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Zondervan Daniel K DK University of California at Irvine, CA, - - 2014
Background. Few therapeutic options exist for the millions of persons living with severe arm impairment after stroke to increase their dose of arm rehabilitation. This study compared self-guided, high-repetition home therapy with a mechanical device (the resonating arm exerciser [RAE]) to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke and explored ...
Liontou Catherine C First Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Athens, 114 Vasilissis Sofias Street, 115 27, Athens, Greece, - - 2014
Carotid atherosclerosis (CA) and chronotropic incompetence (CI) during exercise are two independent cardiovascular risk factors. Aim of the current study was to investigate the possible association between them, in apparently healthy individuals, after adjusting for the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score. This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 apparently healthy ...
Kelley George A - - 2014
Overweight and obesity are major public health problems in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to determine the effects of exercise (aerobic, strength or both) on body mass index (BMI) z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Studies were ...
Takematsu Yuriko Y Graduate School of Health Medicine, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan, - - 2014
The present study compares health-related QOL between patients who practiced self-care activities comprising exercise and diet at home for at least 6 months (SA group; n = 84) after elective PCI and those who did not (NA group; n = 54). Health-related (HR) QOL was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. Scores for two mental and ...
Carraro Attilio A 1 University of - - 2014
Summary.-People with intellectual disabilities are often reported as having depressive symptoms. Although the antidepressant effect of exercise has been systematically recognized, research concerning the role of exercise on depressive symptoms in people with intellectual disabilities is still scant. A 12-wk. exercise intervention for depressive symptoms in a group of adults ...
Zhang Huilin - - 2014
To investigate the effect of Baduanjin, a traditional Chinese medical exercise, on improving premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms in women. Forty reproductive age women with PMS in Macau practiced standardized Baduanjin exercise for three menstrual cycles. A questionnaire, the daily record of severity of problems (DRSP), was used to measure symptom ...
Johnston Rich D RD School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Queensland, - - 2014
To determine the influence the number of contact efforts during a single bout has on running intensity during game-based activities and assess relationships between physical qualities and distances covered in each game. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players (age 23.6 ± 2.8 years) competed in three 'off-side' small-sided games (2 x ...
Johnson R Jeremy RJ Department of Chemistry, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana, - - 2014
HIV protease has served as a model protein for understanding protein structure, enzyme kinetics, structure-based drug design, and protein evolution. Inhibitors of HIV protease are also an essential part of effective HIV/AIDS treatment and have provided great societal benefits. The broad applications for HIV protease and its inhibitors make it ...
Silva José Antônio JA Jr Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Rua Vergueiro, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina, Rua Vergueiro, São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
Sympathetic hyperactivity induces adverse effects in myocardial. Recent studies have shown that exercise training induces cardioprotection against sympathetic overload; however, relevant mechanisms of this issue remain unclear. We analyzed whether exercise can prevent pathological hypertrophy induced by sympathetic hyperactivity with modulation of the kallikrein-kinin and angiogenesis pathways. Male Wistar rats ...
Caldwell Karen K Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC - - 2013
The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental ...
Souza Giovane G - - 2013
Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2013
A higher prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, and asthma has been identified among athletes who compete and train in environmental conditions of cold dry air and/or high air pollution. Repeated long-duration exposure to cold/dry air at high minute ventilation rates can cause airway damage. Competition or training at venues ...
Hesford Catherine - - 2013
Wearable, wireless near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers were used to compare changes in on-ice short-track skating race simulations over 1,500 m with a 3-min cycle ergometry test at constant power output (400 W). The subjects were six male elite short-track speed skaters. Both protocols elicited a rapid desaturation (∆TSI%) in the muscle ...
Takagi Shun - - 2013
We examined whether O(2) saturation in several leg muscles changes as exercise intensity increases. Twelve healthy young males performed 20 W/min ramp bicycle exercise until exhaustion. Pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) was monitored continuously during the experiments to determine peak oxygen uptake. Muscle O(2) saturation (SmO(2)) was also monitored continuously at ...
Mackenzie Matthew G - - 2013
Myostatin is a TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle size. Due to the complexity of the molecular pathway between myostatin mRNA/protein and changes in transcription, it has been difficult to understand whether myostatin plays a role in resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To circumvent this problem, we determined ...
Simões Herbert Gustavo - - 2013
This study compared the plasma kallikrein activity (PKA), bradykinin concentration (BK), DesArg(9)-BK production, nitric oxide release (NO) and blood pressure (BP) response after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed by individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 10 without type 2 diabetes (ND) underwent ...
Geraedts Hilde - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the literature on effectiveness of remote feedback on physical activity and capacity in home-based physical activity interventions for older adults with or without medical conditions. In addition, the effect of remote feedback on adherence was inventoried. METHODS: A systematic review. Data sources included PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane and ...
Gloeckl Rainer - - 2012
Interval (IT) and continuous training (CT) represent well-established exercise modalities in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their effects and feasibility in patients with end-stage COPD remain unclear. Sixty patients (53 ± 6 years, 53% women) being evaluated for lung transplantation where randomly assigned either ...
Perry Christopher G R - - 2012
Energy transfer between mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments is predominantly achieved by creatine-dependent phosphate shuttling (PCr/Cr) involving mitochondrial creatine kinase (miCK). However, ADP/ATP diffusion through adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and voltage-dependent anion carriers (VDACs) is also involved in this process. To determine if exercise alters the regulation of this system, ADP-stimulated ...
Grossl Talita - - 2012
The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) represents a submaximal intensity that may be important in prescribing both continuous and interval endurance training. This study compared time to exhaustion (TTE) at MLSS in continuous and intermittent (i.e., with pauses) exercise, investigating whether physiological variables differ between these exercise modes. Fourteen trained ...
Rossman M J MJ Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, George E. Whalen VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, - - 2012
The voluntary termination of exercise has been hypothesized to occur at a sensory tolerance limit, which is affected by feedback from group III and IV muscle afferents, and is associated with a specific level of peripheral quadriceps fatigue during whole body cycling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ...
Akers Adam - - 2012
Positive effects of green exercise on physical and psychological wellbeing have been found, yet little is known about the underlying cognitive mechanisms responsible for such effects. The purpose of this visual sensation study was to establish the extent to which the color green, as a primitive visual feature of many ...
Matsuo Tomoaki - - 2012
Astronauts experience weight loss during spaceflight. Future space missions require a more efficient exercise program not only to maintain work efficiency, but also to control increased energy expenditure (EE). When discussing issues concerning EE incurred through exercise, excess post-exercise energy expenditure (EPEE) must also be considered. The aim of this ...
Bacon C J - - 2012
Past research indicates that endurance is improved when exercise movements are synchronised with a musical beat, however it is unclear whether such benefits are associated with reduced metabolic cost. We compared oxygen consumption (.VO2) and related physiological effects of exercise conducted synchronously and asynchronously with music. Three music tracks, each ...
Elmer Steven J SJ Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. - - 2012
Previous authors have reported reductions in maximum power after high-intensity cycling exercise. Exercise-induced changes in power produced by ankle, knee, and hip joint actions (joint-specific powers), however, have not been reported. Our purpose was to evaluate joint-specific power production during a cycling time trial (TT) and also to compare pre- ...
Emanuele Umberto - - 2012
PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to compare the freely chosen cadence (FCC) and the cadence, at which the blood lactate concentration at constant power output is minimized ("optimal cadence", Copt). The second aim was to examine the effect of a concomitant change of road incline and body ...
Hagen Jana - - 2012
Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, however there is little evidence of its' effectiveness during closed-loop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task habituated cyclists performed 10km cycle time trials while either listening to self-selected motivational ...
Elmer Steven J - - 2012
Several investigators have demonstrated that chronic eccentric leg cycling is an effective method for improving lower body neuromuscular function (e.g., quadriceps muscle size, strength, and mobility) in a variety of patient and athletic populations. To date, there are no reports of using eccentric arm cycling (ECarm) as an exercise modality, ...
Rendos Nicole K - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological evidence indicates more than 70% of all injuries that occur while training for or competing in triathlon happen during running. Maintaining an aerodynamic position on a bicycle during a triathlon places triathletes in a prolonged trunk flexed position which may affect lower extremity running biomechanics following cycling and ...
Gagnon Philippe - - 2012
RATIONALE: Lower limb muscle dysfunction contributes to exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that signaling from lower limb muscle group III/IV sensory afferents to the central motor command could be involved in premature cycling exercise termination in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of spinal anesthesia ...
Elmer Steven J SJ Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. - - 2013
Fatigue induced via a maximal isometric contraction of a single limb muscle group can evoke a "cross-over" of fatigue that reduces voluntary muscle activation and maximum isometric force in the rested contralateral homologous muscle group. We asked whether a cross-over of fatigue also occurs when fatigue is induced via high-intensity ...
Klass Malgorzata - - 2012
PURPOSE: Prolonged exhaustive exercise induces a failure of the nervous system to activate the involved muscles maximally (i.e. central fatigue). Part of central fatigue may reflect insufficient output from the motor cortex (i.e. supraspinal fatigue), but the cause is unresolved. To investigate the potential link between supraspinal fatigue and changes ...
Janse de Jonge Xanne A K - - 2012
PURPOSE: This study investigated effects of the menstrual cycle on prolonged exercise performance both in temperate (20°C, 45% relative humidity) and hot, humid (32°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. METHODS: For each environmental condition twelve recreationally active females were tested during early follicular (day 3-6) and mid-luteal phases (day 19-25), verified ...
Stanley Jamie - - 2012
We investigated performance and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) over consecutive days of cycling with post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) or passive recovery (PAS). In a crossover design, 11 cyclists completed two separate 3-day training blocks (120 min cycling per day, 66 maximal sprints, 9 min time trialling [TT]), followed by 2 days ...
Lauhoff Paula - - 2012
Purpose: To establish the effect of a 6-week programme of cycle ergometry training on exercise tolerance, balance, activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: Twenty-three subjects were recruited from the Parkinson's database of the neurology service in a large urban teaching ...
Wingo Jonathan E - - 2012
Different muscle recruitment patterns during cycling and walking may influence the magnitude of cardiovascular drift (CV drift) during these respective modes of exercise, but whether this also influences the magnitude of reduced maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) associated with CV drift is unknown.This study tested the hypothesis that cycling results in ...
Simpson A L E - - 2012
Respiratory muscle training against resistance (RRMT) increases respiratory muscle strength and endurance as well as underwater swimming endurance. We hypothesized that the latter is a result of RRMT reducing the high energy cost of breathing at depth. Eight subjects breathed air in a hyperbaric chamber at 55 fsw, both before ...
Girard Olivier - - 2012
This study investigated the effect of hot conditions on repeated sprint cycling performance and post-exercise alterations in isometric knee extension function. Twelve physically active participants performed 10 × 6-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer (recovery = 30 s), followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s) in either a neutral (24 °C/30 %rH) or a hot (35 °C/40 %rH) ...
Tufano James J - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Due to the performance decrements associated with DOMS, a treatment to alleviate its symptoms is of great interest. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low vs. moderate-intensity aerobic recovery on DOMS and strength. Twenty-six women (22.11 ± 2.49 yrs; 60.33 ± 8.37 kg; 163.83 ...
Goh Qingnian - - 2012
The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro) beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO(2peak): 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1). Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285-300 kcal) in a cross-over design: ...
de Koning J J - - 2012
There is little standardization of how to measure cycling gross efficiency (GE). Therefore, the purposes of these studies were to evaluate the effect of: i) stage duration, ii) relative exercise intensity, iii) work capacity and iv) a prior maximal incremental test on GE. Trained subjects (n=28) performed incremental tests with ...
Baldi Bruno G - - 2012
RATIONALE: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by exercise performance impairment. Although airflow limitation is common, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and impact of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) in LAM. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dynamic responses during maximal exercise and the prevalence, predictors and repercussions of DH in LAM. METHODS: Forty-two ...
Casey Darren P - - 2012
We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine contribute to the onset of vasodilation during dynamic forearm exercise. Twenty-two subjects performed rhythmic forearm exercise (20 % of maximum) during control and NO synthase (NOS) inhibition (N (G)-monomethyl-L: -arginine; L: -NMMA) trials. A subset of subjects performed a third trial ...
Zerbini Livio - - 2012
Pulmonary oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) kinetics were studied in a group of older adults exercising in hypoxic conditions. Fourteen healthy older adults (aged 66 ± 6 years) performed 4 exercise sessions that consisted of (i) an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycloergometer while breathing normoxic room air ...
Wright Rex A - - 2012
Experiments were executed to provide new evidence relevant to the recent suggestion that fatigue should augment or retard cardiovascular response depending on the difficulty of the challenge at hand. Participants walked on a treadmill while wearing a vest fitted with 5 or 25 pounds of weight. Later, they mounted a ...
Sidhu Simranjit K - - 2012
The excitability of the motor cortex increases as fatigue develops during sustained single-joint contractions, but there are no previous reports on how corticospinal excitability is affected by sustained locomotor exercise. Here we addressed this issue by measuring spinal and cortical excitability changes during sustained cycling exercise. Vastus lateralis (VL) and ...
Mikulic Pavle - - 2012
To examine variations in physical, physiological, and performance parameters over an annual training cycle in a world champion rowing crew. Four world-class rowers, all of them members of the men's heavyweight quadruple sculls squad who are current world rowing champions, were assessed 3 times at regular 4-mo intervals during the ...
Burns Jack M - - 2012
Manufacturers of uncoupled cycling cranks claim that their use will increase economy of motion and gross efficiency. Purportedly, this occurs by altering the muscle-recruitment patterns contributing to the resistive forces occurring during the recovery phase of the pedal stroke. Uncoupled cranks use an independent-clutch design by which each leg cycles ...
Kilding Andrew E - - 2012
To determine the effects of ingesting caffeine (CAFF) and sodium bicarbonate (SB), taken individually and simultaneously, on 3-km cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Ten well-trained cyclists, age 24.2 ± 5.4 yr, participated in this acute-treatment, double-blind, crossover study that involved four 3-km cycling TTs performed on separate days. Before each TT, ...
Ridgel Angela L - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To develop a rapid cadence cycling intervention (active-assisted cycling, AAC) using a motorized bike and to examine physiological perimeters during these sessions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). A secondary goal was to examine if a single session of active-assisted cycling at a high cadence would promote improvements in ...
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