Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1063
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Wilson Chris - - 2006
The subcellular localization of insulin signaling proteins is altered by various stimuli such as insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and oxidative stress and is thought to be an important mechanism that can influence intracellular signal transduction and cellular function. This study examined the possibility that exercise may also alter the ...
Martin C I - - 2005
Growth was investigated over 16 d in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) held in either static water (tank rested, TR16) or exercised in a flume at 2.5-3.2 body lengths s-1 for 18 h a day (exercised, E16). Relative to the start of the experiment (TR0), the TR16 group showed ...
LeMaitre John P - - 2006
Skeletal muscle mass and peak oxygen uptake are important predictors of functional status and outcome in patients with stable chronic heart failure. To assess changes in skeletal muscle mass and peak oxygen uptake following an exercise training program. Thirty-six patients with moderate stable chronic heart failure were randomly allocated to ...
Holm Lars - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON). METHODS: Fasted participants received a primed-constant infusion of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine. ...
Pedersen Bente Klarlund - - 2005
Accumulating evidence exists that regular exercise offers protection against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and depression. Although acute and chronic exercise has numerous consequences, it is still discussed how contracting skeletal muscles mediate metabolic and physiological effects of benefits on health. For years the search ...
Miller Benjamin F - - 2006
We tested the hypothesis that acute exercise would stimulate synthesis of myofibrillar protein and intramuscular collagen in women and that the phase of the menstrual cycle at which the exercise took place would influence the extent of the change. Fifteen young, healthy female subjects were studied in the follicular (FP, ...
Keller Charlotte - - 2005
The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) exerts it actions via the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in conjunction with the ubiquitously expressed gp130 receptor. IL-6 is tightly regulated in response to exercise, being affected by factors such as exercise intensity and duration, as well as energy availability. Although the IL-6 response to exercise has ...
Koves Timothy R - - 2005
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC1alpha) is a promiscuous co-activator that plays a key role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and fuel homeostasis. Emergent evidence links decreased skeletal muscle PGC1alpha activity and coincident impairments in mitochondrial performance to the development of insulin resistance in humans. Here we used rodent models to ...
Starnes Joseph W - - 2005
Synthesis of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is impaired in aged animals following acute stresses including exercise. In this study we determined whether aging affects expression of this cytoprotective protein following chronic exercise participation. Male Fischer 344 rats, final ages 6 and 24 months, exercised identically for 10 weeks ...
Lehman Gregory J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging ...
Kim Paul L - - 2005
The purpose of the present investigation was to determine how fasted-state protein synthesis was affected, acutely, by resistance training. Eight men (24.8+/-1.7 years, body mass index=23.2+/-1.0 kg m-2; means+/-s.e.m.) undertook an 8 week programme of unilateral resistance exercise training (3 sessions week-1, progression from two to four sets; intensity was ...
Roepstorff C - - 2005
AIM: To investigate gender-related differences in the responses of oxidative enzymes and eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) to exercise. METHODS: The influence of exercise (90 min, 60%VO(2peak)) on citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity and mRNA content, together with eEF2 expression and phosphorylation at rest, were assessed in skeletal ...
Mahoney D J - - 2005
To search for novel transcriptional pathways that are activated in skeletal muscle after endurance exercise, we used cDNA microarrays to measure global mRNA expression after an exhaustive bout of high-intensity cycling (approximately 75 min). Healthy, young, sedentary males performed the cycling bout, and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the ...
Cartoni Romain - - 2005
Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Mitofusin (Mfn) proteins regulate the biogenesis and maintenance of the mitochondrial network, and when inactivated, cause a failure in the mitochondrial architecture and decreases in oxidative capacity and glucose oxidation. Exercise increases muscle mitochondrial content, size, oxidative capacity ...
Reis Justin - - 2005
Phospholemman (PLM) is a recently identified accessory protein of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA), with a high level of expression in skeletal muscle. The objectives of this study are to characterize the PLM in skeletal muscle and to test the hypothesis that, as an accessory protein of NKA, expression of PLM and ...
Cluberton Laura J - - 2005
Skeletal muscle possesses a high degree of plasticity and can adapt to both the physical and metabolic challenges that it faces. An acute bout of exercise is sufficient to induce the expression of a variety of metabolic genes, such as GLUT4, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK-4), uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), and ...
Martin C I - - 2005
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum were exercised at 0.8 and 1.6 body lengths s(-1) for 18 h a day over a 30 day period. Exercise resulted in a 24-30% increase in the average cross-sectional area of fast muscle fibres relative to tank-rested controls. The concentrations of growth factors and transcription ...
Reid Michael B - - 2005
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to persistent decreases or increases in muscle activity. This article outlines the basics of pathway function and reviews what we know about pathway responses to altered muscle use. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates proteolysis in mammalian cells by ...
Gleeson Michael - - 2005
Some athletes can have quite high intakes of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) because of their high energy and protein intakes and also because they consume protein supplements, solutions of protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids. The requirement for protein may actually be higher in endurance athletes than in sedentary individuals ...
Jørgensen Sebastian B - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body alpha2- and alpha1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmill running (90 min), and in recovery. Running ...
Terada S - - 2005
AIM: The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate the effects of exercise intensity on exercise-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein in rat skeletal muscle. METHODS: We measured PGC-1alpha content in the skeletal muscles of male Sprague-Dawley rats (age: 5-6 weeks old; body weight: 150-170 ...
Cheng I-Shiung - - 2005
We previously found that the exercise-induced elevation in GLUT4 mRNA of rat muscle can be rapidly down-regulated when glucose is given immediately following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of postexercise carbohydrate diet on GLUT4 and hexokinase (HK) II mRNA levels in the human skeletal ...
Keller Pernille P Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2005
Contracting muscle fibers produce and release IL-6, and plasma levels of this cytokine are markedly elevated in response to physical exercise. We recently showed autocrine regulation of IL-6 in human skeletal muscle in vivo and hypothesized that this may involve up-regulation of the IL-6 receptor. Therefore, we investigated IL-6 receptor ...
Carmeli Eli - - 2005
Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that function in the extracellular matrix to degrade connective tissues. While it is clear that exercise-induced injury in skeletal muscle promotes increased expression of MMPs, the relationship between exercise intensity and expression of MMPs in muscles is unknown. These experiments tested the hypothesis that exercise-induced ...
Bird, Randy Lee
Purpose: To determine the effect of four postexercise beverages, differing in macronutrient content, on metabolic response to an acute resistance exercise bout. Methods: Forty male subjects performed five sets of eight repetitions at 80% 1RM for leg press and leg extension, and then consumed one of four postexercise beverages (Placebo, ...
Parise Gianni - - 2005
Cellular antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress are postulated to be critical factors in the aging process. The effects of resistance exercise training on the level of skeletal muscle oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity have not previously been examined in older adults. Muscle biopsies from both legs were obtained from the ...
Russell Aaron P - - 2005
Endurance exercise improves insulin sensitivity and increases fat oxidation, which are partly facilitated by the induction of metabolic transcription factors. Next to exercise, increased levels of FFA's also increase the gene expression of transcription factors, hence making it difficult to discern the effects from contractile signals produced during exercise, from ...
Ameln Helene - - 2005
The human hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) system is activated under various pathological conditions, yet less is known about its physiological regulation in healthy human tissue. We have studied the effect of exercise on the activation of HIF-1 in human skeletal muscle. Employing a model where oxygen consumption increases and ...
Kinugasa Ryuta - - 2005
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to clarify the neuromuscular activation patterns among individual triceps surae (TS) muscles during a repetitive plantarflexion using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (mfMRI) and electromyography (EMG). METHODS: Six healthy men participated in this study, performing 5 sets of 10 repetitions of ...
Bernard J R - - 2005
The aim of this study was to provide a more extensive evaluation of the effects of chronic aerobic exercise on various components of the insulin signalling cascade in normal rodent skeletal muscle because of the limited body of literature that exists in this area of investigation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were ...
Neutzner Albert - - 2005
Mitochondria form a highly dynamic network that is shaped by continuous fission and fusion of these organelles. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae two machineries are involved in this process, one of which includes the mitochondrial fusion promoting GTPase Fzo1. Although a role for the F-box protein Mdm30 in regulating the ...
Myers Joseph B - - 2005
Context: Athletes who throw commonly use rubber-tubing resistance exercises in the field setting to assist with warm-up before throwing. Yet no researchers have described which muscles are being activated or which exercises are most effective during rubber-tubing exercises used by throwers for warm-up.Objective: To describe the effectiveness of 12 rubber-tubing ...
Tegtbur Uwe - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Exercise rehabilitation improves physical capacity in heart transplant recipients. The time course of physical reconditioning and skeletal muscle adaptation late after transplantation are unknown. METHODS: Twenty-one heart transplant recipients, at 5.2 +/- 2.1 years after transplantation, completed 1 year of an individually tailored home ergometer-training program (2.1 +/- 0.7 ...
Kime Ryotaro - - 2005
PURPOSE: This study evaluated heterogeneity of muscle O2 dynamics in a single muscle during bicycle exercise using an eight-channel near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws) mapping system. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects performed bicycle exercise at fixed workloads of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% maximal workload for 5 min at each ...
Garcia-Roves Pablo M - - 2005
Exercise induces a rapid increase in expression of the GLUT4 isoform of the glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. One of the signals responsible for this adaptation appears to be an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+). Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) is a transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of ...
Konhilas John P - - 2005
Voluntary cage wheel exercise has been used extensively to determine the physiological adaptation of cardiac and skeletal muscle in mice. In this study, we tested the effect of different loading conditions on voluntary cage wheel performance and muscle adaptation. Male C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a cage wheel with no-resistance ...
Deldicque L - - 2005
Resistance exercise disturbs skeletal muscle homeostasis leading to activation of catabolic and anabolic processes within the muscle cell. A current challenge of exercise biology is to describe the molecular mechanisms of regulation by which contractile activity stimulates net protein breakdown during exercise and net protein synthesis during recovery. Muscle growth ...
Gustafsson T - - 2005
VEGF-A contributes to muscle tissue angiogenesis following aerobic exercise training. The temporal response of the VEGF-A isoforms and their target receptors has not been comprehensively profiled in human skeletal muscle. We combined submaximal exercise with and without reduced leg blood flow to establish whether ischemia-induced metabolic stress was an important ...
Sheffield-Moore M M Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555-1060, USA. - - 2005
We sought to determine whether exercise-induced muscle protein turnover alters the subsequent production of hepatically derived acute-phase plasma proteins, and whether age affects how these proteins are regulated. We measured arteriovenous (a-v) balance and the synthesis of mixed muscle protein, albumin (A) and fibrinogen (F) before exercise (REST) and from ...
Penkowa Milena - - 2005
Exercise induces free oxygen radicals that cause oxidative stress, and metallothioneins (MTs) are increased in states of oxidative stress and possess anti-apoptotic effects. We therefore studied expression of the antioxidant factors metallothionein I and II (MT-I + II) in muscle biopsies obtained in response to 3 h of bicycle exercise ...
Ørngreen Mette C - - 2005
Patients with the myopathic form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency typically experience muscle pain, cramps, and myoglobinuria during prolonged exercise. It has been suggested that carriers of CPT2 gene mutations also may have milder clinical symptoms, but fatty acid oxidation (FAO) has never been investigated in vivo in ...
Rennie Michael J - - 2005
Although the overall size of the musculoskeletal mass is constrained by genetic limitations, both the day to day maintenance and muscle wasting and rehabilitation are regulated by protein synthesis (particularly the initiation and elongation stages of translation) and by protein breakdown. These are directly influenced by the nutritional state (size ...
Kopple Joel D - - 2005
Patients with advanced chronic renal failure, including those undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), commonly suffer from sarcopenia and reduced physical exercise capacity. The causes of these disorders include anemia, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, other comorbid conditions, altered skeletal muscle metabolism, myopathic changes that are associated with chronic renal failure per se, ...
Timmons James A - - 2005
Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease partly through improved aerobic fitness. The determinants of exercise-induced gains in aerobic fitness in humans are not known. We have demonstrated that over 500 genes are activated in response to endurance-exercise training, including modulation of muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Real-time quantitative PCR, ...
Kubica Neil - - 2005
The contribution of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling to the resistance exercise-induced stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis was assessed by administering rapamycin to Sprague-Dawley rats 2 h prior to a bout of resistance exercise. Animals were sacrificed 16 h postexercise, and gastrocnemius protein synthesis, mTOR signaling, and biomarkers ...
Brown Erin C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between ...
Menshikova Elizabeth V - - 2005
The current study was undertaken to address responsiveness of skeletal muscle mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activity to weight loss (WL) and exercise in overweight or obese, sedentary volunteers. Fourteen middle-aged participants (7 male/7 female) had assessments of mitochondrial ETC activity and mitochondrial (mt)DNA in vastus lateralis muscle, obtained by ...
Tipton Kevin D - - 2004
PURPOSE: Determination of the anabolic response to exercise and nutrition is important for individuals who may benefit from increased muscle mass. Intake of free amino acids after resistance exercise stimulates net muscle protein synthesis. The response of muscle protein balance to intact protein ingestion after exercise has not been studied. ...
Riechman Steven E - - 2004
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an anabolic cytokine that is produced in skeletal muscle and directly affects muscle anabolism in animal and in vitro models. The contribution of IL-15 variability in muscle responses to 10 wk of resistance exercise training in young men and women was examined by measuring acute and chronic ...
Hamada Koichiro - - 2005
The impact of aging on the cytokine response of human skeletal muscle to exercise-induced injury remains poorly understood. We enrolled physically active, young (23-35 years old, n=15) and old (66-78 years old, n=15) men to perform 45 min of downhill running (16% descent) at 75% VO2max. Biopsies of vastus lateralis ...
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