Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1498
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Caulfield Brian - - 2011
We need to find novel ways of increasing exercise participation, particularly in those populations who find it difficult to participate in voluntary exercise. In recent years researchers have started to investigate the potential for using electrical stimulation to artificially stimulate a pattern of muscle activity that would induce a physiological ...
Lancellotti Patrizio - - 2011
Left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD) is common in heart failure patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Contrary to what it could be expected, LVD is not a stable phenomenon. Various conditions (inducible ischemia, exercise, drug administration) may significantly alter the presence and the magnitude of LVD, which could per se modulate response ...
Schelin Adriane B - - 2011
We show that common circulatory diseases, such as stenoses and aneurysms, generate chaotic advection of blood particles. This phenomenon has major consequences on the way the biochemical particles behave. Chaotic advection leads to a peculiar filamentary particle distribution, which in turn creates a favorable environment for particle reactions. Furthermore, we ...
Mota Bibiana Castagna - - 2011
Although the favorable effects of physical exercise in neurorehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are well known, detailed pathologic and functional alterations exerted by previous physical exercise on post-traumatic cerebral inflammation have been limited. In the present study, it is showed that fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) induced motor function ...
Weder Max M - - 2011
Exercise is rarely limited by pulmonary causes in normal individuals. Cardiac output and peripheral muscle disease are usually the limiting factors. Although minute ventilation rises steeply during exercise, normal individuals maintain a substantial breathing reserve. Exercise in patients, however, can be limited by pulmonary disorders. Acute pulmonary causes (exercise-induced bronchospasm, ...
Mattsson C Mikael - - 2011
: The present study investigates the adaptation of the central circulation to ultraendurance exercise, including the relative contributions of changes in stroke volume (SV) and arteriovenous oxygen difference to the increased oxygen pulse (V˙O2/HR). : We evaluated subjects undergoing 12 h of mixed exercise at controlled intensity (n = 8) ...
Hortobágyi Tibor T Department of Exercise and Sport Science, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA. - - 2011
Chronic unimanual motor practice increases the motor output not only in the trained but also in the nonexercised homologous muscle in the opposite limb. We examined the hypothesis that adaptations in motor cortical excitability of the nontrained primary motor cortex (iM1) and in interhemispheric inhibition from the trained to the ...
Miranda-Vilela Ana Luisa - - 2011
Physical training induces beneficial adaptations, but exhausting exercise increases reactive oxygen species, which can cause muscular injuries with consequent inflammatory processes, implying jeopardized performance and possibly overtraining. Acute strenuous exercise almost certainly exceeds the benefits of physical activity; it can compromise performance and may contribute to increased future risk of ...
Kiilerich Kristian - - 2011
To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), six healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a one-legged knee extensor exercise ...
Shim Chi Young - - 2011
Objective To investigate clinical outcomes of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and implications of an increase in left ventricular (LV) filling pressure during exercise in subjects with preserved LV ejection fraction. Design Longitudinal follow-up study. Setting Subjects who were referred for diastolic stress echocardiography. Patients and methods The ratio of transmitral ...
Ko Il Gyu - - 2011
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) commonly occurs in women, and it has an enormous impact on quality of life. Surgery, drugs, and exercise have been recommended for the treatment of this disease. Among these, exercise is known to be effective for the relief of symptoms of SUI; however, the efficacy and ...
Ranchord Anil M - - 2011
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend the use of oxygen for angina, based on Level C evidence. We aimed to determine whether high concentration oxygen influences the time to exercise-induced ischaemia or angina in patients with stable ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: 22 subjects with IHD and a positive exercise treadmill test ...
Dekerle J - - 2011
It remains uncertain as how the reduction in systemic oxygen transport limits high-intensity exercise tolerance. 11 participants (5 males; age 35 ± 10 years; peak [Formula: see text] 3.5 ± 0.4 L min(-1)) performed cycle ergometry to the limit of tolerance: (1) a ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak [Formula: see text]; (2) three ...
Palstra Arjan P - - 2011
The onset of downstream migration of European eels is accompanied by a cessation of feeding and the start of sexual maturation which stresses the link between metabolism and sexual maturation, also suggesting an important role for exercise. Exercise has been tested with eels in swim tunnels and was found to ...
Mao Tso-Yen - - 2011
Despite enhancing cardiopulmonary and muscular fitness, the effect of hypoxic exercise training (HE) on hemorheological regulation remains unclear. This study investigates how HE modulates erythrocyte rheological properties and further explores the underlying mechanisms in the hemorheological alterations. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomly divided into hypoxic (HE; n = 12) and ...
Smart Na - - 2011
Background: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) predicts exercise performance and exercise training may modulate BNP and its N-terminal portion (NT-pro-BNP), we therefore conducted an individual patient analysis of exercise training effects on BNP and NT-pro-BNP. Aims: To use an individual patient meta-analysis to relate changes in BNP, NT-pro-BNP, and peak VO(2); ...
Armstrong Rachel G - - 2011
As heart-rate variability (HRV) is under evaluation in clinical applications, the authors sought to better define the interdependent impact of age, maximal exercise, and diurnal variation under physiologic conditions. The authors evaluated the diurnal changes in HRV 24-h pre- and post-maximal aerobic exercise testing to exhaustion in young (19-25 yrs, ...
Church Tim - - 2011
The risk of developing both metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is inversely associated with regular exercise training (ET). Excess weight is also strongly associated with increased risk of both metabolic syndrome and T2DM. There is strong evidence that even a moderate amount of weight loss achieved through ...
Klusmann Verena - - 2011
In this study we addressed the subjective benefits of activity interventions that were designed to improve cognitive fitness in old age. Two hundred and fifty-nine women (aged 70-93 years) were randomized to participate in an exercise or a computer course or a control condition for 6 months. Subjective ratings of ...
Hew-Butler Tamara - - 2011
To evaluate changes in both the N-terminal (arginine vasopressin; AVP) and C-terminal (copeptin) fragments of the vasopressin prohormone before, during, and after an ultramarathon race and to assess vasopressin and copeptin concentrations in runners with and without hyponatremia. Observational study. Three trials (2 sodium balance and 1 hyponatremia treatment) in ...
Gerin Christine G - - 2011
Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) modulate responses to nociceptive stimuli, within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both neurotransmitters may play a role in supra-spinal regulation or response to proprioceptive afferences to the dorsal horn. However, direct evidence of changes in neurotransmitter release within the dorsal horn due to ...
Kipps Alaina K - - 2011
Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot have a reduced percentage of predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and percentage of oxygen pulse (O(2)P%) compared to healthy controls. Because data regarding the progression of exercise intolerance in these patients is limited, we sought to analyze the serial exercise data from patients with ...
Legrand Fabien D - - 2011
In the present controlled experiment, we examine the influence of opposite states of mind (the "telic" vs. "paratelic" state) on mood response to a 15min long walk at self-selected pace. Fifty-five first-year students were randomized to a telic (n = 22) or paratelic (n = 33) motivational environment. These opposed ...
Bronas Ulf Gunnar - - 2011
Supervised treadmill-walking exercise programs have been proven to be a highly effective in improving walking distance in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients with lifestyle-limiting claudication. Limited information is available on the contributions of central cardiorespiratory functions for improving these patients' walking capacity with exercise training. This study randomized 28 participants ...
Wagner Peter D - - 2012
Exercise is the example par excellence of the body functioning as a physiological system. Conventionally we think of the O(2) transport process as a major manifestation of that system linking and integrating pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematological and skeletal muscular contributions to the task of getting O(2) from the air to the ...
Theurel J - - 2011
The present study aimed to test the influence of the pedalling technique on the occurrence of muscular fatigue and on the energetic demand during prolonged constant-load cycling exercise. Subjects performed two prolonged (45 min) cycling sessions at constant intensity (75% of maximal aerobic power). In a random order, participants cycled either ...
Theodorou Anastasios A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: It was recently reported that antioxidant supplementation decreases training efficiency and prevents cellular adaptations to chronic exercise. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation on muscle performance, blood and muscle redox status biomarkers, and hemolysis in trained and untrained men after ...
Lima Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sympathovagal balance is altered after resistance exercise. However, the impact of the characteristics of resistance training in this response remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the acute effect of resistance exercise intensity for trunk and upper limbs in cardiac autonomic modulation after exercise. METHODS: Fifteen young men performed three experimental ...
Aizawa Katsuji - - 2011
PURPOSE:: Endurance training improves skeletal muscular function including energy metabolism and structure. Sex steroid hormones partly contribute to the exercise-induced muscular adaptations. Recently, we demonstrated that skeletal muscle containes steroidgenic converting enzymes to synthesize sex steroid hormones and an acute endurance exercise activates local steroidogenesis in skeletal muscle. However, whether ...
McTaggart-Cowan Helen - - 2011
It has been recommended that economic evaluation of healthcare technologies should use values for hypothetical health states elicited from the general population rather than patients. The drawback is the general population may not consider the possibility of adapting to the impaired state. This study explored the extent to which the ...
Golovchiner Gregory - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that optimal atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delays are different at rest than during exercise in patients with heart failure. We assessed the feasibility and reproducibility of an electrogram-based method of optimization called QuickOpt at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Patients with a St Jude Medical ...
Higashimoto Yuji - - 2011
Background: Exertional dyspnea is the primary symptom that limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown which activated brain area is associated with this symptom in COPD patients. Objectives: To investigate the activation of cortical areas associated with dyspnea during exercise in COPD patients. Methods: ...
Tian Ye - - 2011
Abstract Background: This study investigated the changes in biomarkers of renal function and the corresponding estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in 10 male adolescent (16.2±0.6 years) trained runners during early and late recovery periods after an all-out 21-km run. Methods: Venous blood samples were taken immediately before, and at 2-h, 4-h, ...
Herbst Jonathon - - 2011
  An 84-year-old woman is reported whose death was associated with strenuous exercise on an extremely hot day (maximum temperature = 43.1°C, 109.6°F). At autopsy there was evidence of exposure to high environmental temperatures with early putrefactive changes and mummification. There was underlying cardiomegaly with mild pulmonary emphysema. No significant injuries were ...
Roelands Bart - - 2011
Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, has shown to improve performance in normal ambient temperature, presumably via an effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission through the antagonism of adenosine receptors. However, there is very limited evidence from studies that administered caffeine and examined its effects on exercise in the heat. Therefore, we wanted ...
Amano Tatsuro - - 2011
Aim:  The goals of this study were to investigate changes in the sweating and cutaneous vascular responses on the palm and the volar aspect of the index finger during sustained static exercise of increasing intensity and to determine whether the former can be attributed to altered sweat gland activity. Methods:  ...
Leporace G - - 2011
Background The effectiveness of preventive training programs (PTP) aiming at changing the biomechanical behaviour related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries is subject to pre-existing risk. However, these assumptions are based on studies in females. Moreover, it is unclear what influence this training has on performance of young male athletes. Objective ...
Pope Lizzy - - 2011
The acceptability of a high-calorie-expenditure (HCE) exercise program in older coronary heart disease patients participating in a behavioral weight-control program was evaluated. Seventy-four overweight patients (median age 63 yr) were randomly assigned to a 5-mo intervention of HCE exercise (3,000-3,500 kcal/wk daily walking) or standard cardiac-rehabilitation (CR) exercise (700-800 kcal/wk). ...
McNeill Jeanette A - - 2011
This article describes the effect of individualized counseling using family history data and objective cardiovascular risk factors on intent to change and actual exercise behavior in a diverse sample of working adults. Using a longitudinal, quasi-experimental, crossover design, objective data (blood lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and body mass index) and ...
Faramarzi Babak - - 2011
Objective-To quantify changes in hoof wall strain distribution associated with exercise and time in Standardbreds. Animals-18 young adult Standardbreds. Procedures-9 horses were exercised 4 d/wk for 30 to 45 minutes at a medium trot for 4 months; 9 nonexercised horses served as the control group. Rosette strain gauges were used ...
Papapanagiotou A - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of homocysteine and 8-iso PGF(2a) in football and hockey players before and soon after a match, on the predisposition for development of atherosclerosis. We measured 8-iso-PGF(2a) and homocysteine in 21 football athletes aged 21.8 ± 3.7 years old and ...
Marshall P W M - - 2011
The optimal volume of resistance exercise to prescribe for trained individuals is unclear. The purpose of this study was to randomly assign resistance trained individuals to 6-weeks of squat exercise, prescribed at 80% of a 1 repetition-maximum (1-RM), using either one, four, or eight sets of repetitions to failure performed ...
Poole Lydia L Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. - - 2011
Mechanisms underlying the relationship between exercise and mood are not well understood. This study sought to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and autonomic balance in determining the impact of exercise withdrawal on negative mood. Healthy men and women who regularly exercised (N = 26, mean age = 25.5 years, SD = 4.5 years) ...
Paton K R - - 2011
Adults of the Southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis were subjected to an exercise/recovery regime at the commencement and end of their 12-15 month non-trophic, upstream spawning migration. In early (immature) migrants and pre-spawning females, muscle glycogen was markedly depleted during exercise, but became rapidly replenished. As muscle lactate rose during exercise ...
Carlson Lara A LA Westbrook College of Health Professions, University of New England, 11 Hills Beach Road, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA. - - 2011
Various types of exercise alter the population of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and change their transcriptional output. This work examines changes in PBMC populations and transcription in response to resistance exercise training (RET), and identify key transcriptional changes in PBMCs that may play a role in altering peripheral ...
Shiiya Tomomi - - 2011
Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced predominantly in the stomach, stimulates feeding and growth hormone (GH) secretion via interaction with the GH secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin molecules are present in two major endogenous forms, an acylated form (ghrelin) and a des-acylated form (des-acyl ghrelin). Recent studies indicated that aerobic exercise did not ...
Kalapotharakos Vasilios I - - 2011
Kalapotharakos, VI, Ziogas, G, and Tokmakidis, SP. Seasonal aerobic performance variations in elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 25(X): 000-000, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in body composition and aerobic performance in elite soccer players. Twelve elite professional soccer players (aged 25 ± ...
Park Kyung-Shin - - 2011
The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on the induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and to investigate if the elevation in apoptotic leukocytes was mediated by changes in the concentration of anti-/pro-apoptotic proteins in circulation. Twelve moderately trained subjects performed ...
Read S A - - 2011
The aim of this study is to investigate the short-term influence of a period of dynamic exercise on axial length (AXL) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in young adult subjects. In all, 20 young adult subjects (10 myopes and 10 emmetropes) participated. Baseline measures of ocular biometrics, IOP and ocular pulse ...
Skovbro Mette - - 2011
Twenty one healthy untrained male subjects were randomized to follow a high fat diet (HFD) (55-60E% fat, 25-30E% carbohydrate and 15E% protein) or a normal diet (ND) (25-35E% fat, 55-60E% carbohydrate and 10-15E% protein) for 2 1/2 wk. Diets were isocaloric and tailored individually to match energy expenditure. At 2 ...
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