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Results 251 - 300 of 1047
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Simpson Richard J - - 2007
The lymphocytopenia that occurs during the recovery stage of exercise may be a result of apoptosis through an increased expression of CD95, a loss of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59, or both. Trained subjects completed intensive, moderate, and downhill treadmill-running protocols. Blood lymphocytes isolated before, immediately after, 1h ...
Phillips George C - - 2007
Glutamine is a popular dietary supplement consumed for purported ergogenic benefits of increased strength, quicker recovery, decreased frequency of respiratory infections, and prevention of overtraining. From a biochemical standpoint, glutamine does play a physiologic role in each of these areas, but it remains only one of a host of factors ...
Gluhovschi Cristina - - 2007
Steroids are still the mainstay of therapy in primary chronic glomerulonephritis (PCGN), regardless of underlying disturbance or pathology. Moreover, relationship between known abnormalities and disease manifestation is stochastic, therefore treatment continues to be empirical. It is not known whether responsiveness is related to immune phenotype. We performed flowcytometric lymphocyte (Ly) ...
Walsh Catherine J - - 2007
Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide ...
Peeling Peter - - 2007
This investigation examined the effect of intramuscular iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance in iron-deficient women. Sixteen athletes performed a 10-min steady-state submaximal economy test, a VO2max test, and a timed test to exhaustion at VO2max workload. Subjects were randomly assigned to an iron-supplemented group (IG) receiving intramuscular iron injections or ...
Sigal Leonard H - - 2007
There has been a sea change in our understanding of atherosclerosis. We have come a long way from the days where eating too much fat and not getting enough exercise and having the wrong genetic background was thought to be the entire story. A few years ago, the cardiologists began ...
Navalta James W - - 2007
Lymphocyte apoptosis increases following maximal exercise. Estrogen hormones (E2) have been shown to protect lymphocytes from apoptosis in vitro, but it is unknown whether they can attenuate the apoptotic response to maximal exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of menstrual cycle variation on exercise-induced lymphocyte ...
Ribicich M - - 2007
The purpose of this work was to assess the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of pigs experimentally inoculated with Trichinella spiralis. Groups of three pigs were inoculated per os with 100, 500 and 5000 T. spiralis muscle larvae, two pigs were used as control. Clinical evaluation of disease in pigs ...
Tuan T-C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although moderate exercise can benefit health, acute and vigorous exercise may have the opposite effect. Strenuous exercise can induce alterations in the physiology and viability of circulating leucocytes, which have a causal relationship with exercise-induced immune distress. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the use of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), a functional ...
Cooper Dan Michael - - 2007
Exercise elicits an immunological "danger" type of stress and inflammatory response that, on occasion, becomes dysregulated and detrimental to health. Examples include anaphylaxis, exercise-induced asthma, overuse syndromes, and exacerbation of intercurrent illnesses. In dangerous exercise, the normal balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is upset. A possible pathophysiological mechanism is ...
Sorrells A D - - 2007
Use of gestation stalls in pork production remains a controversial topic in animal welfare. Immune status and measures are frequently used to assess stress levels and thus well-being of confined animals. The important welfare issue of close confinement among gestating gilts was tested by quantifying cortisol, acute phase cytokine, and ...
Mackey Abigail L - - 2007
The consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread among athletes when faced with muscle soreness or injury, but the effects of NSAIDs on satellite cell activity in humans are unknown. To investigate this, 14 healthy male endurance athletes (mean peak oxygen consumption 62 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered ...
Yang Jijin - - 2007
In our Solar System, the planets formed by collisional growth from smaller bodies. Planetesimals collided to form Moon-to-Mars-sized protoplanets in the inner Solar System in 0.1-1 Myr, and these collided more energetically to form planets. Insights into the timing and nature of collisions during planetary accretion can be gained from ...
Hall H - - 2007
This investigation examined the effects of Echinacea purpurea on mucosal immunity and the incidence and duration of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). 32 subjects completed an exercise protocol known to affect mucosal immunity. Saliva was collected prior to and five minutes after completion of exercise testing. Subjects then took either ...
Hill Alison M - - 2007
CVD is associated with a cellular inflammatory/immune response. n-3 PUFA and moderate aerobic exercise independently alter cytokine production and leucocyte function. There is limited evidence for the combined effect of these treatments on immune function, particularly in patients with risk factors for CVD. We hypothesised that exercise would enhance the ...
Lutton B V - - 2008
In elasmobranchs, the epigonal organ, a unique leukopoietic immune tissue, is associated with the gonads. As the ovaries increase in size during reproductive activity, the overall mass of the epigonal organ does not change. However, immunohistochemistry (proliferating cell nuclear antigen Ab) demonstrated more proliferative activity and extravasation of epigonal leukocytes ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2007
Clonal expansion of T lymphocytes in response to antigenic stimulation is a fundamental process of adaptive immunity. As a consequence of clonal expansion, some T lymphocytes acquire a senescent phenotype, fail to replicate in response to further antigenic stimulation, and express the killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and/or CD57. ...
Nieman D - - 2007
Immune changes following 2 h of intensive cycling with or without rest intervals were measured in trained cyclists (n = 12) who functioned as their own controls during two test sessions that were separated by two weeks. Subjects cycled for 2.0 h at approximately 64 % Watts(max) continuously (C) or ...
Yang Z - - 2007
Exercise has been proved to promote the number and activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in humans, which contributes to improvement in endothelial function and maintenance of cardiovascular homoeostasis. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of exercise on circulating EPCs in healthy subjects is not completely understood. Here, we ...
Li Ke - - 2007
When Bacillus licheniformis was administered to the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, although the total bacterial counts in the intestinal tract of the shrimp remained constant, Vibrio numbers significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Haemocyte counts together with phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the shrimp were significantly higher (P < 0.05) ...
Chen Hsing I - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of exercise training on the changes induced by endotoxin in arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), blood cells, biochemical factors, plasma nitrite/nitrate, methyl guanidine (MG), proinflammatory cytokines, and pathology of the heart, liver, and lung. METHODS: Twenty-four 10-wk-old male Wistar-Kyoto rats weighing 320-350 g were randomly ...
Avallone Sylvie - - 2007
The effects of the formulation (okra, fish, soumbala, extract of wood ash) and cooking time of okra sauce on total iron and zinc content and on their in vitro digestibility were evaluated following a Doehlert uniform shell design with 5 factors and 33 trials. Cooking time had no significant effect ...
Cardile Venera - - 2007
We studied the effects of fibrous antigorite on mesothelial MeT-5A and monocyte-macrophage J774 cell lines to further understand cellular mechanisms induced by asbestos fibers leading to lung damage and cancer. Antigorite is a mineral with asbestiform properties, which tends to associate with chrysotile or tremolite, and frequently occurs as the ...
Levada-Pires Adriana C - - 2007
Exercise activates neutrophil burst and this effect is dependent on training status and exercise intensity. In this study, the chronic effect of treadmill exercise on phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen metabolites and expression of NADPH oxidase components in rat neutrophils was investigated. Neutrophils were obtained by intraperitoneal lavage with PBS. ...
Gleeson Michael - - 2007
Regular moderate exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of infection compared with a completely sedentary state. However, prolonged bouts of strenuous exercise cause a temporary depression of various aspects of immune function (e.g., neutrophil respiratory burst, lymphocyte proliferation, monocyte antigen presentation) that usually lasts approximately 3-24 h after exercise, ...
Shing Cecilia M - - 2007
Granulysin is a cytolytic granule protein released by natural killer cells and activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The influence of exercise training on circulating granulysin concentration is unknown, as is the relationship between granulysin concentration, natural killer cell number and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. We examined changes in plasma granulysin concentration, ...
Silveira Elza M S - - 2007
Moderate physical activity when performed on a regular basis presents a number of benefits to the whole organism, especially regarding immune system function, such as augmenting resistance to infections and to cancer growth. Although glutamine production by active muscle cells as well as neuroendocrine alterations mediated by the chronic adaptation ...
Mochida Noriko - - 2007
In order to clarify the relationship between exercise and neutrophil function, we measured three major neutrophil and neutrophil-related functions, viz. the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability and phagocytic activity (PA) of neutrophils and serum opsonic activity (SOA), simultaneously before and after a unified loading exercise under three different sets ...
Ortega Eduardo - - 2007
Exercise-induced neuroimmunomodulation is clearly accepted today. The present article reviews the main literature concerning the immunomodulatory capacity of catecholamines on the innate immune response during physical exercise, and presents our laboratory's latest results on this topic. It is well known that the effects of exercise on the immune system are ...
Schneider Barbara St Pierre - - 2007
Neutrophils have not consistently been detected in exercise-injured skeletal muscle and, therefore, neutrophil infiltration in this muscle has become a controversial issue. Thirty-eight animal and human studies that assessed injured muscle for neutrophils and employed acute exercise (e.g. level, uphill or downhill running, eccentric contractions, or swimming) were analysed to ...
Gera Tarun - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of iron supplementation on physical performance in children (0-18 years) through systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, personal files, handsearch of reviews, bibliographies of books, abstracts and proceedings of international conferences. REVIEW METHODS: RCTs with interventions that included oral or ...
Horn Peggy - - 2007
It is hypothesized that increased plasma or serum concentrations of extracellular heat shock proteins (eHSP) serve as a danger signal to the innate immune system. Cellular binding of eHSP leads to activation of NK cells and monocytes, as measured by their increased cytokine production, mitotic division and killing capacity. We ...
Senchina David S - - 2007
Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune system known as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence involves cellular and molecular alterations that impact both innate and adaptive immunity, leading to increased incidences of infectious disease morbidity and mortality as well as heightened rates of other immune disorders such as autoimmunity, cancer, and ...
Timmons Brian W - - 2007
CD95 is essential in regulating the immune system, and its reduced expression has been associated with anthracycline resistance in some childhood leukemias. We determined whether an acute bout of exercise would influence the mixed lymphocyte expression of CD95 in healthy children and adolescents. Fifty healthy pediatric subjects (female n=25) cycled ...
Orr Yishay - - 2007
Acute inflammatory stimuli rapidly mobilize neutrophils from the bone marrow by shortening postmitotic maturation time and releasing younger neutrophils; however, the kinetics of this change in maturation time remains unknown. We propose a kinetic model that examines the rate of change in neutrophil average age at exit from the bone ...
West Nicholas P - - 2006
This review examines the question of whether exercise can be used as an experimental model to further our understanding of innate antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) and their role in susceptibility to infection at mucosal surfaces. There is strong evidence to suggest that AMPs, in combination with cellular and physical ...
Kim S-D - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a series of bed exercises on lymphocyte and T-cell subsets in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients during hospitalization. Thirty-five patients were randomly assigned, with 18 assigned to an exercise group and 17 to a control group. The bed exercise ...
Moreira A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression that is multifactorial in origin. Nutrition can modulate normal immune function. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of nutritional supplements in exercise-induced immunodepression in athletes. DESIGN: Systematic review. REVIEW METHODS: Randomised and/or controlled trials of athletes undertaking nutritional supplements to minimise the immunodepression after exercise ...
Santos Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli - - 2007
Transitory immunosupression is reported after intense exercise, especially after an increase in training overload and in overtraining. The influence of intense exercise on plasma hormones and glutamine concentration may contribute to this effect. However, the effect of such exercise-induced changes upon lymphocyte and glutamine metabolism is not known. We compared ...
Kartaloglu Zafer - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This study was done to investigate the course of serum adenosine deaminase (sADA) level during pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters in TB patients. MATERIAL/METHODS: sADA levels were measured at the beginning and after the first, second, and sixth months in 38 smear-positive ...
Farnell M B - - 2006
The immune system of neonatal chicks is functionally immature during the first week of life. Researchers have previously demonstrated that the avian humoral response can be increased with probiotics. Although the humoral response provides the chick with an effective mechanism to combat pathogens, sufficient antibody titers are not attained until ...
Gleeson Michael - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the effects of exercise on immune function in relation to infection susceptibility. RECENT FINDINGS: Postexercise immune function depression is most pronounced when exercise is continuous, prolonged, of moderate to high intensity and performed without food intake. Periods of intensified training that result in overreaching have ...
Manley H J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Intravenous iron is typically administered during the hemodialysis (HD) procedure. The extent of VIT 45, a novel intravenous iron formulation, removal by high-flux (HF) or high-efficiency (HE) dialysis membranes at various ultrafiltration rates (UFR) is unknown. METHODS: An in vitro HD system was constructed to determine the dialyzability of ...
Sellar Christopher M - - 2006
To determine the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on the immune and stress hormone responses to 1 h of strenuous rowing exercise, 22 male subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo (PLA, n = 11) or carbohydrate (CHO, n = 11) group. Subjects completed 3 d of modified dietary intake, a ...
Gutierrez Carlos - - 2006
This article presents the clinical and laboratorial findings in an outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality attributable to Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels. A total of 16 females were diagnosed, 2 of which showed moderate signs of chronic form, particularly hyporexia and intolerance to exercise. The main laboratorial findings ...
Zhang Xiumin - - 2006
The circulating number of natural killer (NK) cells largely changes after an acute bout of physical exercise. Granulysin is a cytolytic granule protein with a broad range of antimicrobial and tumoricidal activities produced and released by human NK cells and cytolytic T lymphocytes. Since NK cells constitutively produce granulysin, most ...
Lehloenya Rannakoe - - 2006
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) represents a diverse range of immunopathologic reactions resulting in clinical deterioration that may occur as immune function is partially restored in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Approximately half of IRIS events are dermatologic, and dermatologic IRIS is described in relation to a ...
Chang Chin-Chyuan - - 2007
The total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Photobacterium damsela were measured when tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (13.5+/-1.5 g) were individually injected with saline or dopamine at 10(-8), 10(-7), or ...
Walsh Alissa - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Two major mutations are defined within the hemochromatosis gene, HFE. Although the effects of the C282Y substitution have been well characterized, the clinical significance of the C282Y/H63D state remains unclear. This study assessed the phenotypic expression in C282Y/H63D subjects as compared with C282Y homozygotes. METHODS: Data were ...
Baba A F - - 2006
Aziridines have been shown to possess marked immunotropic activity. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro effects of different concentrations of three novel aziridines, 2-hydroxy-methyl-1-(N-phtaloylglycyl) aziridine (aziridine 1), 2-hydroxy-methyl-1-(N-phtaloylalanyl) aziridine (aziridine 2) and 2-hydroxy-methyl-1-(N-phtaloylphenylalanyl) aziridine (aziridine 3), on the proliferative responses of human lymphocytes stimulated by ...
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