Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1065
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Riechman Steven E - - 2004
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an anabolic cytokine that is produced in skeletal muscle and directly affects muscle anabolism in animal and in vitro models. The contribution of IL-15 variability in muscle responses to 10 wk of resistance exercise training in young men and women was examined by measuring acute and chronic ...
Hamada Koichiro - - 2005
The impact of aging on the cytokine response of human skeletal muscle to exercise-induced injury remains poorly understood. We enrolled physically active, young (23-35 years old, n=15) and old (66-78 years old, n=15) men to perform 45 min of downhill running (16% descent) at 75% VO2max. Biopsies of vastus lateralis ...
Raney Marcella A - - 2005
To determine the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on the regulation of fatty acid (FA) uptake and oxidation, we perfused rat hindquarters with 6 mM glucose, 10 microU/ml insulin, 550 microM palmitate, and [14C]palmitate during rest (R) or electrical stimulation (ES), inducing low-intensity (0.1 Hz) muscle contraction either ...
Fournier Emmanuel - - 2004
Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutations in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage-gated ion channels. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve the symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be ...
Vissing Kristian - - 2005
Numerous human in vivo studies on skeletal muscle gene expression have investigated the effects of given interventions. These have been founded on the assumption that presampling can be regarded as a representative control for postintervention sampling. However, many genes are responsive to the metabolic status, which varies during the day, ...
Ogasawara Junetsu - - 2004
The effects of acute exercise on the protein expressions of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits were examined in rat adipocytes. Galphai2 protein expression was significantly reduced 0 and 3h after exercise but increased 24h after exercise, without alterations in Galphai2 mRNA expressions. The protein expressions of other alpha subunits, Galphas, ...
Lloyd Pamela G - - 2005
Both collateral vessel enlargement (arteriogenesis) and capillary growth (angiogenesis) in skeletal muscle occur in response to exercise training. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in both processes. Thus we examined the effect of a VEGF receptor (VEGF-R) inhibitor (ZD4190, AstraZeneca) on collateral-dependent blood flow in vivo and collateral artery ...
Rose Adam J - - 2004
To investigate the effect of exercise on protein kinase C (PKC) activity and localization in human skeletal muscle, eight healthy men performed cycle ergometer exercise for 40 min at 76 +/- 1% the peak pulmonary O(2) uptake , with muscle samples obtained at rest and after 5 and 40 min ...
Paddon-Jones Douglas - - 2004
The rationale for the use of nutritional supplements to enhance exercise capacity is based on the assumption that they will confer an ergogenic effect above and beyond that afforded by regular food ingestion alone. The proposed or advertised ergogenic effect of many supplements is based on a presumptive metabolic pathway ...
Lajoie Claude - - 2004
Exercise training could potentially exert beneficial effects on the signaling events associated with cardiac cell apoptosis. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were trained 5 days/week on a treadmill (18 m/min for 120 min/day) between the ages of 4 weeks and 1 week, corresponding to the hypertensive accelerating phase. The effect of ...
Trappe T A - - 2004
AIM: It is generally believed the calf muscles in humans are relatively unresponsive to resistance training when compared with other muscles of the body. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the muscle protein synthesis response of the soleus muscle following a standard high intensity bout of resistance exercise. ...
Korte F Steven - - 2005
Chronic diabetes is often associated with cardiomyopathy, which may result, in part, from defects in cardiac muscle proteins. We investigated whether a 20-wk porcine model of diabetic dyslipidemia (DD) would impair in vivo myocardial function and yield alterations in cardiac myofibrillar proteins and whether endurance exercise training would improve these ...
Rosendal Lars - - 2005
Interleukin (IL)-6, which is released from muscle tissue during intense exercise, possesses important metabolic and probably anti-inflammatory properties. To evaluate the IL-6 response to low-intensity exercise, we conducted two studies: 1) a control study with insertion of microdialysis catheters in muscle and determination of interstitial muscle IL-6 response over 2 ...
Coles Lisa - - 2004
We examined the effect of a single exercise session on the protein and mRNA expression of the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 in rat soleus (SOL), and red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles. Muscle samples were obtained at rest before 2 h of treadmill exercise (21 m min(-1), 15% ...
Kim Jeong-su - - 2005
Exercise training improves functional capacity in aged individuals. Whether such training reduces the severity of exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 10 wk of treadmill exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and exercise-induced ultrastructural damage in six aged ...
Hittel Dustin S - - 2005
Aerobic conditioned muscle shows increased oxidative metabolism or glucose relative to untrained muscle at a given absolute exercise intensity. The studies of a targeted risk reduction intervention through defined exercise (STRRIDE) study is an aerobic exercise intervention in men and women with features of metabolic syndrome (Kraus WE, Torgan CE, ...
Willoughby Darryn S - - 2004
PURPOSE: Increased serum testosterone (TST) occurs in response to resistance exercise and is associated with increased muscle mass. However, the effects of elevated TST and sequential resistance exercise bouts on androgen receptor (AR) expression in humans are not well known. This study examined three sequential bouts of heavy-resistance exercise on ...
Dennis Richard A - - 2004
Inflammation appears to play an important role in the repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle after damage. We tested the hypothesis that the severity of the inflammatory response in muscle after an acute bout of resistance exercise is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously shown to alter interleukin-1 (IL-1) ...
Roepstorff Carsten - - 2004
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyses the hydrolysis of myocellular triacylglycerol (MCTG), which is a potential energy source during exercise. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the regulation of HSL activity in human skeletal muscle during exercise. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of 5'AMP-activated protein ...
Fischer Christian P - - 2004
Contracting skeletal muscle expresses large amounts of IL-6. Because 1) IL-6 mRNA expression in contracting skeletal muscle is enhanced by low muscle glycogen content, and 2) IL-6 increases lipolysis and oxidation of fatty acids, we hypothesized that regular exercise training, associated with increased levels of resting muscle glycogen and enhanced ...
Fluckey James D - - 2004
Hindlimb suspension (HS) results in rapid losses of muscle mass, which may in part be explained by attenuated rates of protein synthesis. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates protein synthesis and has been implicated as a potential mediator of the muscle mass decrement with HS. This study examined the effect ...
Richter Erik A - - 2004
Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are emerging as important signalling molecules in the regulation of metabolism and gene expression in skeletal muscle. Exercise is known to increase activity of aPKC and ERK in skeletal muscle but the effect of exercise intensity hereon has not been ...
Bryner R W - - 2004
Eccentric biased exercise has been reported to elicit more muscle injury than concentric or isometric exercise and potentially generate increased oxidative stress one to two days post exercise. Increased oxidative stress has been shown to up-regulate the expression of UCP3 mRNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Neary J Patrick - - 2004
Over the past 15 years the use of near infrared spectroscopy in exercise and sports science has increased exponentially. The majority of these studies have used this noninvasive technique to provide information related to tissue metabolism during acute exercise. This has been undertaken to determine its utility as a suitable ...
Tschakovsky Michael E - - 2004
A striking characteristic of the blood flow adaptation at exercise onset is the immediate and substantial increase in the first few (0-5 s) seconds of exercise. The purpose of this mini-review is to put into context the present evidence regarding mechanisms responsible for this phase of exercise hyperemia. One potential ...
Mahoney Douglas J - - 2004
Studies examining gene expression with RT-PCR typically normalize their mRNA data to a constitutively expressed housekeeping gene. The validity of a particular housekeeping gene must be determined for each experimental intervention. We examined the expression of various housekeeping genes following an acute bout of endurance (END) or resistance (RES) exercise. ...
Tarnopolsky Mark - - 2004
Acute endurance exercise results in the oxidation of several amino acids. The total amount of amino acid oxidation during endurance exercise amounts to only 1-6% of the total energy cost of exercise. The branched chain amino acid, leucine, has been most often studied in relation to endurance exercise. Leucine is ...
Holmes Burton - - 2004
Glucose transport into muscle is important for the maintenance of normoglycemia. Thus, understanding mechanisms that regulate expression of GLUT4, the main glucose transporter in skeletal muscle, is important to identify targets for the treatment of diabetes. Exercise increases the expression of GLUT4 mRNA and protein, and we have been investigating ...
Venojärvi M. - - 2004
Four weeks of immobilisation with two types of re-mobilisation programmes (intensive concentric treadmill exercising during 6 days, and free exercising, and immobilisation without any re-mobilisation period were studied to clarify possible exercise-induced calf muscle damage especially in fast-twitch fibres used in running compared to non-immobilised rats housing freely in their ...
Korzeniewski Bernard - - 2004
It is shown, using the computer model of glycolysis in skeletal muscle developed recently by Lambeth and Kushmerick (Ann. Biomed. Bioenerg, 30 (2001) 19-34) incorporated into the computer model of oxidative phosphorylation developed by Korzeniewski et al. (Biophys. Chem. 83 (2001) 19-34) that the regulation of glycolysis by ADP, AMP ...
Lehman Gregory J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exercise beliefs abound regarding variations in strength training techniques on muscle activation levels yet little research has validated these ideas. The purpose of the study is to determine muscle activation level, expressed as a percent of a normalization contraction, of the latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii and middle trapezius/rhomboids muscle ...
Sakamoto Kei - - 2004
Activation of Akt and deactivation of GSK3 are critical signals regulating a number of cellular processes in multiple systems. Whether physical exercise alters Akt and GSK3 activity in human skeletal muscle is controversial. beta-Catenin, a GSK3 substrate and important Wnt signaling protein that alters gene transcription, has not been investigated ...
Kinnunen Susanna - - 2005
Acute exercise induces oxidative stress and heat shock protein (HSP) expression. Information on the protection of stress proteins against oxidant insult and muscle damage during moderate exercise is scanty. We aimed to show how a single bout of moderate exercise affects the markers of oxidative stress and heat shock factor-1 ...
Kraniou Giorgos N - - 2004
Six untrained, male subjects (23 +/- 1 years old, 84 +/- 5 kg, (O(2)peak)= 3.7 +/- 0.8 l min(-1)) exercised for 60 min at 75 +/- 1%(O(2)peak) on 7 consecutive days. Muscle samples were obtained before the start of cycle exercise training and 24 h after the first and seventh ...
Rudnick Jana - - 2004
Adaptive changes of major body systems in astronauts during spaceflight can be simulated by strict anti-orthostatic head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR), a ground-based microgravity (microG) model that provides a meaningful opportunity to study atrophy mechanisms and possible countermeasures under controlled experimental conditions. As nitric oxide (NO) signaling is linked ...
Shimomura Yoshiharu - - 2004
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that can be oxidized in skeletal muscle. It is known that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is attributed to activation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which catalyzes the second-step reaction of the ...
Suzuki J - - 2004
AIM: Cobalt administration was reported to mimic hypoxia. This study was designed to examine the time-course changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and capillary geometry in skeletal muscles during endurance training with CoCl(2) administration in female Wistar rats. METHODS: Exercise training by running lasted for up to 10 ...
Fischer Christian P - - 2004
Contracting human skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the exercise-induced increase of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although antioxidants have been shown to attenuate the exercise-induced increase of plasma IL-6, it is unknown whether antioxidants inhibit transcription, translation or translocation of IL-6 within contracting human skeletal muscle. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2004
Prolonged moderate-intensity exercise is characterized by a progressive reduction in carbohydrate oxidation and concomitant increase in fat oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) controls the entry of pyruvate into oxidative pathways and is a rate-limiting enzyme for carbohydrate metabolism. PDH is controlled by the activities of a kinase (PDK, inhibitory) and phosphatase ...
Holmes Burton F - - 2004
An acute bout of exercise increases muscle GLUT4 mRNA in mice, and denervation decreases GLUT4 mRNA. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in skeletal muscle is also increased by exercise, and GLUT4 mRNA is increased in mouse skeletal muscle after treatment with AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside(AICAR). These findings suggest that AMPK activation ...
Sheffield-Moore M M Department of Surgery, General Clinical Research Center, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston 77550, USA. - - 2004
Regular aerobic exercise strongly influences muscle metabolism in elderly and young; however, the acute effects of aerobic exercise on protein metabolism are not fully understood. We investigated the effect of a single bout of moderate walking (45 min at approximately 40% of peak O2 consumption) on postexercise (POST-EX) muscle metabolism ...
Siu Parco M PM Laboratory of Muscle Biology and Sarcopenia, Division of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9227, USA - - 2004
The effect of exercise on apoptosis in postmitotic tissues is not known. In this study, we investigated the effect of regular moderate physical activity (i.e., exercise training) on the extent of apoptosis in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were trained (TR) 5 days weekly for 8 ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2004
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is believed to play a regulatory role in initiating the degradation of intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) in skeletal muscle. A series of studies designed to characterise the response of HSL to three stimuli: exercise of varying intensities and durations; adrenaline infusions; altered fuel supply have recently been conducted ...
Baar Keith - - 2004
Endurance exercise training induces an increase in the respiratory capacity of muscle, resulting in an increased capacity to generate ATP as well as improved efficiency of muscle contraction. Such adaptations are largely the result of a coordinated genetic response that increases mitochondrial proteins, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and the exercise- ...
Pedersen B K - - 2004
For most of the last century, researchers have searched for a muscle contraction-induced factor that mediates some of the exercise effects in other tissues such as the liver and the adipose tissue. It has been called the 'work stimulus', the 'work factor' or the 'exercise factor'. In the search for ...
Kulig Kornelia - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine which exercise most selectively and effectively activates tibialis posterior. METHODS: Five healthy adults (two men, three women; mean age 31 yr) with an Arch Index (AI) within 1 SD from norm performed three exercises, separated by 1-wk intervals. The exercises were: 1) closed chain resisted foot adduction ...
Pilegaard Henriette - - 2004
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) has a key position in skeletal muscle metabolism as it represents the entry of carbohydrate-derived fuel into the mitochondria for oxidation. PDC is regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the complex. PDK exists in four isoforms, ...
Fujii Nobuharu - - 2004
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated during exercise and muscle contraction as a result of acute decreases in ATP:AMP and phosphocreatine:creatine. Physical exercise increases muscle glucose uptake, enhances insulin sensitivity and leads to fatty acid oxidation in muscle. An important issue in muscle biology ...
Mercer T H - - 2004
A significant percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease are malnourished and/or muscle wasted. Uremia is associated with decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Fortunately, nutritional status has been shown to be a modifiable risk factor in the dialysis population. It has long been proposed that exercise could positively ...
Crameri Regina M - - 2004
No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant increase in mononuclear ...
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