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Results 251 - 300 of 1063
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Smith James A H - - 2008
The role of CaMK II in regulating GLUT4 expression in response to intermittent exercise was investigated. Wistar rats completed 5 x 17-min bouts of swimming after receiving 5 mg/kg KN93 (a CaMK II inhibitor), KN92 (an analog of KN93 that does not inhibit CaMK II), or an equivalent volume of ...
Murphy K T - - 2008
Exercise increases Na(+)-K(+) pump isoform gene expression and elevates muscle reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated whether enhanced ROS scavenging induced with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blunted the increase in Na(+)-K(+) pump mRNA during repeated contractions in human and rat muscle. In experiment 1, well-trained subjects received saline or NAC ...
Nakai Ryusuke - - 2008
Muscular recovery after exercise is an important topic in sports medicine, and accurate and quantitative measurements of changes in muscle are required to assess muscular recovery. In the present study, we report a new analytical method to measure muscular changes quantitatively. The technique consists of three independent methods: image processing ...
Da Silva Eduardo Marczwski - - 2008
Many studies have analyzed muscle activity during different strength exercises. Although the leg press (LP) is one of the most common exercises performed, there is little evidence of lower limb muscle activity patterns during this exercise and its variations. Thus, this study aimed to verify how mechanical changes and loads ...
O'Donovan Karol J - - 2009
On long distance journeys passengers at high risk from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are recommended to exercise on a regular basis to contract the calf muscle pump and encourage venous return. If a passenger fails to complete an exercise program that induces active contraction of the calf muscle pump they ...
Suwa Masataka - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is considered to play a pivotal role in the exercise-induced metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscle. Although the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucloetide (NAD(+))-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 has been shown to mediate PGC-1alpha-induced metabolic adaptation, the effect of endurance exercise on the SIRT1 protein ...
Morton James P - - 2008
PURPOSE: 1) To compare the baseline levels of heat shock and antioxidant protein content in the skeletal muscle of trained and untrained humans and 2) to characterize the exercise-induced stress response of aerobically trained human skeletal muscle to an acute exercise challenge. METHODS: Resting muscle biopsies were obtained from the ...
Folkesson M - - 2008
AIM: The role of HSP27 in the adaptive process of skeletal muscle to exercise, especially in humans, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate immunohistochemical changes in HSP27 expression in human vastus lateralis muscle following resistance and endurance exercises. METHODS: Two different exercise protocols were ...
Krustrup P - - 2009
The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise ...
Glover Elisa I - - 2008
We investigated the effect of resistance exercise and feeding on the activation of signaling proteins involved in translation initiation. Nine young men (23.7+/-0.41 yr; BMI=25.5+/-1.0 kg/m2; means+/-SE) were tested twice after they performed a strenuous bout of unilateral resistance exercise, such that their contralateral leg acted as a nonexercised comparator, ...
Parise Gianni - - 2008
Skeletal muscle satellite cells play an essential role in muscle regeneration and exercise adaptation. In recent years atypical myogenic progenitors (non-satellite-cell muscle stem cells) have been identified in skeletal muscle and have been hypothesized to play an important role in the process of muscle regeneration. It remains unknown, however, whether ...
Burniston Jatin G - - 2008
The adaptation of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise has not previously been investigated using proteomic techniques. Such work could improve our understanding and generate novel information regarding the effects of exercise. Plantaris muscles were investigated from rats exercised on treadmills at 70-75% peak oxygen uptake (V O(2)peak) for 30 min, ...
Petrella John K - - 2008
A present debate in muscle biology is whether myonuclear addition is required during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. We utilized K-means cluster analysis to classify 66 humans after 16 wk of knee extensor resistance training as extreme (Xtr, n = 17), modest (Mod, n = 32), or nonresponders (Non, n = 17) ...
Beelen Milou - - 2008
In contrast to the effect of nutritional intervention on postexercise muscle protein synthesis, little is known about the potential to modulate protein synthesis during exercise. This study investigates the effect of protein coingestion with carbohydrate on muscle protein synthesis during resistance-type exercise. Ten healthy males were studied in the evening ...
Enns D L - - 2008
Our laboratory recently demonstrated that increases in post-exercise muscle satellite cell numbers are augmented by oestrogen. We investigated whether muscle oestrogen receptors (ORs) mediate this effect through administration of an OR antagonist, ICI 182,780. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into three groups: sham, oestrogen (0.25 mg pellet) and oestrogen plus ...
Mekata Yuko - - 2008
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of isoenergetic and increased amounts of egg white protein one hour before a run on the changes in the post-exercise blood biochemistry and the rating of the perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty-four male distance runners were divided into four groups. Venous blood samples ...
Klinge L L Institute of Human Genetics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 3BZ, United Kingdom. - - 2008
LGMD2B, Miyoshi Myopathy and Distal Anterior Compartment Myopathy are caused by mutations in the dysferlin gene (DYSF) leading to progressive muscular weakness and wasting with onset usually within the second or third decade of life. We here present a patient with disease onset at 73 years. The presenting symptom was ...
Drummond Micah J MJ Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, - - 2008
Blood flow restriction in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise (REFR) increases skeletal muscle size to a similar extent as compared with traditional high-intensity resistance exercise training. However, there are limited data describing the molecular adaptations that occur after REFR. To determine whether hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and REDD1 mRNA ...
Rasmussen M K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is upregulated during muscle exercise to maintain ionic homeostasis. One mechanism may involve movement of alpha-subunits to the outer membrane (translocation). AIM: We investigated the existence of exercise-induced translocation and phosphorylation of phospholemman (PLM, FXYD1) protein in rat skeletal muscle and exercise-induced changes in V(max) and K(m) ...
Ji Yuan - - 2008
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) catalyzes the synthesis of epinephrine from norepinephrine. We previously identified and functionally characterized common sequence variation in the PNMT gene. In the present study, we set out to determine whether common PNMT genetic polymorphisms might be associated with individual variation in circulating epinephrine levels during exercise in ...
Drummond Micah J MJ Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555-1144, - - 2008
Skeletal muscle loss during aging leads to an increased risk of falls, fractures, and eventually loss of independence. Resistance exercise is a useful intervention to prevent sarcopenia; however, the muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to resistance exercise is less in elderly compared with young subjects. On the other hand, essential ...
Mahoney D J - - 2008
We used cDNA microarrays to screen for differentially expressed genes during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. Male subjects (n = 4) performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions, and skeletal muscle biopsy samples were analyzed at 3 h and 48 h after exercise. In total, 113 genes increased 3 h ...
Röckl Katja S C - - 2008
Physical activity elicits physiological responses in skeletal muscle that result in a number of health benefits, in particular in disease states, such as type 2 diabetes. An acute bout of exercise/muscle contraction improves glucose homeostasis by increasing skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training induces alterations in the expression ...
Hanisch Frank - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The homozygous c.34C>T mutation in the AMPD1 gene encoding the muscle-specific isoform of AMP deaminase (AMPD) accounts for the vast majority of inherited skeletal muscle AMPD deficiencies. It is controversial (i) whether AMPD deficiency is associated with exercise-induced complaints and (ii) whether an acquired form exists in which an ...
Broholm Christa - - 2008
The leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) belongs to the interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine superfamily and is constitutively expressed in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that LIF expression in human skeletal muscle is regulated by exercise. Fifteen healthy young male volunteers performed either 3 h of cycle ergometer exercise at approximately 60% ...
Salanova Michele - - 2008
The ryanodine receptor type-I (RyR1) is one key player of the excitation-contraction coupling (E-CC) machinery. However, RyR1 expression in human skeletal muscle disuse and plasticity changes are not well documented. We studied the expression and the functional modifications of RyR1 following prolonged bed rest (BR) without and with exercise countermeasure ...
Hansen M - - 2009
Knowledge about the effects of exercise on myofibrillar protein breakdown in human subjects is limited. Our purpose was to measure the changes in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in response to different ways of eliciting muscle contractions using the local interstitial 3-methyl-histidine (3-MH) concentration as a marker for myofibrillar protein ...
Ikeda Shin-ichi - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1alpha and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected ...
Kemi Ole Johan - - 2008
Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy differs according to the stress exerted on the myocardium. While pressure overload-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with depressed contractile function, physiological hypertrophy after exercise training associates with preserved or increased inotropy. We determined the activation state of myocardial Akt signaling with downstream substrates and fetal gene reactivation in ...
Duscha Brian D - - 2008
The pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF) is typically conceptualized in terms of cardiac dysfunction. However, alterations in peripheral blood flow and intrinsic skeletal muscle properties are also now recognized as mechanisms for exercise intolerance that can be modified by therapeutic exercise. This overview focuses on blood delivery, oxygen extraction ...
Calvo Jennifer A - - 2008
The induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a key regulator of mitochondriogenesis, is well-established under multiple physical exercise regimens, including, endurance, resistance, and sprint training. We wanted to determine if increased expression of PGC-1alpha in muscle is sufficient to improve performance during exercise in vivo. We demonstrate that muscle-specific ...
Salanova M - - 2008
The cellular mechanisms of human skeletal muscle adaptation to disuse are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the morphological and biochemical changes of the lower limb soleus and vastus lateralis muscles following 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest in women with and without exercise countermeasure ...
Piitulainen H - - 2008
Dystrophin associated protein alpha-syntrophin is known to interact with voltage-gated sodium ion channel (NaCh). Dystrophin is known to be sensitive to eccentric muscle actions. For this reason, the function of the NaChs might also be affected. Molecular adaptations of dystrophin, alpha-syntrophin and NaChs were investigated after fatiguing stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) ...
De Filippis Elena - - 2008
Mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with insulin resistance, is characterized by low expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. This deficit could be due to decreased physical activity or a decreased response of gene expression to exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a bout ...
Yamada Paulette - - 2008
Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a unique, ubiquitous molecule. In vitro and in vivo animal models have shown that increased Hsp 72 is associated with improved cellular survivability and tolerance to stressors. The primary focus of this article is to review the Hsp 72 protein response to exercise in ...
Hayes Alan - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcopenia (skeletal muscle wasting with aging) is thought to underlie a number of serious age-related health issues. While it may be seen as inevitable, decreasing this gradual loss of muscle is vital for healthy aging. Thus, it is imperative to investigate exercise and nutrition-based strategies designed to ...
Grondard Clément - - 2008
This study establishes a causal link between the limitation of myofibre transitions and modulation of calcineurin activity, during different exercise paradigms. We have designed a new swimming-based training protocol in order to draw a comparison between a high frequency and amplitude exercise (swimming) and low frequency and amplitude exercise (running). ...
Okamoto Yoshikazu - - 2008
PURPOSE: We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) of calf muscles from diffusion tensor (DT) images from simultaneous scanning of bilateral calves and determined changes in values after unilateral exercise loading. METHOD: We obtained DT images of both calves of 10 healthy male volunteers and measured FA of the anterior tibialis, gastrocnemius, ...
Roy Brian D - - 2008
There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption ...
Hitomi Yoshiaki - - 2008
Exercise dramatically increases oxygen consumption and causes oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is important in the first-line defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. To investigate the effect of acute exercise on the expression of SOD, we examined the expression of mRNA for three SOD isozymes, in mice run on a treadmill ...
Caffery Barbara - - 2008
To investigate the expression of MUC16 protein in tears and conjunctival cell membranes and MUC16 mRNA in conjunctival cells of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), keratoconjunctivitus sicca (KCS) and non-dry eyed (NDE) subjects. The relationship of tear flow and soluble MUC16 concentration was also measured. Seventy-six subjects were recruited for this study: ...
Enns Deborah L - - 2008
To investigate the influence of estrogen on postexercise muscle repair processes, we examined the effects of estrogen supplementation (0.25-mg pellet) on numbers of myofibers positive for markers of total, activated, and proliferating satellite cells in rat skeletal muscles 72 h following downhill running. Ovariectomized female rats (n = 44) were ...
Trappe Scott - - 2008
The soleus muscle has been consistently shown to atrophy more than other leg muscles during unloading and is difficult to protect using various exercise countermeasure paradigms. However, the efficacy of aerobic exercise, a known stimulus for oxidative adaptations, has not been tested in combination with resistance exercise (RE), a known ...
Leick Lotte - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC) 1alpha is required for exercise-induced adaptive gene responses in skeletal muscle. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice performed a single treadmill-running exercise bout. Soleus and white gastrocnemius (WG) ...
Majchrzak Karen M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: An intriguing strategy to further enhance the anabolic effects of nutritional supplementation is to combine the administration of nutrients with resistance exercise. We hypothesized that the addition of resistance exercise to oral nutrition supplementation would lead to further increases in skeletal muscle protein accretion when compared to nutritional supplementation ...
裵, 祥容
Thesis (Ph. D. in Health and Sport Sciences)--University of Tsukuba, (A), no. 2219, 2000.1.16
Sun Biao - - 2008
Cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise is associated with less cardiac fibrosis and better systolic and diastolic function, suggesting that the adaptive mechanisms may exist in exercise-induced hypertrophy. To identify molecular mechanisms by which exercise training stimulates this favorable phenotype, a proteomic approach was employed to detect rat cardiac proteins that ...
Deldicque Louise - - 2008
To test the hypothesis that creatine supplementation would enhance the anabolic responses of muscle cell signaling and gene expression to exercise, we studied nine subjects who received either creatine or a placebo (maltodextrin) for 5 days in a double-blind fashion before undergoing muscle biopsies: at rest, immediately after exercise (10 ...
Vissing Kristian - - 2008
Women exhibit an enhanced capability for lipid metabolism during endurance exercise compared with men. The underlying regulatory mechanisms behind this sex-related difference are not well understood but may comprise signaling through a myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulatory pathway. The primary purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the ...
Boonsong T - - 2007
SREBP-1c (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c) is a transcription factor that regulates genes associated with glucose and fatty acid metabolism and exhibits responsiveness to insulin and exercise. We have examined the effects of exercise on basal and insulin-mediated changes in the activation (phosphorylation) of the signalling molecules involved in the regulation of ...
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