muscle protein anabolism in response to insulin by improving vasodilation in older subjects. We measured blood flow, endothelin-1, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, ...
Gaine Patricia Courtney - - 2007
PURPOSE: This investigation examined the effect of variations in protein intake on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) after exercise in endurance-trained males. METHODS: Five male runners (21.3 +/- 0.3 yr, 179 +/- 2 cm, 70.6 +/- 0.1 kg, 8.7 +/- 0.4% body fat, 70.6 +/- 0.1 VO2peak) participated in a randomized, ...
Weinheimer E M - - 2007
We have shown that ibuprofen and acetaminophen block cyclooxygenase (COX) synthesis of prostaglandin PGF(2alpha) and the muscle protein synthesis increase following resistance exercise. Confusingly, these two drugs are purported to work through different mechanisms, with acetaminophen apparently unable to block COX and ibuprofen able to nonspecifically block COX-1 and COX-2. ...
Qin Huan-Long HL Institute of Parenteral Nutrition and Enteral Nutrition, Department of Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Yishan Rd. 600, Shanghai 200233, China. - - 2007
To study the effect of early intrajejunal nutrition on enzyme-protein synthesis and secretion during acute pancreatitis. Fifteen dogs were randomly divided into parenteral nutrition (n = 7) and early intrajejunal nutrition groups (n = 8). An acute pancreatitis model was induced by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate and trypsin into the ...
Burgomaster Kirsten A - - 2007
Skeletal muscle primarily relies on carbohydrate (CHO) for energy provision during high-intensity exercise. We hypothesized that sprint interval training (SIT), or repeated sessions of high-intensity exercise, would induce rapid changes in transport proteins associated with CHO metabolism, whereas changes in skeletal muscle fatty acid transporters would occur more slowly. Eight ...
Kramer Henning F - - 2007
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-kappaB are two major regulators of gene transcription and metabolism in response to oxidative, energetic, and mechanical stress in skeletal muscle. Chronic activation of these signaling pathways has been implicated in the development and perpetuation of various pathologies, such as diabetes and cachexia. However, both ...
Ayotte Norman W - - 2007
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single-group repeated-measures design. OBJECTIVES: To quantify electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis oblique, and biceps femoris during 5 unilateral weight-bearing exercises. BACKGROUND: Using normalized EMG (NEMG) signal amplitude as a measure of muscle activation and, therefore, an estimate of exercise intensity, ...
Rullman E - - 2007
The aims of this study were 1) to characterize changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), endostatin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression in skeletal muscle in response to a single bout of exercise in humans; and 2) to determine if any exchange of endostatin and VEGF-A between circulation and the ...
Donker Dirk W - - 2007
It is poorly understood how mechanical stimuli influence in vivo myocardial remodeling during chronic hemodynamic overload. Combined quantitation of ventricular mechanics and expression of key proteins involved in mechanotransduction can improve fundamental understanding. Adult anesthetized dogs (n = 20) were studied at sinus rhythm (SR) and 0, 3, 10, and ...
Trenerry Marissa K - - 2007
The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been identified as a mediator of cytokine signaling and implicated in hypertrophy; however, the importance of this pathway following resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In the present study, the phosphorylation and nuclear localization ...
Radak Zsolt - - 2007
Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) are two of the most important repair enzymes that are involved in the base excision repair processes to eliminate oxidative damage from mammalian DNA, which accumulates with aging. Red and white skeletal muscle fibers have very different antioxidant enzyme activities and ...
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