Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1428
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Klusmann Verena - - 2011
In this study we addressed the subjective benefits of activity interventions that were designed to improve cognitive fitness in old age. Two hundred and fifty-nine women (aged 70-93 years) were randomized to participate in an exercise or a computer course or a control condition for 6 months. Subjective ratings of ...
Hew-Butler Tamara - - 2011
To evaluate changes in both the N-terminal (arginine vasopressin; AVP) and C-terminal (copeptin) fragments of the vasopressin prohormone before, during, and after an ultramarathon race and to assess vasopressin and copeptin concentrations in runners with and without hyponatremia. Observational study. Three trials (2 sodium balance and 1 hyponatremia treatment) in ...
Gerin Christine G - - 2011
Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) modulate responses to nociceptive stimuli, within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both neurotransmitters may play a role in supra-spinal regulation or response to proprioceptive afferences to the dorsal horn. However, direct evidence of changes in neurotransmitter release within the dorsal horn due to ...
Kipps Alaina K - - 2011
Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot have a reduced percentage of predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and percentage of oxygen pulse (O(2)P%) compared to healthy controls. Because data regarding the progression of exercise intolerance in these patients is limited, we sought to analyze the serial exercise data from patients with ...
Legrand Fabien D - - 2011
In the present controlled experiment, we examine the influence of opposite states of mind (the "telic" vs. "paratelic" state) on mood response to a 15min long walk at self-selected pace. Fifty-five first-year students were randomized to a telic (n = 22) or paratelic (n = 33) motivational environment. These opposed ...
Bronas Ulf Gunnar - - 2011
Supervised treadmill-walking exercise programs have been proven to be a highly effective in improving walking distance in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients with lifestyle-limiting claudication. Limited information is available on the contributions of central cardiorespiratory functions for improving these patients' walking capacity with exercise training. This study randomized 28 participants ...
Wagner Peter D - - 2012
Exercise is the example par excellence of the body functioning as a physiological system. Conventionally we think of the O(2) transport process as a major manifestation of that system linking and integrating pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematological and skeletal muscular contributions to the task of getting O(2) from the air to the ...
Theurel J - - 2011
The present study aimed to test the influence of the pedalling technique on the occurrence of muscular fatigue and on the energetic demand during prolonged constant-load cycling exercise. Subjects performed two prolonged (45 min) cycling sessions at constant intensity (75% of maximal aerobic power). In a random order, participants cycled either ...
Theodorou Anastasios A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: It was recently reported that antioxidant supplementation decreases training efficiency and prevents cellular adaptations to chronic exercise. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation on muscle performance, blood and muscle redox status biomarkers, and hemolysis in trained and untrained men after ...
Lima Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sympathovagal balance is altered after resistance exercise. However, the impact of the characteristics of resistance training in this response remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the acute effect of resistance exercise intensity for trunk and upper limbs in cardiac autonomic modulation after exercise. METHODS: Fifteen young men performed three experimental ...
Aizawa Katsuji - - 2011
PURPOSE:: Endurance training improves skeletal muscular function including energy metabolism and structure. Sex steroid hormones partly contribute to the exercise-induced muscular adaptations. Recently, we demonstrated that skeletal muscle containes steroidgenic converting enzymes to synthesize sex steroid hormones and an acute endurance exercise activates local steroidogenesis in skeletal muscle. However, whether ...
McTaggart-Cowan Helen - - 2011
It has been recommended that economic evaluation of healthcare technologies should use values for hypothetical health states elicited from the general population rather than patients. The drawback is the general population may not consider the possibility of adapting to the impaired state. This study explored the extent to which the ...
Golovchiner Gregory - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that optimal atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delays are different at rest than during exercise in patients with heart failure. We assessed the feasibility and reproducibility of an electrogram-based method of optimization called QuickOpt at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Patients with a St Jude Medical ...
Higashimoto Yuji - - 2011
Background: Exertional dyspnea is the primary symptom that limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown which activated brain area is associated with this symptom in COPD patients. Objectives: To investigate the activation of cortical areas associated with dyspnea during exercise in COPD patients. Methods: ...
Tian Ye - - 2011
Abstract Background: This study investigated the changes in biomarkers of renal function and the corresponding estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in 10 male adolescent (16.2±0.6 years) trained runners during early and late recovery periods after an all-out 21-km run. Methods: Venous blood samples were taken immediately before, and at 2-h, 4-h, ...
Herbst Jonathon - - 2011
  An 84-year-old woman is reported whose death was associated with strenuous exercise on an extremely hot day (maximum temperature = 43.1°C, 109.6°F). At autopsy there was evidence of exposure to high environmental temperatures with early putrefactive changes and mummification. There was underlying cardiomegaly with mild pulmonary emphysema. No significant injuries were ...
Roelands Bart - - 2011
Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, has shown to improve performance in normal ambient temperature, presumably via an effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission through the antagonism of adenosine receptors. However, there is very limited evidence from studies that administered caffeine and examined its effects on exercise in the heat. Therefore, we wanted ...
Amano Tatsuro - - 2011
Aim:  The goals of this study were to investigate changes in the sweating and cutaneous vascular responses on the palm and the volar aspect of the index finger during sustained static exercise of increasing intensity and to determine whether the former can be attributed to altered sweat gland activity. Methods:  ...
Leporace G - - 2011
Background The effectiveness of preventive training programs (PTP) aiming at changing the biomechanical behaviour related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries is subject to pre-existing risk. However, these assumptions are based on studies in females. Moreover, it is unclear what influence this training has on performance of young male athletes. Objective ...
Pope Lizzy - - 2011
The acceptability of a high-calorie-expenditure (HCE) exercise program in older coronary heart disease patients participating in a behavioral weight-control program was evaluated. Seventy-four overweight patients (median age 63 yr) were randomly assigned to a 5-mo intervention of HCE exercise (3,000-3,500 kcal/wk daily walking) or standard cardiac-rehabilitation (CR) exercise (700-800 kcal/wk). ...
McNeill Jeanette A - - 2011
This article describes the effect of individualized counseling using family history data and objective cardiovascular risk factors on intent to change and actual exercise behavior in a diverse sample of working adults. Using a longitudinal, quasi-experimental, crossover design, objective data (blood lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and body mass index) and ...
Faramarzi Babak - - 2011
Objective-To quantify changes in hoof wall strain distribution associated with exercise and time in Standardbreds. Animals-18 young adult Standardbreds. Procedures-9 horses were exercised 4 d/wk for 30 to 45 minutes at a medium trot for 4 months; 9 nonexercised horses served as the control group. Rosette strain gauges were used ...
Papapanagiotou A - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of homocysteine and 8-iso PGF(2a) in football and hockey players before and soon after a match, on the predisposition for development of atherosclerosis. We measured 8-iso-PGF(2a) and homocysteine in 21 football athletes aged 21.8 ± 3.7 years old and ...
Marshall P W M - - 2011
The optimal volume of resistance exercise to prescribe for trained individuals is unclear. The purpose of this study was to randomly assign resistance trained individuals to 6-weeks of squat exercise, prescribed at 80% of a 1 repetition-maximum (1-RM), using either one, four, or eight sets of repetitions to failure performed ...
Poole Lydia L Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. - - 2011
Mechanisms underlying the relationship between exercise and mood are not well understood. This study sought to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and autonomic balance in determining the impact of exercise withdrawal on negative mood. Healthy men and women who regularly exercised (N = 26, mean age = 25.5 years, SD = 4.5 years) ...
Paton K R - - 2011
Adults of the Southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis were subjected to an exercise/recovery regime at the commencement and end of their 12-15 month non-trophic, upstream spawning migration. In early (immature) migrants and pre-spawning females, muscle glycogen was markedly depleted during exercise, but became rapidly replenished. As muscle lactate rose during exercise ...
Carlson Lara A - - 2011
Various types of exercise alter the population of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and change their transcriptional output. This work examines changes in PBMC populations and transcription in response to resistance exercise training (RET), and identify key transcriptional changes in PBMCs that may play a role in altering peripheral ...
Shiiya Tomomi - - 2011
Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced predominantly in the stomach, stimulates feeding and growth hormone (GH) secretion via interaction with the GH secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin molecules are present in two major endogenous forms, an acylated form (ghrelin) and a des-acylated form (des-acyl ghrelin). Recent studies indicated that aerobic exercise did not ...
Kalapotharakos Vasilios I - - 2011
Kalapotharakos, VI, Ziogas, G, and Tokmakidis, SP. Seasonal aerobic performance variations in elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 25(X): 000-000, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in body composition and aerobic performance in elite soccer players. Twelve elite professional soccer players (aged 25 ± ...
Park Kyung-Shin - - 2011
The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on the induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and to investigate if the elevation in apoptotic leukocytes was mediated by changes in the concentration of anti-/pro-apoptotic proteins in circulation. Twelve moderately trained subjects performed ...
Read S A - - 2011
The aim of this study is to investigate the short-term influence of a period of dynamic exercise on axial length (AXL) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in young adult subjects. In all, 20 young adult subjects (10 myopes and 10 emmetropes) participated. Baseline measures of ocular biometrics, IOP and ocular pulse ...
Skovbro Mette - - 2011
Twenty one healthy untrained male subjects were randomized to follow a high fat diet (HFD) (55-60E% fat, 25-30E% carbohydrate and 15E% protein) or a normal diet (ND) (25-35E% fat, 55-60E% carbohydrate and 10-15E% protein) for 2 1/2 wk. Diets were isocaloric and tailored individually to match energy expenditure. At 2 ...
Elmer S - - 2011
Previous authors have reported that chronic eccentric cycling facilitates greater changes in multi-joint leg function (hopping frequency, maximum jumping height) compared with concentric cycling. Our purpose was to evaluate changes in leg spring stiffness and maximum power following eccentric and concentric cycling training. Twelve individuals performed either eccentric (n=6) or ...
Janecki Damian - - 2011
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess if the protective adaptation after eccentric exercise affects changes in passive stiffness of the biceps brachii muscle. Design: A within-group repeated measures design was used to compare changes in passive muscle stiffness after eccentric exercise between the first and second bouts ...
Csapo Robert - - 2011
Objectives: The study aimed to assess acute changes in muscle architecture and its recovery after exhaustive exercise. We hypothesised that repetitive leg press exercise would decrease vastus lateralis fascicle length, while increasing both muscle thickness and pennation angles. By investigating the time kinetics of recovery of these parameters, we wished ...
Marrin K - - 2011
Salivary melatonin concentration is an established marker of human circadian rhythmicity. It is thought that melatonin is relatively robust to the masking effects of exercise. Nevertheless, the extent and even the direction of exercise-related change is unclear, possibly due to between-study differences in the time of day exercise is completed. ...
Scofield Dennis Edward - - 2011
This study tested the hypothesis that transdermal fluid (TDF) is more sensitive than serum to exercise-induced increases in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration, and that these increases would be evident proximal, but not distal, to the exercising muscle. A novel, non-invasive methodology was used to collect TDF for analysis. TDF ...
Bunn Elizabeth A - - 2011
Individuals with low back pain (LBP) have been shown to demonstrate decreased quadriceps activation following lumbar paraspinal fatigue. The response of other lower extremity muscles is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in motoneuron pool excitability of the vastus medialis, fibularis longus, and soleus following lumbar ...
Yasuda Tomohiro - - 2011
We investigated the combined effect of low-intensity blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on muscle adaptation. Forty young men (aged 22-32 years) were randomly divided into four groups of ten subjects each: high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT, 75% of one repetition maximum [1-RM]), low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR, ...
Wheatley K - - 2011
Hypobaric hypoxia is associated with an increase in erythropoesis and an increased thrombotic risk. This is true of long haul air travel, mountaineering expeditions and longer stays at altitude. Studies looking at clotting on mountaineering expeditions are further complicated by the effects of exercise, plasma volume changes and the catecholamine ...
Parker Beth - - 2011
Air travel and exercise change hemostatic parameters. This study investigated the effect of air travel on exercise-induced coagulation and fibrinolysis in endurance athletes. A prospective longitudinal study. The 114th Boston Marathon (April 19, 2010). Forty-one adults were divided into travel (T: 23 participants, living >4-hour plane flight from Boston) and ...
Hill-Haas Stephen V - - 2011
Small-sided games (SSGs) are played on reduced pitch areas, often using modified rules and involving a smaller number of players than traditional football. These games are less structured than traditional fitness training methods but are very popular training drills for players of all ages and levels. At present, there is ...
Kluding Patricia M - - 2011
Emerging evidence suggests that exercise may improve cognitive function in older adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe changes in measures of cognition and executive function in individuals with chronic stroke following participation in aerobic and strengthening exercise. A single-group, pretest-posttest design was used. Nine individuals with ...
Silva Bruno M - - 2011
PURPOSE:: There is large inter-individual variation in the parasympathetic adaptation induced by aerobic exercise training, which may be partially attributed to genetic polymorphisms. Therefore, we investigated the associationamong three polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) gene (-786T>C, 4b4a and 894G>T), analyzed individually and as haplotypes, and the parasympathetic adaptation ...
ZieliƄski Jacek - - 2011
There are no studies analyzing the effect of training loads on purine metabolism during long training periods. PURPOSE:: To evaluate the effect of training load changes and subsequent detraining on purine metabolism in middle-distance runners during a 1-year cycle. METHODS:: In four characteristic points of the training cycle, loads assigned ...
Kopp Renate - - 2011
Exercise as well as hypoxia cause an increase in angiogenesis, changes in mitochondrial density and alterations in metabolism, but it is still under debate whether the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is active during both situations. In this study gene expression analysis of zebrafish larvae which were raised under normoxic, hypoxic ...
Morio Cédric - - 2011
This study analysed the time course of neuro-mechanical changes underlying stretch-shortening cycle during intermittent exhaustive rebound exercise. On a sledge apparatus, ten subjects repeated until exhaustion a series of 30 unilateral submaximal rebounds, with intermediate 3-min rest periods. Rebound height, ground reaction force, 3D tibial acceleration and electromyographic activity of ...
Muthalib Makii - - 2011
This study investigated biceps brachii oxygenation and myoelectrical activity during and following maximal eccentric exercise to better understand the repeated-bout effect. Ten men performed two bouts of eccentric exercise (ECC1, ECC2), consisting of 10 sets of 6 maximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors separated by 4 wk. Tissue oxygenation ...
Rasmussen Martin Krøyer - - 2011
It is investigated if exercise induced mRNA changes cause similar protein expression changes of Na(+), K(+) pump isoforms (α1, α2, β1, β2), FXYD1 and NHE1 in rat skeletal muscle. Expression was evaluated (n=8 per group) in Soleus and EDL after 1 day, 3 days and 3 weeks (5 sessions per ...
Rønnestad Bent R - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of transiently elevated endogenous hormone concentrations during exercise on strength training adaptations. Nine subjects performed four unilateral strength training session per week on the elbow flexors for 11 weeks. During two of the weekly sessions, leg exercises were performed to ...
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