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Janssen Christophe - - 2009
Blockade of the skeletal muscle Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump by digoxin could result in a more marked hyperkaliema during a forearm exercise, which in turn could stimulate the mechano- and metaboreceptors. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over-design study, we measured mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), ventilation (V(E)), oxygen saturation ...
Thomas A - - 2010
AIM: Our laboratory has shown that oestrogen acts to augment myoblast (satellite cell) activation, proliferation and total number and that this may occur through an oestrogen receptor (OR)-mediated mechanism. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the mechanism of oestrogen influence on augmentation of post-exercise myoblast numbers through ...
LeMoine Christophe M R - - 2010
In adult zebrafish, 4 weeks of exercise training is known to induce an increase in mitochondrial enzymes such as citrate synthase (CS) when determined in mixed (red and white) muscle. However, this remodeling is not accompanied by changes in PGC-1alpha mRNA, a potent inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals. To ...
Park Joon-Young - - 2009
Exercise capacity is a physiological characteristic associated with protection from both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. p53 regulates mitochondrial function and its deletion markedly diminishes exercise capacity, but the underlying genetic mechanism orchestrating this is unclear. Understanding the biology of how p53 improves exercise capacity may provide useful insights for improving ...
Coffey Vernon G - - 2009
We examined acute molecular responses in skeletal muscle to repeated sprint and resistance exercise bouts. Six men [age, 24.7 +/- 6.3 yr; body mass, 81.6 +/- 7.3 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 47 +/- 9.9 mlxkg(-1)xmin(-1); one repetition maximum (1-RM) leg extension 92.2 +/- 12.5 kg; means +/- SD] were randomly ...
Vingren Jakob L - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) on muscle androgen receptor (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein content. Fifteen resistance-trained men (n=8; 21+/-1 years, 175.3+/-6.7 cm, 90.8+/-11.6 kg) and women (n=7; 24+/-5 years, 164.6+/-6.7 cm, 76.4+/-15.6 kg) completed 6 sets of 10 ...
Kang Chounghun - - 2009
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha)-activated signal transduction pathway has previously been shown to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise. In vitro data indicate that PGC-1alpha signaling may be sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) but its role in vivo is not clear. The objectives ...
Krix Martin - - 2009
We developed a real-time low-MI contrast-enhanced ultrasound method (CEUS), compared it with venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) and evaluated its robustness in the quantification of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise. Contrast pulse sequencing (7 MHz) during continuous intravenous infusion of SonoVue (4.8 mL/300 s) was used repeatedly in eight healthy volunteers ...
Buford Thomas W - - 2009
Aberrant local inflammatory signaling within skeletal muscle is now considered a contributing factor to the development of sarcopenia. Recent evidence indicates that chronic resistance training contributes to the control of locally derived inflammation via adaptations to repeated, acute increases in pro-inflammatory mRNA within muscle. However, only a limited number of ...
Dumke Charles L - - 2009
Exercise increases mRNA for genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative enzyme capacity. However, little is known about how these genes respond to consecutive bouts of prolonged exercise. We examined the effects of 3 h of intensive cycling performed on three consecutive days on the mRNA associated with mitochondrial biogenesis ...
Maarbjerg Stine J - - 2009
Some studies suggest that the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important in regulating muscle glucose uptake in response to intense electrically stimulated contractions. However, it is unknown whether AMPK regulates muscle glucose uptake during in vivo exercise. We studied this in male and female mice overexpressing kinase-dead AMPKalpha2 (AMPK-KD) in ...
Shen Mei - - 2009
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that local exercise of a normal limb can promote angiogenesis in a pathological ischaemic limb. New Zealand White rabbits underwent left femoral artery ligation (Lig) and electrode implantation on the right sciatic nerve. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: ...
Kim Si-Young - - 2009
There are multiple lines of compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effect of exercise on the prevention and/or improvement of certain chronic diseases. However, exhaustive or intense exercise causes oxygen free radical generation and oxidative stress, which can lead to injuries and chronic fatigue as well as inflammation. Abnormal upregulation of ...
Salanova Michele - - 2009
We monitored changes in SERCA isoform specific expression and S-nitrosylation in myofibers of lower limb soleus (SOL) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle biopsies before and after 60 days of voluntary long term bed rest (BR) without (BR-CTRL group, n = 8) and with exercise countermeasure (BR-EX group, n = 8). ...
Hogan Tom S - - 2009
Systemic vascular resistance falls in exercise as a consequence of metabolically-linked vasodilatation in active skeletal muscles. This exercise-induced vasodilatation is closely linked with reduced muscle tissue oxygen tension in and is characterised by reduced response to adrenergic vasoconstrictor mechanisms which is often referred to as functional sympatholysis. Systemic arterial blood ...
Spangenburg Espen E - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) exist in three different forms, alpha (alpha), beta/delta (beta/delta), or gamma (gamma), all of which are expressed in skeletal muscle and play a critical role in the regulation of oxidative metabolism. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the mRNA expression pattern of the different ...
Tang Jason E - - 2009
This study was designed to compare the acute response of mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to rapidly (i.e., whey hydrolysate and soy) and slowly (i.e., micellar casein) digested proteins both at rest and after resistance exercise. Three groups of healthy young men (n = 6 per group) performed a bout ...
Nieman David C - - 2009
PURPOSE: To test the influence of 1000 mg of quercetin (Q) with or without 120 mg of epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), 400 mg of isoquercetin, and 400 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (Q-EGCG) on exercise performance, muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, and changes in measures of immunity and inflammation before and ...
van den Burg Maarten M M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of acute exercise and long-term training on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content, mRNA isoforms, and protein concentration in equine muscle. ANIMALS: 6 Standardbreds. PROCEDURES: Horses performed a bout of exercise on a treadmill before and after 18 weeks of combined interval and endurance training. Muscle biopsy specimens were ...
Krix Martin - - 2010
To quantitatively assess local muscle micro-circulation with real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during different exercises and compare the results with performed muscle work and global blood flow. Sixteen low mechanical index CEUS examinations of the right lower leg flexors of healthy volunteers were performed using a continuous infusion of SonoVue(®) (4.8 ...
Rundqvist Helene - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression in non-hematological tissues has been shown to be activated by locally produced and/or systemically delivered EPO. Improved oxygen homeostasis, a well-established consequence of EPOR activation, is very important for human skeletal muscle performance. In the present study we investigate whether human skeletal muscle fibers and ...
Green S - - 2010
Although the "slow" phase of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) appears to represent energetic processes in contracting muscle, electromyographic evidence tends not to support this. The present study assessed normalized integrated electromyographic (NIEMG) activity in eight muscles that act about the hip, knee and ankle during 8 min of moderate (<ventilatory ...
Bonen Arend - - 2009
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a nuclear encoded transcriptional coactivator, increases the expression of many genes in skeletal muscle, including those involved with fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Exercise increases the expression of PGC-1alpha, and the exercise-induced upregulation of many genes is attributable, in part, ...
Gibala Martin - - 2009
From a cell-signaling perspective, short-duration intense muscular work is typically associated with resistance training and linked to pathways that stimulate growth. However, brief repeated sessions of high-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) induce rapid phenotypic changes that resemble traditional endurance training. Given the oxidative phenotype that is rapidly upregulated by HIT, ...
Hood David A - - 2009
Acute exercise initiates rapid cellular signals, leading to the subsequent activation of proteins that increase gene transcription. The result is a higher level of mRNA expression, often observed during the recovery period following exercise. These molecules are translated into precursor proteins for import into preexisting mitochondria. Once inside the organelle, ...
Tonevitsky E A - - 2009
Intensive exercise triggers the cascade processes of body adaptation, including modulation of splisosome functioning, and can lead to modification of its activity and choice of alternative exons. We studied the effect of exercise of the maximum aerobic power on activation of transcription of genes involved in the splicing process. Short-term ...
Yan Zhen - - 2009
Endurance exercise promotes skeletal muscle adaptation, and exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (Pgc-1alpha) gene expression may play a pivotal role in the adaptive processes. Recent applications of mouse genetic models and in vivo imaging in exercise studies have started to delineate the signaling-transcription pathways that are involved in the ...
Baar Keith - - 2009
Exercise results in highly specific physiological adaptations. Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and force production, while endurance exercise increases aerobic capacity. As the physical and chemical signals underlying this specificity become better understood, scientists are beginning to identify the key molecular effectors of exercise specificity. This review focuses on how ...
Steinberg Gregory R - - 2009
During moderate-intensity exercise, fatty acids are the predominant substrate for working skeletal muscle. The release of fatty acids from adipose tissue stores, combined with the ability of skeletal muscle to actively fine tune the gradient between fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism, depending on substrate availability and energetic demands, requires a ...
Francaux Marc - - 2009
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins that detect a variety of molecular components mostly derived from microorganisms. TLR2 and TLR4 are amongst others present in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Extracellular long-chain fatty acids bind TLR2 and 4 and induce downstream signalling cascades implicated in cellular stress and inflammatory ...
Dennis Richard A - - 2009
A group (n = 8) of healthy older (68 +/- 6 yr) adults participated in a 36-session progressive resistance exercise training program targeting the thigh muscles to determine the relationship between muscle gene expression and gains in muscle size and strength. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at baseline ...
Kinnunen S - - 2009
Heat shock protein (HSP) expression is an adaptive mechanism against the disruption of cell homeostasis during exercise. Several antioxidant supplementation strategies have been used to enhance tissue protection. In this study, we examined the effects of a redox modulator, alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on HSP responses in six standardbred trotters following ...
Rosa Neto José C - - 2009
It is well known that exhaustive exercise increases serum and skeletal muscle IL-6 concentrations. However, the effect of exhaustive exercise on the concentrations of other cytokines in the muscle and in the adipose tissue is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exhaustive exercise on ...
Kavazis Andreas N - - 2009
Endurance exercise is known to provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury, and mitochondrial adaptations may play a critical role in this protection. To investigate exercise-induced changes in mitochondrial proteins, we compared the proteome of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated from the myocardium of sedentary (control) and exercise-trained Sprague-Dawley rats. To ...
Wang Lijing - - 2009
CONTEXT: Calpains and calpastatin can degrade muscle proteins, but no research has investigated the expression pattern of calpains and calpastatin after exhaustive exercise. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the alterations in expression of micro-, m-, and n-calpain and calpastatin after exhaustive exercise and its association with muscle injury. METHOD: 64 rats divided ...
Gasier Heath G HG Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243, - - 2009
The primary objective of this investigation was to determine whether (2)H(2)O and phenylalanine (Phe) flooding dose methods yield comparable fractional rates of protein synthesis (FSR) in skeletal muscle following a single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE). Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned by body mass to either 4-h control (CON 4 ...
Bombardier E - - 2009
This study examined the influence of the ovarian sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the fiber-type-specific response of the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) to damaging exercise in rat soleus. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into three treatment groups (n = 16 per group): sham (S), progesterone (P; 25 ...
Lee-Young Robert S - - 2009
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been extensively studied in whole muscle biopsy samples of humans, yet the fiber type-specific expression and/or activation of AMPK is unknown. We examined basal and exercise AMPK-alpha Thr(172) phosphorylation and AMPK subunit expression (alpha(1), alpha(2), and gamma(3)) in type I, IIa, and IIx fibers of ...
Manini Todd M - - 2009
For nearly half a century, high mechanical loading and mechanotransduction pathways have guided exercise recommendations for inducing muscle hypertrophy. However, emerging research on low-intensity exercise with blood flow restriction challenges this paradigm. This article will describe the BFR exercise model and discuss its efficacy, potential mechanisms, and clinical viability.
Tipton Kevin D - - 2009
Leucine is known to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and anabolism. However, evidence for the efficacy of additional leucine to enhance the response of muscle anabolism to resistance exercise and protein ingestion is unclear. Thus, we investigated the response of net muscle protein balance to ingestion of additional leucine with protein ...
Gavin Timothy P TP Department of Exercise and Sport Science, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA. - - 2009
Regulation of skeletal muscle capillarization involves distinct signaling pathways and growth factors including nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor. Our understanding of this complex regulation continues to expand with the identification of new angiogenic growth factors. Future work needs to increase the use of advanced molecular techniques to expand ...
Ferraiuolo Laura L Academic Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2009
The transcriptional adaptive response of motoneurons and muscles to voluntary exercise has been investigated by using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. Our results show that motoneurons respond to physical activity by activating a complex transcriptional plan, with changes involved in neurotrophic factor signalling, electrophysiological changes and synaptic reorganization. Gastrocnemius ...
Laforêt Pascal - - 2009
Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn error of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation (FAO) most often occurring in childhood with cardiac or liver involvement, but rhabdomyolysis attacks have also been reported in adults. We report in this study the clinical, biochemical and molecular studies in 13 adult ...
Zanchi Nelo Eidy - - 2009
Long-term adaptation to resistance training is probably due to the cumulative molecular effects of each exercise session. Therefore, we studied in female Wistar rats the molecular effects of a chronic resistance training regimen (3 months) leading to skeletal muscle hypertrophy in the plantaris muscle. Our results demonstrated that muscle proteolytic ...
Song Wook - - 2009
The effects of exercise training on the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform profile in aging fast-twitch (white gastrocnemius [WG]) and slow-twitch (soleus [SOL]) muscle have not been investigated. Six-month and 27-month male Fischer-344 rats were divided into the following groups: young sedentary (YS), young treadmill exercise trained for 12 weeks, ...
Scheele Camilla - - 2009
Physical exercise induces a network of alterations in the transcriptome and proteome of the skeletal muscle, resulting in modifications of the muscle physiology. Intriguingly, exercise also transiently induces the production of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and some inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle. In fact, it seems that exercise-induced ROS ...
Fujino Hidemi - - 2009
AIM: A chronic decrease in the activation and loading levels of skeletal muscles as occurs with hindlimb unloading (HU) results in a number of detrimental changes. Several proteolytic pathways are involved with an increase in myofibrillar protein degradation associated with HU. Exercise can be used to counter this increase in ...
Richter Erik A - - 2009
AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a phylogenetically conserved fuel-sensing enzyme that is present in all mammalian cells. During exercise, it is activated in skeletal muscle in humans, and at least in rodents, also in adipose tissue, liver and perhaps other organs by events that increase the AMP/ATP ratio. When activated, ...
Duncan Michael - - 2009
This study sought to examine any differences in upper rectus abdominis (URA) and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) muscle activity during four abdominal exercises, the curl-up, Swiss ball curl-up, Swiss ball jackknife and Swiss ball rollout. Fourteen healthy adults (7 males, 7 females, mean age+/-S.D.=21.8+/-3.8 years) performed abdominal exercises in a ...
Ogata Tomonori - - 2009
Skeletal muscle may develop adaptive molecular chaperone enhancements as a potential defense system through repeated daily exercise stimulation. The present study investigated whether prolonged exercise training alters the expression of molecular chaperone proteins for the long term in skeletal muscle. Mature male Wistar rats were subjected for 8 wk to ...
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