Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1065
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Jensen Lotte - - 2004
The present study investigated the effect of an acute exercise bout on the mRNA response of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) splice variants in untrained and trained human skeletal muscle. Seven habitually active young men performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise training at an intensity corresponding to approximately 70% of the maximal ...
Stallknecht B - - 2004
AIM: It is not clear how lipolysis changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during exercise of different intensities. We aimed at estimating this by microdialysis and muscle biopsy techniques. METHODS: Nine healthy, young men were kicking with both legs at 25% of maximal power (Wmax) for 45 min and ...
Volek Jeff S - - 2004
A variety of dietary practices designed to enhance acute responses and chronic adaptations to resistance training have been examined with little consensus on the optimal nutritional approach for maximizing muscle and strength gains. From a scientific and practical perspective, the quantity, quality, and timing of nutrient ingestion around a workout ...
Karlsson Håkan K R - - 2004
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of resistance exercise alone or in combination with oral intake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on phosphorylation of the 70-kDa S6 protein kinase (p70(S6k)) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and p38 MAPK in skeletal muscle. Seven ...
Zhang Hai-xia - - 2004
AIM: To study the mechanism of resazurin as indicator of mitochondrial function and to develop a rapid and sensitive assay for measuring metabolic activity of isolated mitochondria from rat liver in vitro. METHODS: The screening was carried out on 96-well microtitre plates by monitoring fluorescence intensity of resazurin reduced by ...
Perreault Leigh - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gender differences exist in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in response to exercise and/or insulin. Exercise and insulin are known modulators of LPL activity in men, but this is less clear in women. LPL activity may predict propensity for obesity; therefore, understanding its modulators is of considerable ...
González Beatriz - - 2004
Liver cells synthesize HSP72, the cytosolic highly stress-inducible member of the 70 kDa family of heat-shock proteins (HSP70s), in response to acute exercise. This study was aimed at obtaining further insight into the physiological relevance of the hepatic stress response to exercise by investigating the induction and long-term maintenance of ...
Mitchell, Todd W
Biological membranes separate cells from the external milieu and compartmentalise organelles within a cell, providing a specialised environment for many specific biochemical processes. They exist as bilayers of amphipathic lipids arranged with their hydrophobic moieties internalised and their hydrophilic regions directed to the membrane surfaces. Numerous proteins are also associated ...
Fernström, Maria
Mitochondrial proteins such as uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) may mediate back-leakage of protons and serve as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. We hypothesized that UCP3 and ANT increase after prolonged exercise and/or endurance training, resulting in increased uncoupled respiration (UCR). Subjects were investigated with muscle biopsies ...
Markert, Chad D.
Objective: To determine whether non-thermal therapeutic ultrasound (US) and low-intensity exercise (Ex) influence skeletal muscle regeneration following a standardized contusion injury in an animal model. Hypothesis: Compared with the three other contusion injured treatment groups, which received exercise treatment alone (Ex+NoUS), ultrasound treatment alone (NoEx+US), and no treatment (NoEx+NoUS), the ...
Perrini Sebastio - - 2004
We determined whether protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are redistributed and phosphorylated in response to acute exercise in skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from six healthy subjects (four women, two men; age 25 +/- 1 years) before, during, and after 60 min of one-leg cycle ergometry at approximately 70% ...
Hardie D Grahame - - 2004
The finding that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was activated by exercise in skeletal muscle, reported by Winder and Hardie in 1996, provided the first hint that this signaling pathway might represent the elusive and long-sought system that was responsible for the metabolic changes associated with exercise. It triggered an increasing ...
Dodd Stephen L - - 2004
Bioenergetic pathways in muscle provide high-energy compounds that are required for cellular integrity and function. Increased cellular demand for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or limitations in the rephosphorylation rate of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) can decrease the total adenine nucleotide (TAN) pool, which may take several days to recover or may not ...
Aschenbach William G - - 2004
The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are ...
Hawley John A - - 2004
Exercise has diverse effects on metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways in human skeletal muscle, implying specificity of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of several parallel signaling cascades are discussed in an effort to assign a physiological role for these targets in the regulation of exercise-mediated responses on metabolism and gene ...
Helge Jørn Wulff - - 2004
In rat skeletal muscle prolonged exercise affects the content and composition of ceramides, but in human skeletal muscle no data are available on this compound. Our aim was to examine the content of ceramide- and sphingomyelin fatty acids and neutral, Mg(2+)-dependent sphingomyelinase activity in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained ...
Febbraio Mark A - - 2004
Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a cytosolic stress protein that is highly inducible by several factors including exercise. Hsp60 is primarily mitochondrial in cellular location, plays a key role in the intracellular protein translocation and cytoprotection, is increased in skeletal muscle by exercise, and is found in the peripheral ...
Pupim Lara B - - 2004
Decreased dietary protein intake and hemodialysis (HD)-associated protein catabolism are among several factors that predispose chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients to uremic malnutrition and associated muscle wasting. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) acutely reverses the net negative whole body and forearm muscle protein balances observed during the HD procedure. Exercise has been ...
Kraus Raymond M - - 2004
The skeletal muscle capillary supply is an important determinant of maximum exercise capacity, and it is well known that endurance exercise training increases the muscle capillary supply. The muscle capillary supply and exercise-induced angiogenesis are regulated in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is produced by skeletal muscle ...
Flakoll Paul J - - 2004
Elevated postexercise amino acid availability has been demonstrated to enhance muscle protein synthesis acutely, but the long-term impact of postexercise protein supplementation on variables such as health, muscle soreness, and function are unclear. Healthy male US Marine recruits from six platoons (US Marine Corps Base, Parris Island, SC; n = ...
Lacombe Véronique A - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To characterize insulin-sensitive glucose-transporter (GLUT-4) protein in equine tissues and determine effects of exercise and glucose administration on content of GLUT-4 protein in equine skeletal muscle. SAMPLE POPULATION: Tissue samples from 9 horses. PROCEDURES: Western blot analyses were performed on crude membrane preparations of equine tissues to characterize GLUT-4. ...
Moraes A C - - 2003
Among persons who do regular exercises, many include abdominal exercises in their customary routine. For this, there are a growing variety of movements being created for strengthening the abdominal muscles. This work aims to know, through electromyography analysis, the action potencies of the supra and infra umbilical of the Rectus ...
Maughan R J - - 2003
Diet can significantly influence exercise performance. Diet alone will not ensure successful performance in sport, but it plays a permissive role in allowing sustained intensive training with limited risk of illness and injury. Diet may also promote adaptations to training by stimulating synthesis and breakdown of the specific proteins that ...
Peters S J - - 2003
During exercise in human skeletal muscle, the proportion of carbohydrate derived acetyl-CoA is determined at least in part by the activity of the PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) complex. Inhibition of the complex is achieved through reversible phosphorylation of the E1 subunit by a family of PDH kinase isoforms (PDK1-4) while dephosphorylation ...
Fernström Maria - - 2004
Mitochondrial proteins such as uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) may mediate back-leakage of protons and serve as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. We hypothesized that UCP3 and ANT increase after prolonged exercise and/or endurance training, resulting in increased uncoupled respiration (UCR). Subjects were investigated with muscle biopsies ...
Frøsig Christian - - 2004
The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is proposed to be involved in signaling pathways leading to adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to both a single exercise bout and exercise training. This study investigated the effect of endurance training on protein content of catalytic (alpha1, alpha2) and regulatory (beta1, beta2 and ...
Nout Yvette S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a single bout of exercise and increased substrate availability after exercise on gene expression and content of the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) protein in equine skeletal muscle. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES: The study was designed in a balanced, randomized, 3-way crossover fashion. During ...
Hawkins Steven A - - 2003
Exercise as a therapeutic or prophylactic measure is a topic of particular interest in sarcopenia research. Clearly, exercise can be effectively utilized in the treatment of sarcopenia to recover muscle mass and muscle function in older adults. However, perhaps a more important question is the role of exercise in the ...
Terada Shin - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying low-intensity exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein expression in rat skeletal muscles. Rats (5-6 wk old) swam without a load and ran on the treadmill at a speed of 13 m/min, respectively, in two 3-h sessions separated by ...
Rose Adam J - - 2003
There is evidence in rodents that Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity is higher in contracting skeletal muscle, and this kinase may regulate skeletal muscle function and metabolism during exercise. To investigate the effect of exercise on CaMKII in human skeletal muscle, healthy men (n = 8) performed cycle ergometer ...
Luquet Serge - - 2003
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors exerting several functions in development and metabolism. The physiological functions of PPARdelta remain elusive. By using a CRE-Lox recombination approach, we generated an animal model for muscle-specific PPARdelta overexpression to investigate the role of PPARdelta in this tissue. Muscle-specific PPARdelta overexpression results in ...
Bruno Claudio - - 2003
We report a novel nonsense mitochondrial cytochrome b mutation (G15170A) in a 40-year-old woman with progressive exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis. Muscle biopsy showed several cytochrome c oxidase-positive ragged-red fibers, and reduced activities of respiratory chain complexes I and III. This mutation, resulting in the loss of 228 amino acids ...
Suwannachot P - - 2003
We studied the effects of exercise without or with a subsequent period on pasture on Ca2+ ATPase concentration in foal skeletal muscle, and compared the results with those previously reported on Na+, K+ ATPase. Ca2+ ATPase was measured in homogenates as Ca2+-dependent steady-state phosphorylation from [gamma-32P]ATP. From day 7 after ...
Norrbom Jessica - - 2004
Endurance training leads to many adaptational changes in several tissues. In skeletal muscle, fatty acid usage is enhanced and mitochondrial content is increased. The exact molecular mechanisms regulating these functional and structural changes remain to be elucidated. Contractile activity-induced metabolic perturbation has repeatedly been shown to be important for the ...
Penkowa Milena M Department of Infectious Diseases 7641, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, - - 2003
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by many different cell types. Human skeletal muscles produce and release high amounts of IL-6 during exercise; however, the cell source of origin in the muscle is not known. Therefore, we studied the protein expression of IL-6 by immunohistochemistry in human muscle tissue from biopsies obtained ...
Chen Zhi-Ping - - 2003
The effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and substrate metabolism was examined in eight men cycling for 20 min at each of three sequential intensities: low (40 +/- 2% VO(2) peak), medium (59 +/- 1% VO(2) peak), and high (79 +/- 1% VO(2) peak). ...
Niebroj-Dobosz I - - 2003
Emerin and lamins are nuclear proteins, which are missing or defective in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). The aim of this study was to test the expression of these proteins in skeletal muscles in the X-linked (X-EDMD) and autosomal dominant (AD-EDMD) form. The study group consisted of 11 patients with X-EDMD, ...
Gavin Timothy P - - 2004
We investigated whether acute systemic exercise increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (KDR and Flt-1) mRNA, and VEGF protein in sedentary humans. Twelve sedentary subjects were recruited and performed 1 h of acute, cycle ergometer exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the ...
Korzeniewski Bernard - - 2003
Muscle training/conditioning improves the adaptation of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscles to physical exercise. However, the mechanisms underlying this adaptation are still not understood fully. By quantitative analysis of the existing experimental results, we show that training-induced acceleration of oxygen-uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise and improvement of ATP/ADP ...
Hildebrandt Audrey L - - 2003
Cellular adaptations to endurance training are influenced by the intensity and duration of exercise. To examine the impact of exercise intensity and duration on the acute transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in red (RG) and white (WG) gastrocnemius muscle, rats completed either low-intensity [ approximately 50% maximal O2 uptake (VO2 ...
Short Kevin R - - 2003
Insulin resistance increases and muscle oxidative capacity decreases during aging, but lifestyle changes-especially physical activity-may reverse these trends. Here we report the effect of a 16-week aerobic exercise program (n = 65) or control activity (n = 37) performed by men and women aged 21-87 years on insulin sensitivity and ...
Kiens B - - 2003
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are important sources of energy in contracting skeletal muscle: during the course of endurance exercise the contribution of LCFA in energy metabolism increases whereas when the intensity of exercise increases, the energy need is covered more and more by carbohydrates. Although this has been known for ...
Birot Olivier J G - - 2003
In this study, we quantified the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene in individual muscle fibres at the end of a single 90 min run of 20-25 m min-1, at 10 % incline. In addition, we evaluated the co-ordinated expression of several hypoxia-sensitive genes, including the ORP-150 ...
Zoll Joffrey - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether intrinsic mitochondrial function and regulation were altered in heart transplant recipients (HTRs) and to investigate the response of mitochondrial function to six-week endurance training in these patients. BACKGROUND: Despite the normalization of central oxygen transport during exercise, HTRs are still characterized by limited exercise ...
Langfort J J Copenhagen Muscle Research Center, Department of Medical Physiology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, - - 2003
Endurance training elicits profound adaptations of skeletal muscle, including increased expression of several proteins. The 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) may be one of these, considering the fact that acute exercise increases AMPK activity. Eight young (26 +/- 1 year) lean, healthy males endurance trained one leg (while the other ...
Hiscock N - - 2003
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing ones, occurs in the skeletal muscle as an adaptive response to exercise that satisfies the increased requirement of this tissue for oxygen delivery and metabolic processes. Of the factors that have been identified to regulate this process, the endothelial cell mitogen ...
Coven David L DL Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, - - 2003
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is emerging as a key signaling pathway that modulates cellular metabolic processes. In skeletal muscle, AMPK is activated during exercise. Increased myocardial substrate metabolism during exercise could be explained by AMPK activation. Although AMPK is known to be activated during myocardial ischemia, it remains uncertain whether ...
Höffner Lotte - - 2003
In the present study we examined whether exercise and prostanoids have an effect on the muscle interstitial concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and on the proliferative effect of muscle interstitial fluid. Dialysate from resting and exercising human skeletal muscle, obtained either during control conditions or during cyclooxygenase inhibition, ...
Suzuki Masashige - - 2003
This review shows the importance of high-glycemic carbohydrates consumed together with protein in enhancing the exercise-induced muscle formation relative to timing of intake. Insulin, which increases in blood after glycemic carbohydrate ingestion, seems to effectively stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit protein degradation right after exercise rather than later. This presents ...
Matsunaga Satoshi - - 2003
Ca(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-pumping activities by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the amounts of sulphydryl and carbonyl groups contained in the SR protein were examined in the superficial portion of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles of the rat after high-intensity treadmill runs to exhaustion (average time to exhaustion: 363 s). ...
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