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Results 601 - 650 of 835
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Müns G - - 1995
For years physicians have observed a high incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) after strenuous exercise. Mucosal surfaces represent a first-line-of-defense against infections, and pollutants or organisms entrapped in respiratory secretions are cleared by mucociliary transport. Little is known about this mechanism during exercise. The purpose of this study ...
Graf P - - 1995
A randomized double-blind parallel study with 20 healthy volunteers was performed to research the effect of a preservative in a decongestant nasal spray on the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. Ten subjects received oxymetazoline nasal spray with benzalkonium chloride and the others used oxymetazoline nasal spray without the preservative three times ...
Takayanagi A - - 1995
A parotid cup has been widely used as an intraoral device for the collection of parotid saliva. However, in long duration sampling, the cup tends to disconnect under circumstances such as mastication, sleep or physical exercise. We have designed a modified device of parotid cup for saliva collection to overcome ...
Schedin U - - 1995
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) is thought to regulate many biological functions, including pulmonary circulation and bronchomotion, and it has been found in exhaled air. Our aim was to study the excretion of NO in different parts of the respiratory system. Exhaled concentrations of NO were measured by chemiluminescence in chronic ...
Berg O H - - 1995
Human respiratory mucosa was exposed to oxymetazoline nasal spray in varying concentrations and for varying periods of time in vitro. The drug destroyed the tissue in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In the experiments with various concentrations of the spray, some tissue fragments retained their viability throughout the experiment. This ...
Sutcliffe J F - - 1995
Two experimental investigations of the electromagnetic method to measure body composition are presented. In the first experiment, the impedance of a single-loop transmitting antenna, located at the centre of a 150 m helical receiving coil, was observed to have a sharp minimum at 2.40 MHz. The impedance of the antenna ...
Morris H L HL Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa - - 1995
Sixty-five patients with cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, who received previous pharyngeal flap surgery for chronic velopharyngeal dysfunction in our department, were examined for velopharyngeal status, speech production patterns, and evidence of nasal airway obstruction. Of the 65 subjects, 54 (83.1 percent) showed velopharyngeal function within normal limits, ...
Greiff L - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Mucosal exudation (luminal entry) of bulk plasma is a key feature of airway defence and inflammation. In guinea pig and rat airways this response is readily produced by neurogenic irritants, notably capsaicin. Thus "neurogenic airway inflammation" has become an established concept. The present study examines whether capsaicin also produces ...
Sisson J H - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance is an important host defense function of the upper respiratory tract that requires the coordinated beating of cilia and results in the transport of mucus to the oropharynx. Guaifenesin is a commonly prescribed drug that is reported to improve the clearance of respiratory secretions. We hypothesized ...
Baldinger B - - 1995
Twelve female smokers smoked two of each of three types of cigarettes in three sessions. One cigarette was smoked with and the other one without nose blocking. Total puff volumes increased for ultralow tar/nicotine (tn) cigarettes as compared with habitual regular tar/nicotine (TN) cigarettes and regular tar/ultralow nicotine (Tn) cigarettes, ...
Hilberg O - - 1995
Nasal patency shows spontaneous variations but is influenced by a number of factors like exercise and allergic conditions. Nasal histamine challenge has been used to define nasal hypersensitivity. We have applied acoustic rhinometry as a new objective method to study the spontaneous variations of the nasal mucosa and its response ...
van Best J A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare basal tear turnover values of healthy volunteers in different countries. METHODS: Healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 70 years were selected in three European cities. Basal tear turnover values were calculated according to a standardized protocol from the decay of the ...
Huff R D - - 1994
Two commercially available nebulizing devices used for ventilation studies were evaluated. The nebulizers use radioactive Technetium-99m (Tc99m), a potential source of room air contamination. Ambient air concentrations of Tc99m were monitored, as were the exposures of department personnel not performing ventilation studies. Room surfaces and air vents were examined to ...
Birchall M A - - 1994
Topical sodium cromoglycate is used to treat allergic diseases of the upper and lower airways. To investigate its mechanisms of action, intranasal histamine challenge was used in nine subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis. After a preliminary day where subjects' reactivity thresholds (D100) for histamine were determined, intranasal sodium cromoglycate was ...
Alsuwaidan S - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Normal subjects have a negative nasal transmucosal potential difference (TPD) at rest which becomes more negative with exercise. Patients with cystic fibrosis have a more negative resting nasal TPD than controls. The present study was designed to determine the effects of exercise on the TPD of patients with cystic ...
McFarland D H - - 1994
1. Although a pause in respiration during swallowing is a feature common to all mammals, inhibition usually occurs during expiration in adult humans and during inspiration in most other species. We tested the hypothesis that this difference is due, at least in part, to the position of the body while ...
Small P - - 1994
Thirty-seven asymptomatic ragweed-sensitive patients and ten controls were challenged both epicutaneously and intranasally with ragweed. Clinical assessments of both early (20 minutes) and late (six hours) phase reactions of skin (mm) and nose (clinical score) were performed. A positive routine nasal challenge was defined as a clinical score 5 (0-12). ...
Gelperin A - - 1994
The interneuronal messenger nitric oxide (NO) may play a central role in the processing of olfactory information. Several circuit elements in the mammalian olfactory bulb contain NO synthase or its functional equivalent, NADPH diaphorase. The effects of NO on cellular excitability or circuit dynamics in the olfactory bulb are unknown, ...
Woolfson R G - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of urological surgery on ureteric peristaltic activity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ureteric peristalsis was assessed in a sample urological population (n = 29 patients) and the findings compared with a control population (n = 14 patients). RESULTS: The incidence of disordered peristalsis was significantly increased (P ...
Kantar A - - 1994
We investigated the effect of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-generated oxygen metabolites on the ciliary beat frequency. PMNs were incubated with human respiratory cilia obtained by nasal brushing. The oxidative metabolism was stimulated by opsonized zymosan, and ciliary beat frequency was evaluated before and after activation of PMNs. Ciliary beat frequency was ...
Austin C E - - 1994
1. Acoustic rhinometry is a relatively new method for objectively assessing nasal airway patency. In this paper we compare acoustic rhinometry with active posterior rhinomanometry. 2. Twenty normal healthy volunteers underwent nasal challenge with either histamine or bradykinin, 100 micrograms to 1000 micrograms, and responses were assessed by acoustic rhinometry. ...
Johnston S L - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Local hyperthermia reduces mast cell degranulation, the severity of acute lung injury, and exercise-induced asthma and decreases symptoms of rhinitis. We have investigated the effect of local hyperthermia on mast cell degranulation and symptom generation in allergic rhinitis to assess its effect and mechanism of action within the nose. ...
Li L - - 1993
Although various animal and clinical studies have demonstrated the significant effect of salivary epidermal growth factor (sEGF) on esophageal morphology and function, its secretory patterns still remain inadequately explored. Therefore, we have studied the impact of esophageal mechanical and chemical stimuli on sEGF in humans. sEGF was measured in saliva ...
Derrick S J - - 1993
Although continuous end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2 mmHg) measurements permit the earliest detection of alveolar hypoventilation, apnea and/or obstruction, technical difficulties have thus far precluded its reliable implementation in the spontaneously breathing patient with a natural (e.g., nonartificially secured) airway. Among the technical difficulties is the fact that conventional sampling devices ...
Garabedian B H - - 1993
It has been suggested that neural tube defects (NTDs) of the upper type (anencephaly, encephalocele, and thoracic spina bifida) may have a pathogenesis different from those of the lower type (lumbosacral spina bifida), since recurrent cases within a sibship were said always to be concordant with respect to NTD type. ...
Nishino T - - 1993
To test the hypothesis that full wakefulness is an important factor in the control of the route of breathing in adult humans, we have studied the responses to nasal occlusion before and during sedation with thiopentone in 14 female subjects. A tightly fitting partitioned face mask separated the nasal and ...
Jankowski R - - 1993
Cold, dry air (CDA) causes rhinorrhoea and nasal congestion in some individuals. This response can be mimicked in the laboratory by exposing susceptible individuals to cold, dry air nasal breathing. One of the characteristics of this response is that nasal secretions are produced by both nostrils after a unilateral challenge. ...
Birchall M A - - 1993
A series of investigations was performed in which histamine challenge was used to compare nasal responsiveness in 20 normal subjects and 20 with allergic rhinitis. There was found to be a lower threshold of reactivity (D100) to histamine in allergic subjects as measured by resistance changes (geometric mean, 0.53 mg/ml; ...
Sundgren P - - 1993
The relationship between bolus volume (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 ml) and larynx elevation during swallowing was assessed in 10 non-dysphagic and 10 dysphagic individuals without pharyngeal dysfunction. Laryngeal elevation in different types of pharyngeal dysfunction was assessed in 60 non-dysphagic and 75 dysphagic patients. All subjects were examined with ...
Stewart E J - - 1993
The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of beta-adrenoceptors in normal human nasal mucosa. In two studies, beta-receptor function was tested by the application of agonists and antagonists. Measurements of nasal secretion and nasal peak expiratory flow were performed at 4-min intervals, during 12 min of rest, ...
Velikonja D - - 1993
It has been proposed that it is possible to selectively activate the cerebral hemispheres, thereby enhancing lateralized cognitive abilities. A proposed method of achieving selective activation is by altering nasal congestion/decongestion (nasal cycle), which is believed to effect a contralateral change in hemispheric activation through the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ...
Stewart E J - - 1993
This study was proposed to test the hypothesis that the parasympathetic system might attribute to the transmucosal potential difference. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study six volunteers had nasal transmucosal potential difference (NTPD) recorded at 4-min intervals during 12-min periods of rest, before and after treatment, as well as during exercise ...
Zuskin E - - 1993
A group of 80 men employed in the glassblowing industry was studied in order to investigate the effect of this occupational exposure on respiratory function. Eighty nonexposed workers were included in the study as a control group. Glassblowers had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, chronic sinusitis, ...
Connel D C - - 1993
Our purpose was to assess the separate effects of nasal airflow and resistance on the activity of the nasal dilator [alae nasi (AN)] muscles. Nasal airflow and the AN electromyogram were recorded at rest and during progressive-intensity exercise at 60, 120, and 150-180 W in 10 healthy subjects who breathed ...
Warren D W - - 1993
In some instances, hypernasality occurs despite an instrumental assessment of "adequate" velopharyngeal closure. The pressure-flow technique was used to assess the timing characteristics associated with velopharyngeal closure in 11 such subjects. The group's performance was compared to the aerodynamic characteristics of two other subject groups. One was comprised of 13 ...
Kaye S R - - 1993
We have investigated the dispersion characteristics of a highly soluble tracer gas in a coiled tube lined with wet gelatine. Our experiments indicate that absorption and desorption of the gas at the wall dominates tracer dispersion along the tube. The results confirm previous experiments in a branching geometry indicating that ...
McFarland D H - - 1993
1. The interrelationships between respiration, mastication, and swallowing were studied in awake rabbits previously prepared for the chronic recording of jaw movements and the electromyographic activity of jaw and throat muscles. These signals were recorded before, during, and after the mastication of rabbit chow, together with respiratory movements. 2. The ...
Kahrilas P J - - 1993
Bolus volume is an important modifier of the biomechanical events of the oropharyngeal swallow. The biomechanical events comprising a swallow can be divided into events associated with the reconfiguration of the pharynx into a swallow pathway and events associated with bolus transport from the oropharynx into the esophagus. Volume modification ...
Wilhelmsson B - - 1992
Occupational exposure to formaldehyde often causes nasal discomfort. The objective of this study was to determine whether chronic exposure to formaldehyde causes annoying symptoms by direct irritation and whether it affects all exposed people (through hyperreactivity in atopic persons, through formaldehyde-induced hyperreactivity also in nonatopic persons, or through an immunologically ...
Tsai S S - - 1992
High incidences of aspergillosis (12.9%) and candidiasis (15.4%) were encountered in 241 psittacines and passeriformes which died within 2 weeks of quarantine after being imported into Japan. Respiratory aspergillosis was diagnosed in 31 birds which involved mainly the nasal cavity (17 birds), lung (14 birds) and air sac (13 birds). ...
Strohl K P - - 1992
This study has evaluated the nasal response to exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic disease in which factors such as chronic lung disease and/or nasal polyposis might be anticipated to modify nasal function responses. Measurements of nasal resistance (NAR) by posterior rhinomanometry and specific airway resistance (sRAW) ...
Grélot L - - 1992
1. The patterns of membrane potential changes of phrenic motoneurons were compared during fictive vomiting, fictive coughing, and fictive swallowing in decerebrate, paralyzed cats. These fictive behaviors were identified by motor nerve discharge patterns similar to those recorded from the muscles of nonparalyzed animals. Phrenic motoneurons (n = 54) were ...
Rankin K M - - 1992
In a double-shifting context paradigm, subjects gave magnitude estimates of the perceived intensity of qualitatively dissimilar taste substances (saccharin and quinine, sucrose and quinine) or qualitatively similar ones (saccharin and sucrose), with each pair of substances taking on different contextual sets of concentrations in different sessions. The dissimilar pairs produced ...
Zhao Z Q - - 1992
Using an antibody microprobe technique, we have detected substance P release from the region of the substantia gelatinosa of the cat during the first, but not the second, 30 min of topical application of capsaicin (1-3%) to the tibial nerve. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that substance P-like immunoreactivity was markedly ...
Braga P C - - 1992
The topical tolerability of the commercial preparation of 1-7 Asu-eel and salmon calcitonin with 2% ammonium glycyrrhyzinate and 0.01% benzalkonium chloride, respectively, and of their excipients mixture in solution with increasing concentrations of ammonium glycyrrhyzinate and benzalkonium chloride, respectively, were assessed by investigating their effects on the mucociliary transport velocity ...
Lagutchik M S - - 1992
Benzocaine-based anesthetic sprays are commonly used in sheep to anesthetize the nasal passages and glottis before intubation. Sprays containing benzocaine have been identified as causing methemoglobinemia in dogs, cats, and human beings. Diagnosis of benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia was made in 8 Dorset-Finn ewes exposed to a 2-second burst of (approx 56 ...
Anandan N - - 1992
Fifty-four consecutive patients with uncomplicated benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) underwent intravenous urography (IVU) and ultrasonography (US) to observe the benefits of IVU over US. The parameters used were upper tract abnormalities detected on both modalities and the influence of radiological prostatic impression (RPI) on the route of surgery and its ...
Stewart E J - - 1992
The effects of application of frusemide, amiloride and bumetanide on nasal transmucosal potential difference (NTPD), at rest and during exercise, were studied in 8 normal subjects. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, 8 volunteers had NTPD recorded at 4-min intervals during 12-min periods of rest, before and after treatment, during ...
Haynes P F - - 1992
The intent and extent of the respiratory tract examination relevant to purchase are dictated by numerous factors, including historical information, signs suggestive of respiratory tract abnormalities, intended use of the horse, and economic considerations. Following a thorough and systematic examination of the horse at rest, evaluation during and following exercise ...
Benninger M S - - 1992
The patency of the nasal airway may directly affect pulmonary ventilation, with obstruction and increased nasal resistance resulting in increased pulmonary resistance, hypoxia, and hypercapnea. Nine aerobic athletes were evaluated to assess the role of the nasal airway on aerobic capacity and athletic performance. A step-ladder graded maximal aerobic capacity ...
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