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Gehlert Sebastian - - 2010
The investigation of lymphatic function and biology and its microvascular influence on tissue integrity, development and failure in various disease conditions constitutes an important field of medical research. To date several investigations were carried out investigating alterations of lymphatic vessel density under medical conditions e.g. in transplanted or failing heart. ...
Elliott James M - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of neck extensor muscles during different extension exercises with muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy subjects (N=11; 7 men, mean age +/- SD, 34+/-5.6y; 4 women, mean age +/- SD, 23.3+/-5.2y; group mean age +/- SD, 30.1+/-7.5y). INTERVENTION: ...
Mikkelsen U R - - 2011
Unaccustomed exercise leads to satellite cell proliferation and increased skeletal muscle protein turnover. Several growth factors and cytokines may be involved in the adaptive responses. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) negatively affect muscle regeneration and adaptation in animal models, and inhibit the exercise-induced satellite cell proliferation and protein synthesis in humans. ...
Tantiwong Puntip - - 2010
NF-κB is a transcription factor that controls the gene expression of several proinflammatory proteins. Cell culture and animal studies have implicated increased NF-κB activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether insulin-resistant human subjects have abnormal NF-κB activity in muscle. The effect that ...
Harber Matthew P - - 2010
The purpose of this investigation was to assess mixed-muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle remodeling after aerobic exercise in the fasted and fed states. Eight recreationally active males (25 ± 1 yr; Vo(2 max): 52 ± 2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 60-min of cycle ...
Nader Gustavo A - - 2010
Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are orphan, chronic skeletal muscle disorders characterized by weakness, infiltrations by mononuclear inflammatory cells, and fibrosis. Until recently, patients were advised to refrain from physical activity because of fears of exacerbation of muscle inflammation. However, recent studies have shown that moderate exercise training in combination with immunosuppressive ...
Ogasawara Junetsu - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on lipolysis via coordination of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and scaffold proteins, i.e., perilipin A and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), in rat primary adipocytes. Glycerol release was significantly elevated immediately (0h) and three hours (3h) after exercise. ...
Balan Marko - - 2011
The myocardial stress response to exercise is dependent on exercise intensity and thus understanding the molecular responses between various exercise intensity levels might aid in exercise prescription. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates a variety of cellular processes including inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis and ...
McAllister Richard M - - 2010
Increased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is associated with endurance exercise training. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein function, but not increased vascular smooth muscle sensitivity to NO, underlies augmented endothelium-dependent dilatation with training. To test these hypotheses, rats ran on ...
Dickx Nele - - 2010
STUDY DESIGN: Mixed model analysis of muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electromyography (EMG) changes in lumbar muscles during trunk extension exercise at varying intensities. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight within the relationship between muscle functional MRI and activity of the lumbar back muscles, which is related to exercise intensity. ...
Roberts Michael D - - 2010
Genes and proteins involved in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling are thought to be differentially expressed in older versus younger mammalian skeletal muscle following acute exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine how multiple bouts of conventional resistance training meant to elicit hypertrophy affect the mRNA expression of ...
Kivelä Riikka - - 2010
A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance ...
Yamaguchi Wataru - - 2010
Exercise training induces various adaptations in skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis, which has not yet been used for elucidating adaptations of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise training (HIT). For 5 days, rats performed HIT, which consisted of 14 20-s swimming ...
Claeys Kristl G - - 2010
A novel myopathy characterized by hexagonally cross-linked tubular arrays has been reported in five patients. We studied the clinical and histopathological features of five additional unrelated patients with this myopathy. Patients experienced exercise intolerance with exercise-induced myalgia and weakness, without rhabdomyolysis. One patient additionally presented mild permanent pelvic girdle muscle ...
Nilsson Mats I - - 2010
Metabolic risk factors associated with insulin resistance syndrome may attenuate augmentations in skeletal muscle protein anabolism following contractile activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the anabolic response, as defined by an increase in cumulative fractional protein synthesis rates (24-h FSR) following resistance exercise (RE), ...
Matsakas Antonios - - 2010
Regular exercise promotes favorable structural and metabolic adaptations, especially in the skeletal muscle, to boost endurance and cardiovascular health. These changes are driven by a network of incompletely understood molecular pathways that trigger transcriptional remodeling of the skeletal muscle. In this article, we describe recent advances in the understanding of ...
Massie Rami - - 2010
Cytochrome b mutations are rare causes of exercise intolerance. We report an 18-year-old man with exercise intolerance since childhood, resting lactic acidosis, cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-positive ragged-red fibers, and isolated muscle complex III deficiency due to a heteroplasmic m.14849T>C mutation in cytochrome b. We review previously described patients carrying mutations ...
Bo Hai - - 2010
Exercise induced adaptations in muscle are highly specific and dependent upon the type of exercise, as well as its frequency, intensity, and duration. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles. Fusion and fission reactions lead to a continuous remodeling of the mitochondrial network, which range from reticulum of elongated and branched filaments ...
Bueno C R CR - - 2010
The cellular mechanisms of positive effects associated with aerobic exercise training on overall intrinsic skeletal muscle changes in heart failure (HF) remain unclear. We investigated potential Ca2+ abnormalities in skeletal muscles comprising different fiber compositions and investigated whether aerobic exercise training would improve muscle function in a genetic model of ...
Nishida Y - - 2010
Moderate-intensity exercise at the lactate threshold (LT) is considered to be a safe and effective training regimen for improving metabolic syndrome. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of moderate exercise performed at the LT on skeletal muscle gene expression. 6 healthy men participated in cycle ...
Formenti Federico F Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, United - - 2010
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors directs a coordinated cellular response to hypoxia that includes the transcriptional regulation of a number of metabolic enzymes. Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is an autosomal recessive human disorder in which the regulatory degradation of HIF is impaired, resulting in elevated levels of HIF ...
Burd Nicholas A - - 2010
We aimed to determine if any mechanistic differences exist between a single set (1SET) and multiple sets (i.e. 3 sets; 3SET) of resistance exercise by utilizing a primed constant infusion of [ring-13C6]phenylalanine to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and Western blot analysis to examine anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation following an ...
Vincent Lucile - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that subjects with sickle cell trait (SCT), alpha-thalassemia (alpha-t), and the dual hemoglobinopathy (SCT/alpha-t) manifest subtle, albeit significant, differences during exercise. To better understand such differences, we assessed skeletal muscle histomorphological and energetic characteristics in 10 control HbAA subjects (C), 5 subjects with alpha-t (alpha-t), 6 ...
Miller B F - - 2011
Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown. Microdialysis fibers were tested in vitro ...
Durham William J WJ Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555-0460, - - 2010
Age-related skeletal muscle loss is thought to stem from suboptimal nutrition and resistance to anabolic stimuli. Impaired microcirculatory (nutritive) blood flow may contribute to anabolic resistance by reducing delivery of amino acids to skeletal muscle. In this study, we employed contrast-enhanced ultrasound, microdialysis sampling of skeletal muscle interstitium, and stable ...
Terzis Gerasimos - - 2010
Regular performance of resistance exercise induces an increase in skeletal muscle mass, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not yet fully understood. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acute changes in molecular signalling in response to resistance exercise involving different training volumes. Eight untrained male ...
West Daniel W D - - 2010
Muscle cells (fibres) are post-mitotic and thus undergo changes in phenotype by modifying their existing structure. Hypertrophy is a hallmark change that occurs in response to increased loading and can be achieved in humans through repeated bouts of resistance exercise (i.e., training). In resistance exercise, contractions are initiated by neural ...
Mador M Jeffery - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine whether hamsters with elastase-induced emphysema (EMP) would demonstrate a reduction in exercise capacity compared to control (CON) hamsters and whether changes in activity levels, muscle function and structure could explain any changes in exercise capacity. Peak oxygen consumption and daily activity levels ...
Bjerkefors Anna - - 2010
The deepest muscle of the human ventro-lateral abdominal wall, the Transversus Abdominis (TrA), has been ascribed a specific role in spine stabilization, which has motivated special core stability exercises and hollowing instruction to specifically involve this muscle. The purpose here was to evaluate the levels of activation of the TrA ...
Veskoukis Aristidis S - - 2010
Albumin is a protein present in almost all kinds of mammalian cells. It has binding sites for several molecules, and possesses antioxidant and other important properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different oxidative stress stimuli - exercise and allopurinol administration - and their ...
Brito Gleisson A P - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that lipids are transferred from lymphocytes (Ly) to different cell types including macrophages, enterocytes, and pancreatic beta cells in co-culture. This study investigated whether [(14)C]-labeled fatty acids (FA) can be transferred from Ly to skeletal muscle (SM), and the effects of exercise on such phenomenon. Ly ...
Hansen Ane H - - 2010
METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks. Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were ...
Athanasopoulos Dimitris - - 2010
We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would ...
Marton Orsolya - - 2010
Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive and motor functions, the result of complex biochemical processes including pre- and posttranslational modifications of proteins. Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylases. These enzymes modulate the aging process by lysine deacetylation, which alters the activity and stability of proteins. Exercise can ...
Sutinen Jussi - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle characterizes antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated lipoatrophy (LA). METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing HIV-infected, antiretroviral-treated patients with LA (n = 5; LA+) and without LA (n = 5; non-LA) was conducted. Positron emission tomography was used to measure blood flow, oxygen extraction and ...
Czarkowska-Paczek Bozena - - 2010
Physical exercise benefits the heart, but the mechanism is not understood. The mechanism of muscle plasticity after physical training is also unclear. The proangiogenic and mitogenic activity of PDGF and VEGF could be involved in both processes. This study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute exercise on ...
Porcelli Simone - - 2010
"Central" and "peripheral" limitations to oxidative metabolism during exercise were evaluated in 10 young males following a 35-day horizontal bed rest (BR). Incremental exercise (IE) and moderate- and heavy-intensity constant-load exercises (CLE) were carried out on a cycloergometer before and 1-2 days after BR. Pulmonary gas exchange, cardiac output (Q; ...
Lira Vitor A - - 2010
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a major regulator of exercise-induced phenotypic adaptation and substrate utilization. We provide an overview of 1) the role of PGC-1alpha in exercise-mediated muscle adaptation and 2) the possible insulin-sensitizing role of PGC-1alpha. To these ends, the following questions are addressed. 1) How ...
Esposito Fabio - - 2010
In seven patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and six controls, we examined (a) resting and post-exercise muscle vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels and (b) their relationship with muscle structure and function. Muscle biopsies were taken after 30 min of single-leg knee-extensor exercise at 50% of maximum work ...
Chang Gregory - - 2010
To evaluate healthy skeletal muscle pre- and post-exercise via 7 T (23)Na MRI and muscle proton T(2) mapping, and to evaluate diabetic muscle pre- and post-exercise via 7 T (23)Na MRI. The calves of seven healthy subjects underwent imaging pre- and post-exercise via 7 T (23)Na MRI (3D fast low ...
Egan Brendan - - 2010
Skeletal muscle contraction increases intracellular ATP turnover, calcium flux, and mechanical stress, initiating signal transduction pathways that modulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha)-dependent transcriptional programmes. The purpose of this study was to determine if the intensity of exercise regulates PGC-1alpha expression in human skeletal muscle, coincident with activation of ...
Murase Shiori - - 2010
Unaccustomed strenuous exercise that includes lengthening contraction (LC) often causes delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), a kind of muscular mechanical hyperalgesia. The substances that induce this phenomenon are largely unknown. Peculiarly, DOMS is not perceived during and shortly after exercise, but rather is first perceived after approximately 1 d. Using B(2) ...
Guerra Borja - - 2010
This study was designed to examine potential in vivo mechanisms of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation inhibition and its downstream signaling consequences during the recovery period after a single bout of sprint exercise. Sprint exercise induces Thr(172)-AMPK phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha mRNA, by an unknown mechanism. Muscle biopsies were obtained ...
Cantó Carles - - 2010
During fasting and after exercise, skeletal muscle efficiently switches from carbohydrate to lipid as the main energy source to preserve glycogen stores and blood glucose levels for glucose-dependent tissues. Skeletal muscle cells sense this limitation in glucose availability and transform this information into transcriptional and metabolic adaptations. Here we demonstrate ...
Price Edwin R - - 2010
The extreme energetic demands of avian migration result in various physiological changes that can be observed during the migratory period. However, the degree to which birds alter muscle physiology in advance of migration has been poorly studied. We studied the effects of "migratory" photoperiod and exercise on metabolic enzymes, fatty ...
Ogborn Daniel I - - 2010
Muscle-derived neurotrophins are thought to contribute to the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise, but the effects of brief exercise interventions on BDNF, NT-4/5, and trkB are not understood. RNA was extracted for RT-PCR from soleus and medial gastrocnemius of Sprague-Dawley rats exercised on a treadmill at speeds up to ...
Deldicque Louise - - 2010
The present study aimed at comparing the responses of myogenic regulatory factors and signaling pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis after a resistance training session performed in either the fasted or fed state. According to a randomized crossover study design, six young male subjects participated in two experimental sessions separated ...
Dieli-Conwright Christina M - - 2010
The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a potential treatment to relieve symptoms of menopause in postmenopausal women; however, the effects on skeletal muscle are unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if HRT enhances estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activation in skeletal muscle at rest and after resistance exercise. PURPOSE: To ...
Drummond Micah J MJ Department of Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Research Center, Brigham Young University, 120-E Richards Bldg., Provo, UT 84602, - - 2010
This study examined the impact of resistance exercise volume on myoD and myogenin in rodent quadriceps muscle. Six-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (316 +/- 2 g) performed either low-volume (LV; 10 sets x 10 contractions) or high-volume (HV; 20 sets x 10 contractions) resistance exercise at 75% one-repetition maximum. Muscles were ...
Fry Christopher S CS University of Texas Medical Branch, Sealy Center on Aging, Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, 301 Univ. Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555-1144, - - 2010
The loss of skeletal muscle mass during aging, sarcopenia, increases the risk for falls and dependence. Resistance exercise (RE) is an effective rehabilitation technique that can improve muscle mass and strength; however, older individuals are resistant to the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) with traditional high-intensity RE. Recently, a ...
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