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Results 551 - 600 of 828
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Iwasaki T - - 1997
The characteristics of airflow (pressure loss and entry loss factor) were measured around a circular slot hood for its application to a local exhaust system. Centerline velocity, defined as the ratio of air velocity on the centerline of the slot hood to average slot face velocity, was found to be ...
Barry P W - - 1997
There have been a number of anecdotal reports of rhinitis and nasal obstruction occurring at altitude. To quantify these reports, we investigated nasal obstruction and mucociliary transport in a group of healthy volunteers trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp, Nepal, altitude 5,300 m. Nasal obstruction was estimated by subjective scoring ...
Paul N - - 1996
Administration of oral metoclopramide reduces the transit time for barium to reach the caecum during a small bowel meal (SBM). Current practice is to administer the metoclopramide 5-10 min prior to the barium. We devised a prospective randomized, controlled trial to assess whether administration of metoclopramide 90 min prior to ...
UliƄski S - - 1996
A case of occupational bronchial asthma due to morphine in a nonatopic 46-year-old woman is presented. The following diagnostic tests were used: a workplace trial with bronchodilator and placebo, and single-blind, placebo-controlled nasal and bronchial challenge with 0.5% morphine HCl. For the nasal challenge, four asthmatic patients were selected as ...
Lundberg J O - - 1996
The vasodilator gas nitric oxide (NO) is produced in the paranasal sinuses and is excreted continuously into the nasal airways of humans. This NO will normally reach the lungs with inspiration, especially during nasal breathing. We wanted to investigate the possible effects of low-dose inhalation of NO from the nasal ...
Crooks G W - - 1996
Barrett's esophagus is a medical condition in which the squamous mucosa that normally lines the distal esophagus is replaced by a columnar type of epithelium. Most definitions that have been used for inclusion of patients in studies have indicated that columnar mucosa must extend 3 cm or more above the ...
Perkins K A - - 1996
Overnight smoking abstinence increases desire to smoke and intensity of smoking behavior in smokers, but it is not completely clear that this reflects an increase in reinforcement from the psychoactive effects of nicotine per se. We examined choice of nicotine vs. placebo via nasal spray (Study 1) and nicotine vs. ...
Kovacs G - - 1996
The progestogen-only pill (POP), minipill, is quite an effective second line contraceptive. Despite this, it is used relatively infrequently except during lactation. The main reason for this is that women on POP often have abnormal bleeding patterns, with an increased frequency of bleeding, lengthened cycles, breakthrough bleeding, spotting and prolonged ...
Millns B - - 1996
Clinical audit revealed that the treatment of oral candidosis was more successful with nystatin pastilles than with nystatin suspension. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the reasons for this observation. The concentration of nystatin needed to kill 49 consecutive clinical isolates of Candida albicans was measured. The isolates ...
Kern M K - - 1996
Information on solid particle movement through the pharynx, in addition to its physiologic importance, has relevance to the swallowing of medications in pill form. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematics of a solid particle during the oral-pharyngeal phase of swallowing. We used a concurrent manometric-videofluoroscopic technique ...
Wessells H - - 1996
PURPOSE: We provide guidelines of penile length and circumference to assist in counseling patients considering penile augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively measured flaccid and erect penile dimensions in 80 physically normal men before and after pharmacological erection. RESULTS: Mean flaccid length was 8.8 cm., stretched length 12.4 cm. and ...
Richards G N - - 1996
Nasal congestion, dry nose and throat, and sore throat affect approximately 40% of patients using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The mechanisms causing nasal symptoms are unclear, but mouth leaks causing high unidirectional nasal airflow may be important. We conducted a study to investigate the effects of mouth leak ...
Gomez D M - - 1996
Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (BX) or bilateral transection of the rostral lateral olfactory tract (LOT) at the level of the anterior olfactory nucleus markedly increases gonadotropin secretion and prevents the testicular regression associated with maintenance on short photoperiod in golden hamsters. In an effort to further elucidate the neural tracts involved ...
Bland M H - - 1996
Polymer networks that can serve as model systems for dental applications were prepared by photopolymerizations of 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane triacrylate, 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, 1,1,1-trimethylolethane trimethacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, Photomer 2028 and Photomer 3015. The UV polymerizations were initiated by 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone. Volume shrinkage was followed over the course of polymerization using ...
Phillips C R - - 1996
To define the site of release and factors modulating exhaled nitric oxide (NO) during exercise in humans, we measured exhaled NO output during exercise, during exercise after balloon occlusion of the nasopharynx (to exclude nasal NO), and at rest with isocapneic hyperventilation or dobutamine infusion. Exhaled NO output increased from ...
Gardiner Q - - 1996
An animal model has been devised to allow trainees in nasal and sinus endoscopy to develop basic instrument handling and psychomotor skills, without risk to patients. The sheep's head obtained from the abattoir was modified slightly to simulate more closely the human situation. The model permits nasendoscopy, foreign body removal, ...
Mygind N - - 1996
In order to study the pathophysiology of allergic airway disease and its response to pharmacotherapy, allergic and non-allergic provocation challenge techniques can be employed. Lower airway challenge has been used widely, but the use of nasal challenge is becoming more widespread as its advantages are realized. New measurement techniques are ...
Sullivan J - - 1996
Our primary aim was to determine whether reducing the activity of nasal airway receptors would influence drive to the nasal dilator muscles (NDMs) during exercise. We used lidocaine (2%) or nasal splints to diminish afferent airway receptor activity and measured the electromyogram (EMG) activity of the NDMs during incremental bicycle ...
McAuley J R - - 1996
Nystagmus produced by static placement of the head in different orientations is termed positional nystagmus and is known to occur in human subjects who are free of vestibular symptoms. This study provides quantitative data for horizontal positional nystagmus occurrence in 49 normal human subjects, in whom the number of nystagmus ...
Woda R P - - 1996
We evaluated four nasal cannulae used to deliver oxygen and measure PETC02 in a non-tracheally intubated, healthy population. The effect of various oxygen flow rates on PETC02 and respiratory rate (RR), as well as the cost and relative patient comfort of the cannulae, was compared. In this controlled study, 20 ...
Brauer L H - - 1996
Although most cigarette smokers exhibit signs of tobacco dependence, a subset of this population, referred to as tobacco chippers, does not show characteristic signs of dependence. Few studies have attempted to characterize differences between these groups of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to examine smoking topography in ...
Jessen M - - 1996
Two methods for decongestion of the nasal mucosa were compared, a conventional nasal spray and a bellows device, the reproducibility of rhinomanometric measurements being investigated in both cases. Nasal airway resistance (NAR) was measured in 18 patients (during late autumn) before, 10 min, and 20 min after decongestion with an ...
Imada M - - 1996
The nasal output of nitric oxide (NO) is known to be high, but there have been varying reports of the exact level. We attempted to establish a quantitative measurement of nasal NO, and looked for a possible relationship with nasal resistance, at rest and during exercise. Nasal airway ventilation was ...
Wilde A D - - 1996
The exact pathophysiology of intrinsic rhinitis is not fully understood. The generally held belief is that it is due to an imbalance between the outflow of the nasal sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, perhaps due to excessive parasympathetic or reduced sympathetic activity. In this study the nasal airway response to ...
Pouderoux P - - 1996
Nonalimentary swallows minimize aspiration by clearing accumulated fluid from the pharynx. This study aimed to define 1) the pharyngeal sensory field to elicit swallowing and 2) the effect of infusion rate, volition, taste, and temperature on pharyngeal swallows. Test solutions were directed into the valleculae at 6.5, 11.5, and 32 ...
Mikula S K - - 1996
To better understand the mechanisms underlying maxillary sinus function, the gas composition of the sinus antrum in spontaneously breathing and tracheotomized rabbits (n = 17) was compared. The gas composition of samples (n = 117) obtained from rabbit maxillary sinuses was determined by gas chromatography. Results demonstrated significant differences (P ...
Mathru M - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Anesthetic agents inhibit the respiratory activity of upper airway muscles more than the diaphragm, creating a potential for narrowing or complete closure of the pharyngeal airway during anesthesia. Because the underlying mechanisms leading to airway obstruction in sleep apnea and during anesthesia are similar, it was hypothesized that anesthesia-induced ...
Kimberly B - - 1996
We characterized the nasal contribution to exhaled nitric oxide (NO) at rest and during breathholding in humans. Exhaled NO was greater during nose breathing (141 +/- 17 nl/min/M2, mean +/- SEM) compared with mouth breathing (68 +/- 6 nl/min/M2, n = 8, p < 0.001). After voluntary closure of the ...
Kane I - - 1996
To define some methodological factors that could affect the measurement of the esophageal clearance, we used three different protocols, on 41 healthy control subjects. In 20 subjects, we studied the influence of a naso-esophageal probe on the frequency of swallowing. We observed a significant (44 +/- 5%) decrease in the ...
Pehlivan M - - 1996
A new and portable electronic device called the "Digital Phagometer" is described for the time based counting of spontaneous swallowing. This device is composed of a piezoelectric sensor and a digital event counter/ recorder which can be downloaded to any IBM-compatible PC. The sensor of Digital Phagometer is placed and ...
Eccles R - - 1996
Nasal airflow is normally asymmetrical and subject to spontaneous reciprocal changes which are often referred to as the 'nasal cycle'. The nature of these spontaneous changes in nasal resistance is poorly understood and little information is available about how they are affected by nasal disease. In order to understand the ...
Müns G - - 1996
For years physicians have observed a high incidence of infections after strenuous exercise. Recent observations suggest an increase of neutrophils in the upper airways following a long-distance race. In order to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the influx of neutrophils in airway mucosa, we tested neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) in nasal ...
Serra J - - 1995
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal reflexes induced by distention in dogs are facilitated by either simultaneous or previous distentions. The aim of this study was to determine whether these phenomena also modulate the responses to intestinal distention, particularly perception, in humans. METHODS: Perception and intestinal relaxation were measured in 11 healthy ...
Smithson A J - - 1995
Objective measurements of several sound level indices were made on 32 subjects referred because of snoring and who subsequently underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). The measurements were repeated approximately 6 months post-UPPP. The indices were compared with the subjective assessment of snoring by both the subject and his/her bed partner. Correlations between ...
Fregosi R F - - 1995
Our aim was to test the following hypotheses: 1) neural drive to the muscles of the alae nasi (AN) is proportional to nasal airflow and is independent of the overall level of central respiratory drive, and 2) the switch from nasal to oronasal breathing corresponds to the onset of marked ...
Ohmae Y - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal characteristics and patterns of glottic closure during normal swallow using concurrent videofluoroscopy and videoendoscopy. METHODS: Three swallows each of four bolus types were examined in eight healthy volunteers with the endoscope in two positions: at the level of the ...
Trocchio M - - 1995
Recently, many professional football players have elected to wear spring-loaded nasal dilators during competition. Many athletes believe that wearing the "Breathe-Right" nasal dilator will increase nasal gas conduction and oxygenation to their body, subsequently improving their performance. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the advantages of wearing a ...
Kyrkanides S - - 1995
Asymmetries in the nasomaxillary skeleton are very common in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate postsurgical asymmetries of the nasomaxillary skeleton in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients. Included in this study were 36 complete cleft lip and palate subjects, ...
Hogan P M - - 1995
A 4-month-old Thoroughbred foal was examined because of a history of exercise intolerance and lack of airflow from the right nostril since birth. Endoscopy of the airways revealed complete membranous obstruction of the right nasal passage at the level of the nasopharynx and marked narrowing of the caudal aspect of ...
Wilde A D - - 1995
The cardiovascular response to isometric exercise is well understood. However, the response of the nasal mucosa is less well known. We have attempted to document this response in normal individuals. Ten individuals with no history of nasal disease or allergy were studied. All subjects were asked to perform sustained handgrip ...
Kenyon C J - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The equivalence of generic beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) formulations with their innovator counterpart must be demonstrated if generic formulations are to be used. This study has examined the aerodynamic particle size distributions of both innovator and generic formulations of BDP and the effect of a large volume spacer (Volumatic) on ...
Kleckner N W - - 1995
1. The patch-clamp technique was used to record single-channel currents from cell-attached patches on rat brain cortical neurons in culture. The composition of the open and shut intervals during bursts of openings was studied in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors exposed to 1 microM NMDA and 10 microM glycine at a membrane ...
Hilberg O - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Nasal patency shows spontaneous variations but is also influenced by exercise and allergic conditions. These variations have not been described in detail with regard to allergy. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether these variations are different in nonallergic subjects and in subjects with nasal allergy ...
Müns G - - 1995
For years physicians have observed a high incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) after strenuous exercise. Mucosal surfaces represent a first-line-of-defense against infections, and pollutants or organisms entrapped in respiratory secretions are cleared by mucociliary transport. Little is known about this mechanism during exercise. The purpose of this study ...
Graf P - - 1995
A randomized double-blind parallel study with 20 healthy volunteers was performed to research the effect of a preservative in a decongestant nasal spray on the development of rhinitis medicamentosa. Ten subjects received oxymetazoline nasal spray with benzalkonium chloride and the others used oxymetazoline nasal spray without the preservative three times ...
Takayanagi A - - 1995
A parotid cup has been widely used as an intraoral device for the collection of parotid saliva. However, in long duration sampling, the cup tends to disconnect under circumstances such as mastication, sleep or physical exercise. We have designed a modified device of parotid cup for saliva collection to overcome ...
Schedin U - - 1995
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) is thought to regulate many biological functions, including pulmonary circulation and bronchomotion, and it has been found in exhaled air. Our aim was to study the excretion of NO in different parts of the respiratory system. Exhaled concentrations of NO were measured by chemiluminescence in chronic ...
Berg O H - - 1995
Human respiratory mucosa was exposed to oxymetazoline nasal spray in varying concentrations and for varying periods of time in vitro. The drug destroyed the tissue in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In the experiments with various concentrations of the spray, some tissue fragments retained their viability throughout the experiment. This ...
Sutcliffe J F - - 1995
Two experimental investigations of the electromagnetic method to measure body composition are presented. In the first experiment, the impedance of a single-loop transmitting antenna, located at the centre of a 150 m helical receiving coil, was observed to have a sharp minimum at 2.40 MHz. The impedance of the antenna ...
Morris H L - - 1995
Sixty-five patients with cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, who received previous pharyngeal flap surgery for chronic velopharyngeal dysfunction in our department, were examined for velopharyngeal status, speech production patterns, and evidence of nasal airway obstruction. Of the 65 subjects, 54 (83.1 percent) showed velopharyngeal function within normal limits, ...
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