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Results 201 - 250 of 1060
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Coffey Vernon G - - 2009
We examined acute molecular responses in skeletal muscle to divergent exercise stimuli by combining consecutive bouts of resistance and endurance exercise. Eight men [22.9 +/- 6.3 yr, body mass of 73.2 +/- 4.5 kg, peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2peak)) of 54.0 +/- 5.7 ml.kg(-1) x min(-1)] were randomly assigned to complete ...
Kumar Vinod - - 2009
Skeletal muscle demonstrates extraordinary mutability in its responses to exercise of different modes, intensity, and duration, which must involve alterations of muscle protein turnover, both acutely and chronically. Here, we bring together information on the alterations in the rates of synthesis and degradation of human muscle protein by different types ...
Bortot B - - 2009
We report a 12-year-old patient with growth retardation, exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis (increasing after exercise) and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy type 2. Muscle biopsy shows abundant COX-negative fibers, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial aggregates and markedly reduced activities of all respiratory chain complexes. Genetic analysis identified two new cosegregating mutations in Met-tRNA (m.4415A>G) and Cox ...
Trappe Scott - - 2009
The aim of this investigation was to document the exercise program used by crewmembers (n = 9; 45 +/- 2 yr) while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 mo and examine its effectiveness for preserving calf muscle characteristics. Before and after spaceflight, we assessed calf muscle volume (MRI), ...
Lehti Maarit - - 2009
Eccentric exercise induced by electrostimulation increases mRNA expression of titin-complex proteins in rodent skeletal muscle. In this study, mRNA expression of titin, muscle LIM protein (MLP), cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), ankyrin repeat domain protein 2 (Ankrd2), diabetes-related ankyrin repeat protein (DARP), and calcium-activated proteinases, calpains, were investigated in human ...
Moore Daniel R - - 2009
We aimed to determine whether there is a differential stimulation of the contractile myofibrillar and the cellular sarcoplasmic proteins after ingestion of protein and how this is affected by resistance exercise. Fasted (FAST) muscle protein synthesis was measured in seven healthy young men with a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-(13)C(6)]phenylalanine. ...
McGill Stuart M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To quantify several forms of the curl-up, side-bridge, and birddog exercises (muscle activity and 3-dimensional [3D] spine position) including some corrective techniques to assist clinical decision-making. DESIGN: A basic science study of a convenience sample with a retest of expert intervention. SETTING: Spine Biomechanics Laboratory/Research Clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy men ...
Morton James P - - 2009
Skeletal muscle adapts to the stress of contractile activity via changes in gene expression to yield an increased content of a family of highly conserved cytoprotective proteins known as heat shock proteins (HSPs). These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury and provide protection against future insults. The ...
Thevis Mario - - 2009
Recent studies outlined the influence of exercise on the stability of the skeletal muscle calstabin1-ryanodine receptor1-complex, which represents a major Ca(2+) release channel. The progressive modification of the type-1 skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) combined with reduced levels of calstabin1 and phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 resulted in a Ca(2+) leak that has ...
Safdar Adeel - - 2009
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA species involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. In vitro studies have identified a small number of skeletal muscle-specific miRNAs which play a crucial role in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. In skeletal muscle, an acute bout of endurance exercise results in the up-regulation of ...
Schaible Eva - - 2009
HIF1alpha is a subunit of the transcription factor HIF1 and a key regulator of angiogenesis, glucose metabolism and innate immune response. Recently, it has been shown that increases in free DNA in the plasma induce expression of HIF1alpha. Large increases of free DNA in plasma are typically found after exercise. ...
McGivney Beatrice A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Selection for exercise-adapted phenotypes in the Thoroughbred racehorse has provided a valuable model system to understand molecular responses to exercise in skeletal muscle. Exercise stimulates immediate early molecular responses as well as delayed responses during recovery, resulting in a return to homeostasis and enabling long term adaptation. Global mRNA ...
Witard Oliver C - - 2009
PURPOSE: We examined the impact of an acute bout of resistance-type exercise on mixed muscle protein synthesis in the fed state. METHODS: After a standardized breakfast, 10 untrained males completed a single, unilateral lower-limb resistance-type exercise session. A primed, continuous infusion of l-[ring-C6]phenylalanine was combined with muscle biopsy collection from ...
Burniston Jatin G - - 2009
Endurance training improves cardiac function and protects against heart disease. The rodent intensity-controlled running model replicates endurance exercise in humans and can be used to investigate molecular adaptations in the heart. Rats (n = 6, 280 +/- 3 g) performed exercise tests to measure their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ...
Tannerstedt Jörgen - - 2009
The molecular mechanisms by which resistance exercise enlarges muscle mass, particularly the mass of fast-twitch type II fibers, are likely to involve enhanced phosphorylation/activation of key enzymes regulating protein synthesis. The hypothesis is that resistance exercise influences the phosphorylation of such key signaling proteins to a greater extent in type ...
Verdijk Lex B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Considerable discrepancy exists in the literature on the proposed benefits of protein supplementation on the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training in the elderly. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the benefits of timed protein supplementation on the increase in muscle mass and strength during prolonged ...
Hayes Shawn G - - 2009
Dynamic exercise has been shown to stimulate rapidly both group III and IV muscle afferents. The often rapid (i.e. 2 s) onset latencies of the group IV afferents is particularly surprising because these unmyelinated afferents are thought to respond to the gradual accumulation of metabolites signalling a mismatch between blood/oxygen ...
Usher-Smith Juliet A - - 2009
Regulation of cell volume is a fundamental property of all animal cells and is of particular importance in skeletal muscle where exercise is associated with a wide range of cellular changes that would be expected to influence cell volume. These complex electrical, metabolic and osmotic changes, however, make rigorous study ...
Rose Adam J - - 2009
Skeletal muscle protein turnover is a relatively slow metabolic process that is altered by various physiological stimuli such as feeding, fasting, and exercise. During exercise, catabolism of amino acids contributes very little to ATP turnover in working muscle. With regard to protein turnover, there are now consistent data from tracer ...
Bodell P W - - 2009
Childhood diseases are often accompanied by chronic inflammation, which is thought to negatively impact growth. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is typically cited as an indicator of inflammation and is linked to impaired growth. This study was designed to isolate and identify potential effects of chronic IL-6 exposure on skeletal muscle growth during ...
Ogura Y - - 2009
AIM: Alpha (alpha)-actinins are located in the skeletal muscle Z-line and form actin-actin cross-links. Mammalian skeletal muscle has two isoforms: alpha-actinin-2 and alpha-actinin-3. However, the response of alpha-actinin to exercise training is little understood. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of exercise training on the expression level of two ...
Rose Adam J - - 2009
Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is known to decrease during exercise, and it has been suggested that this may depend on the magnitude of the relative metabolic stress within the contracting muscle. To examine the mechanisms behind this, the effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle eukaryotic elongation factor 2 ...
Burd Nicholas A - - 2009
Muscle contraction during exercise, whether resistive or endurance in nature, has profound affects on muscle protein turnover that can persist for up to 72 h. It is well established that feeding during the postexercise period is required to bring about a positive net protein balance (muscle protein synthesis - muscle ...
Mounier Rémi - - 2009
Intermittent hypoxic exposure with exercise training is based on the assumption that brief exposure to hypoxia is sufficient to induce beneficial muscular adaptations mediated via hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF). We previously demonstrated (Mounier et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1410-1417, 2006) that leukocytes respond to hypoxia with a marked inter-individual ...
Kumar Vinod - - 2009
We investigated how myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle anabolic signalling were affected by resistance exercise at 20-90% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) in two groups (25 each) of post-absorptive, healthy, young (24 +/- 6 years) and old (70 +/- 5 years) men with identical body mass indices (24 ...
Hoene Miriam - - 2009
Acute exercise performance represents a major metabolic challenge for the skeletal muscle, but also for the liver as the most important source of energy. However the molecular adaptation of the liver to one single bout of exercise is largely unknown. C57BL/6 mice performed a 60 min treadmill run at high ...
Hu Shuxin - - 2009
The molecular events mediating the complex interaction between exercise and cognition are not well-understood. Although many aspects of the signal transduction pathways mediate exercise induced improvement in cognition are elucidated, little is known about the molecular events interrelating physiological stress with synaptic proteins, following physical exercise. Small heat shock proteins ...
Egan, Brendan
A single bout of exercise generates a robust, but transient, increase in mRNA abundance for a multitude of genes, which is thought to contribute to the recovery from and adaptation to exercise. Adaptation to exercise training is mediated by the accumulation of pulses of elevated mRNA after individual exercise bout ...
Beelen Milou - - 2008
We investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on whole-body and muscle protein synthesis during a combined endurance and resistance exercise session and subsequent overnight recovery. Twenty healthy men were studied in the evening after consuming a standardized diet throughout the day. Subjects participated in a 2-h exercise ...
Zwetsloot Kevin A - - 2008
5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic fuel sensor that monitors cellular energy charge, while the vasculature is important for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Mice with muscle-specific inactive AMPK (AMPK DN) were used to investigate if AMPK regulates skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic responses to exercise. Two hours of ...
Staib Jessica L - - 2009
Expression of myocardial heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), mediated by its transcription factor, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), increases following exercise. However, the upstream stimuli governing exercise-induced HSF1 activation and subsequent Hsp72 gene expression in the whole animal remain unclear. Exercise-induced increases in body temperature may promote myocardial radical production, ...
BÅ‚achnio-Zabielska Agnieszka - - 2008
Ceramide is the key compound on crossroads of sphingolipid metabolism. The content and composition of ceramides in skeletal muscles have been shown to be affected by prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise on the activity of key enzymes of ceramide metabolism in ...
Lundberg Ingrid E - - 2008
Exercise is now known to be beneficial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, exercise can improve physical performance, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, and reduce disease activity and systemic inflammation, as evidenced by reductions in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and other systemic markers of inflammation. Similar ...
Noble Earl G - - 2008
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are, in general, prosurvival molecules within the cellular environment, and the overexpression of even just 1 family of HSPs can lead to protection against and improvements after a variety of stressors. Not surprisingly, a fertile area of study has grown out of efforts to exploit the ...
Benton Carley R - - 2008
The discovery 10 years ago of PGC-1alpha represented a major milestone towards understanding of the molecular processes regulating energy metabolism in many tissues, including skeletal muscle. PGC-1alpha orchestrates a metabolic program regulating oxidative lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. This is essentially the same metabolic program that is activated by exercise ...
Powers Scott K SK Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA. - - 2008
The first suggestion that physical exercise results in free radical-mediated damage to tissues appeared in 1978, and the past three decades have resulted in a large growth of knowledge regarding exercise and oxidative stress. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, it is now well ...
Benziane Boubacar - - 2008
Endurance training represents one extreme in the continuum of skeletal muscle plasticity. The molecular signals elicited in response to acute and chronic exercise and the integration of multiple intracellular pathways are incompletely understood. We determined the effect of 10 days of intensified cycle training on signal transduction in nine inactive ...
McCord Jennifer L - - 2008
Pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4-disulfonate (PPADS), a purinergic 2 (P2) receptor antagonist, has been shown to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in cats. In vitro, however, PPADS has been shown to block the production of prostaglandins, some of which play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex. Thus the possibility exists that PPADS ...
Harris M Brennan MB Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-2500, USA. - - 2008
Exercise training results in dynamic changes in skeletal muscle blood flow and metabolism. Nitric oxide (NO) influences blood flow, oxidative stress, and glucose metabolism. Hsp90 interacts directly with nitric oxide synthases (NOS), increasing NOS activity and altering the balance of superoxide versus NO production. In addition, Hsp90 expression increases in ...
McConell Glenn K - - 2008
1. The present review discusses the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) in the: (i) regulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise; and (ii) activation of mitochondrial biogenesis after exercise. 2. We have shown in humans that local infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor during exercise attenuates increases in ...
Hayes Shawn G - - 2008
The exercise pressor reflex arises from contracting skeletal muscle and is believed to play a role in evoking the cardiovascular responses to static exercise, effects that include increases in arterial pressure and heart rate. This reflex is believed to be evoked by the metabolic and mechanical stimulation of thin fiber ...
Troosters T - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of muscle weakness and the importance of physical inactivity in cystic fibrosis (CF), and its relationship to exercise tolerance and muscle strength. Exercise tolerance, skeletal and respiratory muscle strength were studied in a group of 64 adults with CF ...
McConell G K - - 2008
Short-term exercise training in humans attenuates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation during subsequent exercise conducted at the same absolute workload. Short-term 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR) administration in rats mimics exercise training on skeletal muscle in terms of increasing insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial enzymes, and GLUT4 content, but it is not known whether these ...
Trenerry Marissa K - - 2008
Activation of the transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3 is common to many inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, with recent evidence of involvement in skeletal muscle regeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether STAT3 signaling activation is regulated differentially, at rest and following ...
Stephens Brooke R - - 2008
Effects of nutrient intake timing and exercise on carbohydrate (e.g. insulin sensitivity), protein (muscle protein synthesis), and fat (circulating triacylglycerols) metabolism are reviewed in this paper. Altered nutrient intake timing relative to exercise can modulate the metabolic response, which is relevant for individuals seeking to use exercise to enhance health.
Urschel Matthew R - - 2008
We investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating differences in mitochondrial volume density between heart ventricles of Antarctic notothenioids that vary in the expression of hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb). In mammals, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and maintain mitochondrial density in ...
Hulmi Juha J - - 2009
The effects of timed ingestion of high-quality protein before and after resistance exercise are not well known. In this study, young men were randomized to protein (n = 11), placebo (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. Muscle cross-sectional area by MRI and muscle forces were analyzed before ...
Handschin Christoph - - 2008
Inadequate physical activity is linked to many chronic diseases. But the mechanisms that tie muscle activity to health are unclear. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1alpha has recently been shown to regulate several exercise-associated aspects of muscle function. We propose that this protein controls muscle plasticity, suppresses a broad inflammatory response and ...
Smith James A H - - 2008
The role of CaMK II in regulating GLUT4 expression in response to intermittent exercise was investigated. Wistar rats completed 5 x 17-min bouts of swimming after receiving 5 mg/kg KN93 (a CaMK II inhibitor), KN92 (an analog of KN93 that does not inhibit CaMK II), or an equivalent volume of ...
Murphy K T - - 2008
Exercise increases Na(+)-K(+) pump isoform gene expression and elevates muscle reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated whether enhanced ROS scavenging induced with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blunted the increase in Na(+)-K(+) pump mRNA during repeated contractions in human and rat muscle. In experiment 1, well-trained subjects received saline or NAC ...
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