Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1065
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Gavin T P TP Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, - - 2002
We investigated the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor [fms-like-tyrosine kinase (Flt-1 and fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1)] response to acute exercise. In female Wistar rats, the VEGF receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) response to a single acute exercise bout was examined using semi-quantitative Northern blot from the left gastrocnemius muscles at ...
Park Haejoe H Diabetes Unit, Section of Endocrinology and Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, - - 2002
Changes in the concentration of malonyl-CoA in many tissues have been related to alterations in the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in its formation. In contrast, little is known about the physiological role of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), an enzyme responsible for malonyl-CoA catabolism. In this study, we ...
Nikawa Takeshi - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We examined effects of dietary soy protein isolate on muscle calpain activity and myosin heavy chain (MHC) degradation in rats performing an acute running exercise. METHODS: In rats fed a 20% casein diet, the treadmill running exercise, fixed at 80 kg/m, transiently increased calpain activity in gastrocnemius muscles in ...
Kee Anthony J - - 2002
Both exercise and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are known to have major hypertrophic effects in skeletal muscle; however, the interactive effect of exogenous IGF-I and exercise on muscle protein turnover or the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has not been reported. In the present study, we have examined the interaction between endurance ...
Takeda Yoshitsugu - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Electromyography has been used to determine the best exercise for strengthening the supraspinatus muscle, but conflicting results have been reported. Magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxation time appears to be more accurate in determining muscle activation. PURPOSE: To determine the best exercises for strengthening the supraspinatus muscle. STUDY DESIGN: Criterion ...
Matsuzaki Yasushi - - 2002
PURPOSE: To examine the changes of taurine concentrations in blood and skeletal muscles after transient exercise. METHODS: Rats were placed on a treadmill set at 25 m.min-1. The animals were divided into four groups: control (no exercise) and exercise groups 1, 2, and 3. The exercise duration for groups 1, ...
Joumaa W H - - 2002
The effects of 5 weeks treadmill-exercise training on isometric tension and contractile proteins were studied in intact and skinned isolated small bundles of rat skeletal soleus and extensor digitorum longus (edl) fibers. In soleus and edl muscles, 5 weeks exercise training: (i) increased twitch amplitude by 25% and 8%, respectively, ...
Wegener G - - 2002
Glycolytic flux in white muscle can be increased several-hundredfold by exercise. Phosphofructokinase (PFK; EC 2.7.1.11) is a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, but how its activity in muscle is controlled is not fully understood. In order not to neglect integrative aspects of metabolic regulation, we have studied in frogs (Rana ...
Spriet Lawrence L - - 2002
Pyruvate dehydrogenase is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A and regulates the entry of carbohydrate into the tricarboxylic acid cycle for oxidation. During exercise, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in human skeletal muscle is proportional to the relative aerobic power output (percent VO2max) and is ...
Suzuki Yasuhiro - - 2002
The histidine-containing dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to significantly contribute to the physicochemical buffering in skeletal muscles, which maintains acid-base balance when a large quantity of H(+) is produced in association with lactic acid accumulation during high-intensity exercise. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations ...
Cameron-Smith David - - 2002
1. Skeletal muscle is a complex and heterogenous tissue capable of remarkable adaptation in response to exercise training. The role of gene transcription, as an initial target to control protein synthesis, is poorly understood. 2. Mature myofibres contain several hundred nuclei, all of which maintain transcriptional competency, although the localized ...
Hawley John A - - 2002
1. Endurance exercise induces a variety of metabolic and morphological responses/adaptations in skeletal muscle that function to minimize cellular disturbances during subsequent training sessions. 2. Chronic adaptations in skeletal muscle are likely to be the result of the cumulative effect of repeated bouts of exercise, with the initial signalling responses ...
Gavin Timothy P - - 2002
Moderate ethanol consumption demonstrates a protective effect against cardiovascular disease and improves insulin sensitivity, possibly through angiogenesis. We investigated whether 1) ethanol would increase skeletal muscle growth factor gene expression and 2) the effects of ethanol on skeletal muscle growth factor gene expression were independent of exercise-induced growth factor gene ...
Paroo Zain - - 2002
Exercise has been demonstrated as a physiological inducer of heat shock protein (HSP)70. Many of the proposed signals of this response exhibit sexual dimorphism. Thus the present objectives were to determine whether HSP70 induction after exercise exhibits gender specificity and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying such a phenomenon. Postexercise HSP70 ...
Russell A A Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2002
In healthy individuals performing constant-load exercise at intensities above the lactate threshold a secondary rise in pulmonary oxygen uptake ([V]O(2)) occurs. [V]O(2) reaches a maximum and exhaustion rapidly prevails for a range of work rates lower than the maximal work rate achieved during a conventional rapid-incremental test. This phenomenon is ...
Malm Christer - - 2002
When exploring the possible mechanisms by which adaptation to physical exercise can occur, the immune system appears to be a likely candidate of importance, because physical exercise will exert both systemic and local effects on the immune system. This review will focus on the immune system in the perspective of ...
Szabó A - - 2002
The present study was designed to investigate whether meat-type rabbits are able to perform treadmill running as a daily routine exercise, and if so, whether the exercise induces specific proportional changes in the fatty acid composition of their muscles. After a four-week training period 8-week-old rabbits were slaughtered and the ...
Agin D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of whey protein, resistance exercise, and combined protein and exercise treatment on body cell mass (BCM), muscle strength, and quality of life (QOL) in HIV-infected women with reduced BCM. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial at a university hospital in New York City. METHODS: ...
Jozsi A C - - 2001
Studies have been performed in humans to identify changes in gene expression that may account for the relatively weak and variable response of aged muscle to resistance exercise. The gene expression profile of skeletal muscle from elderly (62-75 years old) compared to younger (20-30 years old) men demonstrated elevated expression ...
Hardie D G - - 2001
The AMP-activated protein kinase cascade is a sensor of cellular energy charge, and its existence provides strong support for the energy charge hypothesis first proposed by Daniel Atkinson in the 1960s. The system is activated in an ultrasensitive manner by cellular stresses that deplete ATP (and consequently elevate AMP), either ...
Juel C - - 2001
Exercise-induced translocation of Na+-K+ pump subunits to the sarcolemmal membrane was studied using sarcolemmal giant vesicles as a membrane purification procedure. The subunit content was quantified by Western blotting or by ouabain labeling. Low-intensity treadmill running increased (P<0.01) the alpha1, alpha2, beta1, and beta2 subunit contents by 19-32% in membranes ...
Pedersen B K - - 2001
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced locally in working skeletal muscle and can account for the increase in plasma IL-6 during exercise. The production of IL-6 during exercise is related to the intensity and duration of the exercise, and low muscle glycogen content stimulates the production. Muscle-derived IL-6 is released into the ...
Walsh R C - - 2001
Recent evidence suggests that heat shock proteins (Hsps) may have an important systemic role as a signal to activate the immune system. Since acute exercise is known to induce Hsp72 (the inducible form of the 70-kDa family of Hsp) in a variety of tissues including contracting skeletal muscle, we hypothesized ...
Wibrand F - - 2001
Mitochondrial cytochrome b mutations have been reported to have a homogenous phenotype of pure exercise intolerance. We describe a novel mutation in the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (A15579G) associated with a selective decrease of muscle complex III activity in a patient who, besides severe exercise intolerance, also has ...
Trappe T A - - 2001
PGs have been shown to modulate skeletal muscle protein metabolism as well as inflammation and pain. In nonskeletal muscle tissues, the over the counter analgesic drugs ibuprofen and acetaminophen function through suppression of PG synthesis. We previously reported that ibuprofen and acetaminophen inhibit the normal increase in skeletal muscle protein ...
Vila L - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of exercise training and chronic ethanol consumption on metabolism, capillarity, and myofibrillar composition in rat limb muscles. Male Wistar rats were treated in separate groups as follows: non exercised-control; ethanol (15%) in animals' drinking water for 12 weeks; exercise ...
Parise G - - 2001
Creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation during resistance exercise training results in a greater increase in strength and fat-free mass than placebo. Whether this is solely due to an increase in intracellular water or whether there may be alterations in protein turnover is not clear at this point. We examined the effects ...
Olfert I M - - 2001
Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and to a lesser extent of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), has been found to increase in rat skeletal muscle after a single exercise bout. In addition, acute hypoxia augments the VEGF mRNA response to exercise, which ...
de Lange P - - 2001
Thyroid hormones increase energy expenditure, partly by reducing metabolic efficiency. The control of specific genes at the transcriptional level is thought to be the major molecular mechanism. However, both the number and the identity of the thyroid hormone-controlled genes remain unknown, as do their relative contributions. Uncoupling protein-3, a recently ...
Hrysomallis C - - 2001
Exercise has been promoted in an attempt to correct postural deviations, such as excessive lumbar lordosis, scoliosis, kyphosis, and abducted scapulae. One of the assumed causes of these conditions is a weak and lengthened agonist muscle group combined with a strong and tight antagonist muscle group. Strengthening and stretching exercises ...
Wagner P D - - 2001
Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) have impaired exercise capacity even after erythropoietin treatment. We recently showed that although this is explained in part by reduced convective O(2) delivery to muscles, there is also an impairment of O(2) transport from muscle capillaries to the mitochondria. Given the importance of the ...
Tipton K D - - 2001
The present study was designed to determine whether consumption of an oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement (EAC) before exercise results in a greater anabolic response than supplementation after resistance exercise. Six healthy human subjects participated in two trials in random order, PRE (EAC consumed immediately before exercise), and POST (EAC ...
Hollander J - - 2001
The goal of this experiment was to examine contraction-mediated activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene expression in rat superficial vastus lateralis (SVL, type IIb) and deep vastus lateralis (DVL, type IIa) muscles. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into exercise (E) and control (C) groups that were sacrificed at 0, ...
Pedersen B K - - 2001
Strenuous exercise induces increased levels in a number of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, natural occurring cytokine inhibitors, and chemokines. Thus, increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), TNF-receptors (TNF-R), IL-10, IL-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 are found after strenuous exercise. The concentration ...
Hunter G R - - 2001
It is not known what causes the well-established inverse relationship between whole-body exercise economy and exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to: (1) evaluate muscle exercise economy at 45%, 70%, and maximum isometric strength using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS); and (2) determine the relationship between percent type ...
Tiidus P M - - 2001
We hypothesized that estrogen administration would attenuate skeletal muscle neutrophil infiltration, indices of muscle membrane disruption, and muscle calpain activity shortly after the termination of exercise. Ovariectomized female rats were implanted with either an estogen pellet (25 mg beta-estradiol) or a placebo pellet. Two weeks postimplant, animals were killed either ...
Nader G A - - 2001
The aim of this study was to understand better the specific signaling events resulting from different modes of exercise. Three different exercise protocols were employed based on their well-characterized, long-term training effects on either muscle hypertrophy or endurance phenotypes. Rats were subjected to a single bout of either a high-frequency ...
Verrips A - - 2001
We investigated two brothers with Scheie syndrome whose only complaint was exercise intolerance. In the quadriceps muscle biopsy of both patients, between the normal muscle fibres an increased number of markedly swollen periodic acid-Schiff-positive fibroblasts were seen. Ultrastructurally, these cells showed an accumulation of enlarged lysosomes, partly filled with electro-dense ...
Gustafsson T - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the last decades several angiogenic factors have been characterized but so far it is unknown whether local muscle exercise training increases the expression of these factors in patients with moderate heart failure. Expression of the major putative angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at the ...
Gavin T P - - 2001
We investigated whether 1) 5 days of exercise training would reduce the acute exercise-induced increase in skeletal muscle growth factor gene expression; and 2) reductions in the increase in growth factor gene expression in response to short-term exercise training would be coincident with increases in skeletal muscle oxidative potential. Female ...
Diaz-Herrera P - - 2001
The effect of a 12-week high-intensity intermittent exercise program on fiber type composition and the oxidative capacity of rectus femoris skeletal muscle from 20 male Wistar rats (Trained, n = 10; Sedentary, n = 10) was histochemically determined. The training exercise program was developed in a motorized treadmill. It consisted ...
Gibala M J - - 2001
The contribution of amino acid oxidation to total energy expenditure is negligible during short-term intense exercise and accounts for 3-6% of the total adenosine triphosphate supplied during prolonged exercise in humans. While not quantitatively important in terms of energy supply, the intermediary metabolism of several amino acids-notably glutamate, alanine, and ...
Joumaa W H - - 2001
PURPOSE: We studied the effects of high doses of an anabolic-androgenic steroid, exercise training, and a combination of steroid and training on mammalian fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles at the cellular level. METHODS: Thirty-two male rats were divided into sedentary and treadmill-trained groups (increased speed and time: 18 m.min-1, 0.5 ...
Frandsenn U - - 2001
1. In the present study the highly potent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was intravenously infused and examined for its efficacy in inhibiting NOS activity and in altering blood flow and oxygen uptake in human skeletal muscle. 2. The plasma concentrations of L-NAME and its active ...
Balagopal P - - 2001
Experimental evidence indicates that a lower synthesis rate of muscle contractile protein myosin heavy chain (MHC) occurs in age-related muscle wasting and weakness. To determine the molecular mechanism of this lower synthesis of MHC, we measured transcript levels of isoforms of MHC (MHCI, MHCIIa, and MHCIIx) in muscle biopsy samples ...
Pedersen B K - - 2001
Exercise induces increased circulating levels of a number of cytokines. Thus, increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL-1) beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), TNF-receptors (TNF-R), IL-10, IL-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 are found after strenuous exercise. The concentration of IL-6 increases up to 100 fold after ...
Karamouzis M - - 2001
Arachidonic acid metabolites, especially prostacyclin I2, are regulators of vascular tone, and may be released from contracting muscle. In the present study, the influence of exercise on accumulation of prostaglandins and thromboxane in skeletal muscle was determined by the use of microdialysis technique using PGE2-3H as an internal reference. Interstitial ...
Mooren F C - - 2001
Intracellular signaling pathways transduce cellular activation, induced by ligand-receptor ligation, into a cellular response like secretion or proliferation. Signaling processes involve either the release/formation of diffusible second messengers or the transfer of phosphate groups. These signaling cascades involve many steps sensitive to exogenous modulation and have been shown to be ...
Evans W J - - 2001
Strength conditioning will result in an increase in muscle size and this increase in size is largely the result of increased contractile proteins. The mechanisms by which the mechanical events stimulate an increase in RNA synthesis and subsequent protein synthesis are not well understood. Lifting weight requires that a muscle ...
Widegren U - - 2000
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways have been highlighted as a possible link between exercise and adaptive changes in skeletal muscle. In this study, the effect of exercise intensity on the activation of the ERK/MAP kinase pathway was investigated in human skeletal muscle. One-leg exercise at low (40% maximal oxygen ...
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