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Fry Christopher S CS University of Texas Medical Branch, Sealy Center on Aging, Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, 301 Univ. Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555-1144, - - 2010
The loss of skeletal muscle mass during aging, sarcopenia, increases the risk for falls and dependence. Resistance exercise (RE) is an effective rehabilitation technique that can improve muscle mass and strength; however, older individuals are resistant to the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) with traditional high-intensity RE. Recently, a ...
Fatone C - - 2010
This study was performed to establish whether only 2 sessions per week of combined aerobic and resistance exercise are enough to reduce glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and to induce changes in skeletal muscle gene expression in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) subjects with metabolic syndrome. Eight DM2 subjects underwent a 1-yr ...
Nieman David C - - 2010
PURPOSE: To determine the influence of 2 wk of quercetin (Q; 1000 mg x d(-1)) compared with placebo (P) supplementation on exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in untrained, young adult males (N = 26, age = 20.2 +/- 0.4 yr, VO2max = 46.3 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) ...
Jensky Nicole E NE Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, - - 2010
We evaluated changes in myostatin, follistatin, and MyoD messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression using eccentric exercise (EE) and concentric exercise (CE) as probes to better understand the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy in young women. Twelve women performed single-leg maximal eccentric (n = 6, 25 +/- 1 years, 59 +/- 7 ...
Little Jonathan P - - 2010
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha) is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a key role in coordinating mitochondrial biogenesis. Recent evidence has linked p38 MAPK and AMPK with activation of PGC-1alpha. It was recently shown in rodent skeletal muscle that acute endurance exercise causes a shift in the subcellular localization ...
Little Jonathan P - - 2010
High-intensity interval training (HIT) induces skeletal muscle metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble traditional endurance training despite a low total exercise volume. Most HIT studies have employed 'all out', variable-load exercise interventions (e.g. repeated Wingate tests) that may not be safe, practical and/or well tolerated by certain individuals. Our purpose ...
Dreyer H C HC Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, - - 2010
Sex differences are evident in human skeletal muscle as the cross-sectional area of individual muscle fibres is greater in men than in women. We have recently shown that resistance exercise stimulates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling and muscle protein synthesis in humans during early post-exercise recovery. Therefore, the aim ...
Cochran Andrew J R - - 2010
Exercise training under conditions of reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been reported to augment gains in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We examined the effect of manipulating CHO intake on the acute metabolic response to high-intensity interval exercise, including signaling cascades linked to mitochondrial biogenesis. ...
Aizawa Katsuji - - 2010
Androgens, such as testosterone, play important roles in regulation of diverse physiological process of target tissues. Recently, we reported that steroidogenic enzymes exist in skeletal muscle and regulate local production of testosterone in response to exercise. Testosterone is transformed into a bioactive androgen metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5alpha-reductase. However, it ...
Carmeli Eli - - 2010
Skeletal muscle adapts to exercise by an upregulation of cellular defenses, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP-2) and heat shock protein type-72 (HSP-72). The aims of the study were to examine iNOS, MMP-2, and HSP-72 mRNA and protein expression after high-intensity exercise training ...
Hulmi Juha J - - 2010
Regardless of age or gender, resistance training or provision of adequate amounts of dietary protein (PRO) or essential amino acids (EAA) can increase muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in healthy adults. Combined PRO or EAA ingestion proximal to resistance training, however, can augment the post-exercise MPS response and has been shown ...
Wessner Barbara - - 2010
With the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), an exceptional means of regulating gene expression was introduced a few years ago. MiRNAs function to inactivate specific messenger RNA transcripts leading to depletion of the corresponding protein, whereby computational studies have shown that about one third of all animal genes might be miRNA ...
Uguccioni Giulia - - 2010
PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is considered to be a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Though first discovered in brown adipose tissue, this coactivator has emerged as a coordinator of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle via enhanced transcription of many nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Stimuli such as exercise provoke the activation ...
Salomão Emilianne M - - 2010
Leucine-supplemented diet can recover lean body mass and preserve muscle protein mass. Additionally, physical exercise can be an excellent alternative to improve the rehabilitation of cancer patients. Knowing these facts, we examined the effects of a leucine-rich diet with or without physical aerobic exercise on muscle protein metabolism in Walker ...
Cirrik Selma - - 2010
During exercise, the plasma urate levels and urinary excretion increase due to the enhanced purine degradation in skeletal muscle. Although urate transporter-1 (URAT1) is the main transporter responsible for the reabsorption of filtered urate, potential changes in its activity and expression during exercise have not been studied yet. Therefore, the ...
Hoene Miriam - - 2010
Recent research on the effectiveness of training interventions indicates major alterations of hepatic lipid metabolism and suggests a substantial and beneficial adaptation of the liver to regular physical activity in humans. However, while various' data demonstrate the response of the working skeletal muscle to acute exercise and training, considerably less ...
Lehmann Rainer - - 2010
Exercise is an extreme physiological challenge for skeletal muscle energy metabolism and has notable health benefits. We aimed to identify and characterize metabolites, which are components of the regulatory network mediating the beneficial metabolic adaptation to exercise. First, we investigated plasma from healthy human subjects who completed two independent running ...
Burd Nicholas A - - 2010
We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM) and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2) performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM) ...
Brandt Claus - - 2010
Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and tumour growth. Regular exercise offers protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, breast cancer, and dementia. Evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to the antiinflammatory effect of ...
Fisman Enrique Z - - 2010
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine regulating humoral and cellular responses and playing a central role in inflammation and tissue injury. Its effects are mediated through interaction with its receptor complex, IL-6Rβ (also known as gp130). It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and large ...
Rodríguez-Bies Elizabeth - - 2010
Every other day feeding (EOD) and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) ...
Ueda Chihoko C Research Institute of Physical Fitness, Japan Women's College of Physical Education, Tokyo 157-8565, Japan. - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that differences in vertical spatial difference in reoxygenation after exercise exists, reflecting heterogeneity of muscle oxygenation during exercise might be due to the difference in dominantly recruited muscle fiber type. Ten healthy female subjects performed 1 min static knee extension ...
Liu Dongmei D Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2010
The molecular mechanisms underlying the sex differences in human muscle morphology and function remain to be elucidated. The sex differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome in both the resting state and following anabolic stimuli, such as resistance exercise (RE), might provide insight to the contributors of sexual dimorphism of muscle ...
Geng Tuoyu - - 2010
Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1alpha changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1alpha is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study, we showed that ...
McGee Sean L - - 2009
Skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise confer many of the health benefits of physical activity and occur partly through alterations in skeletal muscle gene expression. The exact mechanisms mediating altered skeletal muscle gene expression in response to exercise are unknown. However, in recent years, chromatin remodelling through epigenetic histone modifications has ...
Krix Martin - - 2011
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is able to quantify muscle perfusion and changes in perfusion due to muscle exercise in real-time. However, reliable measurement of standardized muscle exercise is difficult to perform in clinical examinations. We compared perfusion reserve assessed by CEUS after transient arterial occlusion and exercise to find the most ...
Quadrilatero Joe - - 2010
Apoptosis in skeletal muscle plays an important role in age- and disease-related tissue dysfunction. Physical activity can influence apoptotic signaling; however, this process has not been well studied in human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of apoptosis-related proteins/enzymes, DNA fragmentation, and oxidative ...
Chinsomboon Jessica J Cardiovascular Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2009
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects 5 million people in the US and is the primary cause of limb amputations. Exercise remains the single best intervention for PAD, in part thought to be mediated by increases in capillary density. How exercise triggers angiogenesis is not known. PPARgamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha is a ...
Czarkowska-Paczek B - - 2009
The serum level of the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is elevated after acute bouts of exercise and prolonged training, as well as after myocardial infarction. However, the source of this increase remains unclear. Contracting skeletal muscles are known to be the source of many cytokines. To determine whether skeletal or ...
Wang Li - - 2009
PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. ...
Dieli-Conwright Christina M - - 2009
The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a potential treatment to relieve symptoms of menopause in postmenopausal women, however, the effects on skeletal muscle are unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if HRT enhances estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activation in skeletal muscle at rest and following resistance exercise. PURPOSE:: To ...
Deldicque Louise - - 2009
The present study aimed at comparing the responses of myogenic regulatory factors and signaling pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis after a resistance training session performed in either the fasted or fed state. According to a randomized crossover study design, six young male subjects participated in two experimental sessions separated ...
Drummond Micah J - - 2009
This study examined the impact of resistance exercise volume on myoD and myogenin in rodent quadriceps muscle. Six-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (316 +/- 2 g) performed either low-volume (LV; 10 sets x 10 contractions) or high-volume (HV; 20 sets x 10 contractions) resistance exercise at 75% one-repetition maximum. Muscles were ...
Koltai Erika E Research Institute of Sport Science, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Semmelweis University, Budapest, - - 2010
Silent information regulators are potent NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, which have been shown to regulate gene silencing, muscle differentiation and DNA damage repair. Here, changes in the level and activity of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in response to exercise in groups of young and old rats were studied. There was an age-related ...
Holm Lars - - 2010
Exercise stimulates muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), but the importance of contractile intensity and whether it interplays with feeding is not understood. This was investigated following two distinct resistance exercise (RE) contraction intensities using an intrasubject design in the fasted (n = 10) and fed (n = 10) states. ...
Nordsborg N B - - 2010
AIM: To investigate if exercise intensity and Ca(2+) signalling regulate Na(+),K(+) pump mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. METHODS: The importance of exercise intensity was evaluated by having trained and untrained humans perform intense intermittent and prolonged exercise. The importance of Ca(2+) signalling was investigated by electrical stimulation of rat soleus ...
Costford Sheila R - - 2010
In mammals, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ is an obligate cosubstrate for mammalian sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a deacetylase that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), which in turn can activate mitochondrial biogenesis. Given that ...
Wilborn Colin D - - 2009
A single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise is capable of activating the expression of various genes in skeletal muscle involved in hypertrophy such as myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), and growth factors. However, the specific role exercise intensity plays on the expression of these genes is ...
Holloway Kathryn V - - 2009
No previous study has used proteomics to investigate the effects of exercise training on human skeletal muscle. Five recreationally active men completed a 6-wk training programme involving three sessions per week, utilising six 1-min bouts at maximum oxygen uptake (V O(2)max) interspersed with 4 min at 50% V O(2)max. Vastus ...
Malek Moh H - - 2010
The purposes of this study were as follows: (1) to examine basal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein concentrations following 10 weeks of endurance training and after 7 days of detraining; and (2) to examine the acute VEGF protein response to a single 1 h exercise work bout in trained ...
Eivers Suzanne S - - 2010
Intense selection for elite racing performance in the Thoroughbred horse (Equus caballus) has resulted in a number of adaptive physiological phenotypes relevant to exercise; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these characteristics are not well understood. Adaptive changes in mRNA expression in equine skeletal muscle were investigated by real-time ...
Banzet Sébastien - - 2009
Prolonged intense exercise is challenging for the liver to maintain plasma glucose levels. Hormonal changes cannot fully account for exercise-induced hepatic glucose production (HGP). Contracting skeletal muscles release interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine able to increase endogenous glucose production during exercise. However, whether this is attributable to a direct effect of ...
Tang Kechun - - 2010
Muscle VEGF expression is upregulated by exercise. Whether this VEGF response is regulated by transcription and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms is unknown. Hypoxia may be responsible: myocyte P(O2) falls greatly during exercise and VEGF is a hypoxia-responsive gene. Whether exercise induces VEGF expression in other organs important to acute physical activity is ...
Belav?? D L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a resistive vibration exercise countermeasure during prolonged bed-rest in preventing lower-limb muscle atrophy. METHODS: 20 male subjects underwent 56-days of bed-rest and were assigned to either an inactive control, or a countermeasure group which performed high-load resistive exercises (including squats, ...
Boirie Y - - 2009
The aetiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial but still poorly understood while the sequelae of this phenomenon, i.e. loss of independence and metabolic complications, represent a major public health. The most evident metabolic explanation for muscle decline in elderly people is an imbalance between protein synthesis abd breakdown rates but other ...
Rivas Donato A - - 2009
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved atypical serine-threonine kinase that controls numerous functions essential for cell homeostasis and adaptation in mammalian cells via 2 distinct protein complex formations. Moreover, mTOR is a key regulatory protein in the insulin signalling cascade and has also been characterized as ...
Lira Fábio S - - 2009
Skeletal muscle is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and recently, it has been recognized as an important source of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Acute physical exercise is known to induce a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in the plasma. However, the effect of chronic physical exercise in the production of pro- and ...
Ding Hu - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the gene expression of Mitofusion (Mfn) 1 and 2 and Fission 1 (Fis1) and mitochondrial energy metabolism in response to altered energy demand during prolonged exercise in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an acute bout ...
Jenkins Nathan T - - 2009
We sought to delineate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on the regulation of intracellular nitric oxide (NO(i)) production in putative endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Putative EPC colony-forming units (CFU-EC) were cultured from blood drawn before and after 30 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake ...
Vi??a Jose - - 2009
Mitochondrial biogenesis is critical for the normal function of cells. It is well known that mitochondria are produced and eventually after normal functioning they are degraded. Thus, the actual level of mitochondria in cells is dependent both on the synthesis and the degradation. Ever since the proposal of the mitochondrial ...
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