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Rae Todd C - - 2003
The primate superfamily Cercopithecoidea (or Old World monkeys) is characterized by a widespread lack of the maxillary sinus, a paranasal pneumatic space found in most other eutherian mammals. Previous discussions of the distribution of pneumatization in the group, however, have been ambiguous and contradictory, and have been further complicated by ...
Usui Masakatsu - - 2003
An attempt was made to mask the allergenic structure of a major allergen protein, Cry j I (CJI), in Japanese cedar pollen using the Maillard-type polysaccharide conjugation. The SDS-PAGE pattern of the CJI-galactomannan conjugate prepared by the Maillard reaction showed broad bands widely distributed from 50 kDa to more than ...
Palm J P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Several studies have attempted to assess nasal nitric oxide (NO) levels in allergic rhinitis (AR). However, there seem to be differences in the results obtained. We therefore wanted to investigate this further by studying airway NO in AR and controls at several modalities, and also the effect of intranasal ...
Simons Christopher T - - 2003
We investigated the temporal pattern of oral irritation elicited by sequential application of mustard oil (allyl-isothiocyanate), and whether it exhibits self-desensitization and cross-desensitization with capsaicin. Mustard oil (0.125%, 40 micro l) was sequentially applied to one side of the tongue at 1 min intervals, and subjects rated the intensity of ...
Mckean M C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported an experimental infection of young adults with a history of episodic and exclusive viral wheeze (EVW) using human coronavirus, in which 16 of 24 with EVW (15 atopic) and 11 of 19 healthy controls (seven atopic) developed a symptomatic cold with evidence of infection, but ...
Uygur Kemal - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of concha bullosa (CB) in patients with septal deviation and the correlation between the angle of deviation and degree of pneumatization. Study and design This study was designed as a prospective trial. METHODS: Computerized tomography scans of the paranasal sinuses of 100 consecutive patients with ...
Fernandez Miyakawa M E - - 2003
Clostridium perfringens type D produces enterotoxaemia in sheep, goats and other animals. The disease is caused by C. perfringens epsilon toxin, and while enterotoxaemia in goats is usually characterized by enterocolitis, the disease in sheep is characterized by systemic lesions (such as lung and brain oedema) with minor and inconsistent ...
Braunstahl G-J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Local airway inflammation and airway remodelling are considered important in the clinical expression of allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare airway inflammation and remodelling in nasal and bronchial mucosa of subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. METHODS: Four experimental groups were formed: ...
Matsune Shoji - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of the radiologic opacity of the sinuses frequently observed in patients with allergic rhinitis, the mechanisms underlying their sinus mucosal swelling were studied clinically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We confirmed the presence of hypoxia in inflamed sinuses and obstruction of the sinus ostium in ...
Bennett William D - - 2003
Because the nose acts as a filter to prevent penetration of toxic particles and gases to the lower respiratory tract, the route of breathing, oral vs. nasal, may be an important determinant of toxicant dose to the lungs. Using respiratory inductance plethysmography and a nasal mask fitted with flowmeter, we ...
Cuddihy P J - - 2003
Nasal spirometry was used to measure the effect of acute rhinitis associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) on the changes in nasal airflow that occur with postural change. Results in 12 healthy subjects and 12 subjects with URTI were expressed as the nasal partitioning of airflow ratio (NPR), a ...
Huang Zhi Li - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the pattern, duration, and amplitude of nasal cycle and its response to nasal decongestant. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Ten adult volunteers attended 2 sessions (with and without nasal spray of 0.1% xylometazoline) for consecutive examinations by rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry every 10 minutes over 6 ...
Lang Christian - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Cyclic congestion and decongestion in the two nasal cavities is seen in connection with the respiratory function of the nose. The turbulent behavior of nasal airflow is a prerequisite for adequate contact of inspired air particles with the mucosa. The aim of this study was to gain insight into ...
Bicakci Adem - - 2003
In this study, pollen grains were sampled by using a Lanzoni trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000) in atmosphere of Bursa in 1999 and 2000. During two years. a total of 13,991 pollen grains/m3 which belonged to 59 taxa and unidentified pollen grains were recorded. A total of 7.768 pollen grains were ...
Andersson Gunilla - - 2003
The use of Swedish oral moist snuff is a widespread habit in Sweden. In 1999, 25% of the adult male population and 3.1% of the female population were users of snuff. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how variations in pH and nicotine concentrations of snuff affect ...
Dullenkopf A - - 2002
Saline tonometry has been replaced by automated air tonometry (TONOCAP). As with saline tonometry there are some pitfalls to consider. We investigated the influence of different filling handicaps to the tonometry catheter sampling balloon on measurement of regional PCO2 (PrCO2). In an in vitro set-up, PrCO2 was measured using the ...
Ishihara Ryu - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The ammonia-monochloramine system plays an important role in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosal injury. Polaprezinc, a new antiulcer agent, has a scavenging action against monochloramine. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the inhibitory effects of polaprezinc on the H. pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mongolian ...
Sato Renee L - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Activated charcoal is frequently administered to drug overdose patients, who may experience nausea and vomiting secondary to the drug overdose. Drinking a charcoal slurry orally may be difficult for them necessitating a gastric tube. The purpose of this study is to report the frequency of adverse effects from oral ...
Bourdin M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Breathe Right (BR) external nasal dilator have become increasingly popular over the past few years, however, the physiological basis for using BR remains unclear. We have examined whether alteration in nasal ventilation would influence the metabolic cost of submaximal running. METHODS: Metabolic cost was estimated in 10 male endurance ...
Smith Julia E - - 2002
Arterially perfused, decerebrate preparations of the insectivore, Suncus murinus were made to determine whether the emetic reflex could be activated in such a preparation using a range of stimuli shown to be emetic in conscious or anaesthetised Suncus. Efferent phrenic and vagus nerve activities and electromyograms (EMGs) from the temporalis, ...
Chee Nelson Wang Cheng - - 2002
We present two subjects with previously undiagnosed acoustic neuromas who complained of vertigo whenever they ran. One had normal hearing while the other already had a unilateral sensorineural deafness. Hyperventilation for 30 seconds provoked an ipsilateral beating nystagmus and reproduced the vertiginous sensation in both subjects. Hyperventilation is a simple ...
Holcombe Susan J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a commercially available nasal strip on airway mechanics in exercising horses. ANIMALS: 6 horses (5 Standardbreds and 1 Thoroughbred). PROCEDURE: Horses exercised on a treadmill at speeds corresponding to 100 and 120% of maximal heart rate with and without application of a commercially available ...
Engvall Karin - - 2002
The authors examined the relationship between symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome and reports of building dampness and odors. Two hundred thirty-one multifamily buildings built prior to 1961 in Stockholm, Sweden, contained a total of 4,815 dwellings. The authors selected these buildings for study by stratified random sampling. Occupants answered a ...
Lundberg J O N - - 2002
Results from different laboratories indicate that nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) coexist in the human airways both in health and disease. These gases are present in exhaled human breath and high concentrations of NO as well as CO have been reported in the nasal airways. In addition, exhaled ...
Nakano Hitoshi - - 2002
The effects of ambient O(2) tension on epithelial metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production (VNO) in the nasal airway were examined in nine healthy volunteers. Nasal VNO, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), and CO(2) production (VCO(2)) were measured during normoxia followed by gradual hypoxia from 21 to 0% O(2) concentration. Nasal VO(2), ...
Suh Kyung-Sik - - 2002
To confirm local production of IgE, and evaluate role of immunoglobulins on eosinophil activation in nasal polyp (NP) tissue, we measured IgG, IgA, secretory IgA(sIgA), total (tIgE) and specific IgE (sIgE) to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(DP) by ELISA in NP tissue homogenates from 51 subjects. They were classified according to skin reactivity ...
Yen Yi-Fen - - 2002
The reproducibility of quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements using MRI with arterial spin labeling and acetazolamide challenge was assessed in 12 normal subjects, each undergoing the identical experimental procedure on two separate days. CBF was measured on a 1.5T scanner using a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) pulse sequence, ...
Roesink J M - - 2002
Reduced salivary secretion can produce a wide variety of complaints, having a negative impact on the daily life of a patient. Multiple causes of salivary hypofunction are described, however, there are no consistent data about the influence of clinical parameters on parotid gland function. We studied a group of patients ...
Baraniuk J N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HTS) acts as an airway irritant in human nasal mucosa by stimulating nociceptive nerves and glandular secretion. HTS does not change vascular permeability. In asthma, HTS causes airflow obstruction. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of HTS on mucosal swelling using acoustic rhinometry (AcRh). Potential vasodilator effects were ...
Boek Wilbert M - - 2002
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Mucociliary transport is an important defense mechanism of the respiratory tract. Nonetheless, the factors determining mucociliary transport are only partially understood. Ciliary beat frequency is assumed to be one of the main parameters, although the experimental evidence remains inconclusive. STUDY DESIGN: Comparing influences on mucociliary transport to influences on ...
Hill R L R - - 2002
To determine the bioavailability of mupirocin in human nasal secretions and to assess whether the contents of nasal secretions interact appreciably with this antibiotic. The comparative bioavailability of mupirocin and chlorhexidine in nasal secretions was determined by bioassay after one, four, and eight hours of incubation with pooled secretions from ...
Herrmann Ute - - 2002
"Electronic noses", i.e. arrays of differently coated quartz microbalances (QMB), have been used for selective detection of, and discrimination between, volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during the post-harvest ripening of apples. The flavor components to be differentiated are chemically rather similar carbonyl compounds, chiefly aldehydes and esters. Because their relative ...
Ergün Pinar - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The use of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) would be expected to ameliorate dyspnea, ventilatory capacity and exercise tolerance durability in individuals with hypercapnic respiratory failure secondary to restrictive thoracic disease. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term effect of NIPPV on respiratory muscle ...
Hilberg Ole - - 2002
Nasal congestion is an important symptom in many diseases of the upper airways. Nasal congestion may also affect personal well-being and quality of life. Furthermore, as the nasal mucosa is the first part of the airways in contact with the environment, objective evaluation of nasal congestion or nasal patency is ...
Klein Jon - - 2002
We describe the preparation of IEF tube gels inside a nonwetting microporous plastic tubing. The gel in the tube need not be extruded after the first dimension separation. Instead, the porous structure of the tubes is made wettable, and the proteins are electrophoresed "through-the-wall" into the second dimension PAGE gel. ...
Cometto-Muñiz J Enrique - - 2002
We measured psychometric (i.e. concentration-response) functions for the detection of odor, nasal pungency and eye irritation from butyl acetate and toluene. Olfactory detection was measured in subjects with normal olfaction (i.e. normosmics) for whom nasal trigeminal detection does not interfere because it requires much higher concentrations. Nasal trigeminal detection, called ...
Tzachev Christo T - - 2002
To compare two xylometazoline 0.1% preparations: reference commercial solution (RS) and test mucoadhesive solution (TS). Twenty subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis (age range 18-69 years, 5 atopic, 7 men) applied randomly in turn TS and RS for 5 days in a double-blind crossover clinical trial. Nasal airflow resistance (NAR), nasal ...
Ferreiro M - - 2002
An atmospheric pollen count was carried out in the city of A Coruña during 1999 using two pollen traps located at two different points in the city. A total number of 6979 and 3536 pollen grains, respectively, were identified, the majority during the Spring and Summer. Further, patients living near ...
Okamoto H - - 2001
We examined the penetration rate of lidocaine (LC) through excised oral mucosa from hamster cheek pouch and the in vitro release rate of LC from film dosage forms with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base. Addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GL) to the HPC films increased the LC release rate almost ...
Tong T K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Effect of nasal breathing without and with nostril dilatation on sustainability of moderate exercise (75% VO2max) and selected respiratory variables were examined. METHODS: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Nine healthy male subjects completed three randomly assigned exhaustive treadmill runnings under three breathing conditions: (i) oronasal breathing (CON), (ii) nasal breathing with external ...
Dvorin D J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Aeroallergen sampling provides information regarding the onset, duration, and severity of the pollen season that clinicians use to guide allergen selection for skin testing and treatment. OBJECTIVE: This atmospheric survey reports: 1) airborne pollen contributors in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1991 to 1997) and suburban Cherry Hill, New Jersey (1995 to ...
Francis C A - - 2001
Salivary tissue kallikrein is stored in an active form in human salivary glands. Pre-kallikrein has been demonstrated in mixed saliva, but it is not clear if the various salivary glands contribute equally. This study set out to determine if pre-kallikrein is present in human parotid and submandibular salivas at rest, ...
Bhatnagar K P - - 2001
The large literature on the human vomeronasal organ (VNO) offers little consensus as to its persistence in the adult. We have already documented the existence of the VNO from embryonic day 33 through the neonatal stages. This has now been extended to human adults: 27 cadaver nasal septa, aged 2-86 ...
Thomas D Q - - 2001
Nasal dilators supposedly aid recovery from exercise by reducing nasal airway resistance. Research has focused on the effectiveness of nasal dilators during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of nasal dilators on heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) during recovery from ...
Hebestreit A - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single exercise bout on luminal Cl(-) and Na(+) conductance in the respiratory epithelium of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In nine patients with CF and nine healthy control subjects, the transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) of the nasal ...
Thomas K V - - 2001
In the yachting sector of the UK antifouling market, organic biocides are commonly added to antifouling preparations to boost performance. Few data presently exist for concentrations of these compounds in UK waters. In this study the concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) and eight booster biocides were measured before and during the ...
Grillo C - - 2001
A prospective study was performed to evaluate the rhinomanometric values and the changes in the olfactory threshold that occur in women throughout the menstrual cycle. The subjects were 60 healthy volunteer premenopausal women 18 to 40 years of age. We performed rhinomanometric and olfactometric measurements during the follicular, periovular, and ...
Väkeväinen S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenic acetaldehyde is produced from ethanol locally in the upper digestive tract via alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) of oral microbes, mucosal cells, and salivary glands. Acetaldehyde is further oxidized into less harmful acetate mainly by the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) enzyme. ALDH2-deficiency increases salivary acetaldehyde levels and the risk for upper ...
Walker J C - - 2001
In 20 normal and four anosmic participants, instantaneous inhalation and exhalation flow rates were recorded in response to 15 s stimulations with clean air or propionic acid concentrations (0.16, 1.14, 8.22 and 59.15 p.p.m., v/v) that ranged from peri-threshold for normals to clearly supra-threshold for anosmics. Each odorant/irritant delivery to ...
Ahmed I - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Viral warts represent a large workload for dermatology departments. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen is the most widely used method of treatment by dermatologists and is increasingly used by general practitioners in the U.K. Existing data relating to the response to cryotherapy are virtually all derived from the use of ...
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