Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 828
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Dumortier J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: With a pediatric endoscope, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) can be performed via a nasal route in adults. To evaluate this new procedure, we conducted a randomized comparative study of the feasibility of diagnostic transnasal EGD and assessed the factors influencing its quality and tolerance (endoscope diameter or route). METHODS: Transnasal EGD ...
Mürtz P - - 1999
Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LMRS) is a sensitive and isotope-selective technique for determining low concentrations of gaseous free radicals with high time resolution. We used this technique to analyze the nitric oxide (NO) concentration profile while simultaneously measuring the flow and expired volume during several single breathing cycles. Eight healthy, ...
Amis T C - - 1999
1. Oral airway resistance (RO) is an important determinant of oro-nasal partitioning of airflow (e.g. during exercise and sleep); however, little is known of factors influencing its magnitude and measurement. 2. We developed a non-invasive standardized technique for measuring RO (based on a modification of posterior rhinomanometry) and examined inspiratory ...
Rejeski W J - - 1999
An earlier study reported on the development of a scale to measure feeling states during acute bouts of exercise: the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory (EFI-A). The present study reports on the psychometric properties of a revised scale to assess responses to habitual or chronic physical activity: the EFI-C. The EFI-C was ...
Gomes M T - - 1999
The selection of the compound to be used as a coating for a piezoelectric quartz crystal is of utmost importance in the development of a chemical sensor. The relevant parameters to be evaluated (stability, sensitivity, reversibility, response time, reproducibility, and selectivity), and the main variables affecting the results and influencing ...
Grudemo H - - 1999
The mucosa of the inferior turbinate was studied using rhinostereometry and micromanipulator-guided laser Doppler flowmetry in 10 healthy volunteers. First, spontaneous fluctuations were studied measuring congestion and multiple microcirculatory parameters simultaneously every 2 minutes. The subjects were then challenged with oxymetazoline using the same measuring technique studying the effects of ...
Chen C C - - 1999
This report concerns a 10-month-old boy, admitted to the Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung with generalized tonic convulsion and aspiration pneumonia. He was found to have had developmental regression, progressive hypotonia and hepatosplenomegaly since four months of age. Physical examination revealed a large head circumference (97th percentile), frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, ...
Giraud G D - - 1998
We studied modulation of release of nitric oxide (NO) into nasal passages by physical characteristics (airflow, temperature, humidity) or gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) in nasal air of humans. Each characteristic or gas in nasal air was changed during voluntary soft palate elevation (to isolate nasal passages). Increasing airflow through the ...
Hummel T - - 1998
This study was performed to investigate the effects of the common cold on olfactory function, which was assessed using chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP, in response to both olfactory [H2S] and trigeminal [CO2] stimuli) and psychophysical measures (intensity ratings, odor discrimination, butanol threshold); nasal volume was assessed by means of acoustic ...
Ng B A - - 1998
The effect of a commercially available external nasal dilator, Breathe Right (CNS, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) was measured with acoustic rhinometry in 11 healthy subjects. The cross-sectional areas--1, 2 and 3--and nasal volume--from 0 to 6 cm2--were obtained in four situations: 1) pre-decongested with no dilator, 2) pre-decongested with dilator, 3) ...
Thomsson K A - - 1998
The O-linked oligosaccharides from three fractions of highly glycosylated mucin glycopeptides obtained from sputum of a patient with cystic fibrosis were characterized and compared regarding size, composition, sequence and when possible linkage positions. Neutral and sialic acid-containing glycans were permethylated and analyzed by high-temperature GC-MS and MALDI-MS, showing more than ...
Merckle P - - 1998
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in three different effervescent tablet formulations. The nominal ASA concentrations were 14.9% in the single substance formulation (ASA Mono), 17.4% in the combination with ascorbic acid (ASA + C) and 8.7% in the combination with paracetamol and ascorbic acid (ASA ...
Woodin M A - - 1998
Biomarkers in nasal lavage (NL) fluid may be useful in determining the presence and severity of upper airway inflammation. We studied 18 boilermakers overhauling a large, oil-fired boiler and 11 utility workers who served as controls for 6 wk. NL was performed before (NL1), during (NL2), and after (NL3) the ...
Lorino A M - - 1998
The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three treatments aiming to reduce nasal airflow resistance (NR): an external nasal strip device (Respir+), an internal nasal mechanical dilator (Nozovent), and a topical decongestant (Pernazène). NR was estimated by active posterior rhinometry at both a 0.5 L/s flow ...
Ohashi Y - - 1998
Since IL-4 plays a key role in inducing and increasing the generation of not only primary polyclonal but also secondary specific IgE responses by B lymphocytes, a seasonal increase in IL-4 is likely to be involved in such seasonal rises in specific IgE in seasonal allergic rhinitis. The first aim ...
Decco M L ML Section of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905, - - 1998
To reassess airborne pollen counts and to study spore counts by volumetric collection in Rochester, Minnesota. Samples of pollen and spores were collected from the top of a six-story building in downtown Rochester by use of a rotational rod sampler, which was activated for 30 seconds every 10 minutes for ...
Djupesland P G - - 1998
Possible relations between nasal airway dimensions and measures of lung function are not well established. It has been suggested that a major part of airway resistance is found in the nose. However, little is known about the shape of tidal flow volume (TFV) loops in relation to nasal caliber. We ...
Nihlén A - - 1998
Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used in gasoline as an oxygenate and octane enhancer. Acute effects, such as headache, nausea, and nasal and ocular irritation, have been associated with the exposure to gasoline containing MTBE. The aim of this study was to assess acute health effects up to the ...
Vermoen C J - - 1998
A nasal dilatator contains two elastic strips, which provide the dilatator with a spring action. The aimed function of the nasal dilatator is to slightly open the nares and hereby facilitate nasal breathing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nasal dilatator by measuring nasal ...
Dib B - - 1998
Acute intracerebroventricular injection of 25 micrograms capsaicin or 40 micrograms substance P in isotonic saline elicited approximately similar effects on the micturition reflex, but capsaicin had twice as much effect as substance P. This effect is specific, since acute intracerebroventricular injection of isotonic saline did not produce the micturition reflex. ...
Frascella J - - 1998
The efficacy of a chlorine dioxide-containing mouthrinse in reducing oral malodor was compared to that of a water control in randomized, double-blind crossover study in 12 male and female subjects. Entrance criteria required a score of < or = 1 (slightly unpleasant/stale) on a 7-point ordinal odor pleasantness scale at ...
Hayashi M - - 1998
Although immunotherapy is recognized as a highly effective form of treatment for allergic rhinitis, especially pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis, the mechanisms have not been fully established. In the present study, we investigated whether immunotherapy could affect the seasonal increase in interleukin-5 (IL-5) in the serum of patients with seasonal allergic ...
Pause B M - - 1999
A new method will be presented which allows the perception of body odors in humans to be studied objectively. The analysis of body odor-evoked potentials was used to investigate if and how the human brain is able to differentiate self from non-self body odor for the first time. Six subjects ...
Gao X P - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to determine whether bradykinin mediates ovalbumin-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the nasal mucosa of ovalbumin-sensitized hamsters in vivo and, if so, whether the L-arginine/nitric oxide biosynthetic pathway transduces, in part, this response. We found that suffusion of ovalbumin onto the in situ nasal ...
Andersson M - - 1997
Studies of the nasal permeation of small molecules (< 1000 Da) have yielded important information about the integrity of the human airway mucosa in health and disease. In this study, we used a much larger tracer molecule, polysucrose (PS) 15,000 (approx. 14,700 Da), to predict the mucosal permeation of inhalational ...
Pinto S - - 1997
A role of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps has been recently suggested. Cyclooxygenase (CO) products (thromboxane B2, PGE2 and 6-keto PGF1 alpha) and lipoxygenase (LO) products (LTB4 and LTC4) were investigated by radioimmunoassay in polyps, hypertrophic turbinates and nasal mucosa from 14 patients with ...
Allen J S - - 1997
The cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) has been shown to be a potent mediator of leukocyte recruitment and neovascularization in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. In this study we hypothesize that IL-8 produced in the nasal polyp microenvironment is responsible for the leukocyte recruitment seen in nasal polyposis. To test this hypothesis ...
Fanucci A - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the range of multiple swallowing in normal subjects by ultrasonography. METHODS: Twenty-two normal subjects swallowed 5 or 10 ml of tap water or a semisolid meal. RESULTS: With water multiple swallows were seen in 41% of the subjects examined and was related to the volume of the ...
Harber P - - 1997
Factors affecting worker tolerance of respiratory personal protective devices are inadequately understood. This study evaluates whether respirator-type loads affected the switch from nasal to oral breathing. Eleven healthy subjects were studied under progressive exercise conditions, using a respirator full-face mask with inspiratory resistance (I), pressure breathing (P) (10 cm H2O ...
Wolff K - - 1997
AIMS: There is some evidence that monitoring methadone plasma concentration may be of benefit in dosage adjustment during methadone maintenance therapy for heroin (opiate) dependence. However, the kinetics of oral methadone are incompletely characterized. We attempted to describe the latter using a population approach combining intensive 57 h sampling data ...
Yasuda Y - - 1997
In order to examine the origin and role of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air during exercise, exhaled NO outputs of 8 healthy human subjects were compared using different breathing methods, through the mouth or nose, at two intensities of bicycle exercise. The concentration of NO in the exhaled air ...
Griffin J W - - 1997
An external nasal dilator (Breathe Right, CNS, Inc., Bloomington, MN) has become popular with athletes. The dilator is an adhesive band with a central elastic strip. When applied across the nasal valve, the device theoretically increases nasal valve area. We used acoustic rhinometry (Hood Laboratories, Pembroke, MA) to measure the ...
Gaglani B - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Nasal immunotherapy with single allergen extracts, following premedication with cromolyn, has been reported to be effective in treating seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and mechanism of action of nasal immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis caused by weed pollens ...
Portugal L G - - 1997
In order to improve nasal breathing during competition, many athletes recently have been wearing a spring-loaded, external nasal dilator referred to as the Breathe-Right device (BRD). Although there are many subjective claims that this device improves breathing during exercise, there are currently no controlled studies documenting its efficacy. To determine ...
Gosepath J - - 1997
The Breathe Right nasal strips are more and more commonly used, mainly by athletes, who hope to enhance their physical performance in competition and training. The effect of the device in such situations is uncertain and perhaps somewhat controversial. To investigate the effects of the nasal strips on nasal ventilation, ...
Taguchi O - - 1997
We examined the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on exercise performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Six patients were treated with nasal CPAP on seven successive days and underwent overnight sleep studies and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) at the beginning and after the last ...
Kirsten A M - - 1997
Inhalation of swine confinement dust containing endotoxin causes an inflammatory response in the nose as reflected by an influx of neutrophils 3 hrs after exposure (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149: A401(1994)). As there is evidence that nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air indicates cellular activation, we studied whether ...
Lacroix J S - - 1997
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is co-localized with noradrenaline (NA) in perivascular sympathetic nerve and is a vasoconstrictor. Pre-treatment with exogenous NPY markedly reduced nasal airway obstruction and rhinorrhea induced by the irritant capsaicin in control subjects. The aim of the present experiments was to study the time course variations of plasma ...
Flanagan P - - 1997
It is now over 100 years since Kayser (Archiv für Laryngol Rhinol 1895; 3: 101-120) first reported in the scientific literature that the human nasal passages exhibit spontaneous changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance, yet our understanding of this unusual phenomenon is still very confused. Spontaneous, reciprocal changes in unilateral ...
Lane A P - - 1997
The production of nasal fluids serves an important role in the protection of the upper respiratory system, but can also be a troublesome symptom of rhinitis. The chief sources of nasal fluids are serous and mucous glandular secretion, epithelial goblet cell exocytosis, and exudation from submucosal blood vessels. This study ...
Goddard A F - - 1997
A novel animal model for studying antibiotic transfer across gastric mucosa was developed by using adult rats. Gastric corpus mucosa was mounted in an Ussing chamber system and bathed in oxygenated Krebs solution. Metronidazole flux from serosa to mucosa (J(S-->M)) was measured over 60 min under basal conditions and compared ...
Höfmann T - - 1997
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with impaired ion transport across epithelial membranes and an increased transepithelial potential difference (PD) that can be measured in airway epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of nasal PD in CF, and to test a modified approach to the ...
Schneider H - - 1997
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study addresses cholecystokinin (CCK)-receptor alterations in stone-diseased and stone-free human gallbladders using different CCK-fragments. METHODS: Serosa-free muscle strips were mounted in a modified Krebs-Henseleit-solution of 37 degrees C and aerated with carbogen. The following concentrations of CCK-fragments (CCK 26-33, N-Acetyl CCK 27-33 sulf., CCK 26-29 sulf., CCK 25-33 ...
James D S - - 1997
The route of breathing, oral or nasal, is a determinant of the doses of inhaled pollutants delivered to target sites in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. We measured partitioning of ventilation, using a divided oronasal mask during a submaximal exercise test, in 37 male and female subjects who ranged ...
Garcia-Peña E - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to determine the orogastric transit time of standard 131I capsules and the incidence of transit delay. METHODS: We studied 58 consecutive subjects receiving outpatient diagnostic and therapeutic 131I dosages. A standard ion chamber survey meter, placed over the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, ...
Hagarty E M - - 1997
Oxygen therapy improves submaximal exercise tolerance in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study compared the standard nasal cannula, reservoir nasal cannula, and a demand flow device in 15 male hypoxemic patients with COPD. On six separate occasions each subject used, in a randomized order, all three ...
Wagenmann M - - 1997
Studying the inflammatory response that follows the early response to nasal challenge with antigen provides a better understanding of allergic rhinitis than just studying the immediate (early) response. Nine allergic volunteers were challenged unilaterally with antigen-containing discs, and bilateral changes in physiologic responses as well as in the concentration of ...
Himi T - - 1997
The ability of the nasal mucosa to produce various cytokines has been shown to correlate closely with the capacity to regulate an inflammatory condition in the nasal cavity. Immune senescence is characterized by a dysregulation of the immune system. This change is reflected by the altered production of cytokines during ...
Mygind N - - 1997
This paper gives an overview of placebo-controlled studies of the effect of corticosteroid treatment on nasal blockage, based on objective measurements of nasal airway patency. A few studies of perennial rhinitis have indicated that pretreatment with an intranasal corticosteroid has a moderate effect on nasal hyperresponsiveness, measured as the histamine-induced ...
Lundberg J O - - 1997
A continuous production of nitric oxide (NO) takes place in human nasal airways. NO in the nasal airways is mainly derived from the paranasal sinuses. The factors that regulate NO synthesis in the upper airways are presently not known. We have investigated the effects of physical exercise on NO levels ...
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