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Results 201 - 250 of 1060
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Ferrer Miguel D - - 2009
The aims of this study were to assess the effects of a swimming session on the peripheral blood neutrophil and lymphocyte pro- and antioxidant system, identify any differences between the sexes and the regulatory mechanisms that might induce the immune cell adaptive response to exercise. Twenty-four swimmers (15 males, 9 ...
Giraldo E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: It is still not really known what is the optimal level of exercise that improves, but does not impair or overstimulate the innate immune function. This is especially the case in women, who have higher basal levels of 'inflammatory markers' than men. The aim of this work was to ...
Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2009
PURPOSE: Natural killer cells (NK) induce the death of tumor cells by perforin/granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas platelets reduce the capacity of NK to destroy tumor cells. Physical exercise affects both immune function and platelet activity because responses depend on type, intensity, and duration of exercise. This investigation explores how various exercise ...
Lauer Amanda M AM Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA. - - 2009
Belgian Waterslager canaries (BWC), bred for a distinct low-pitched song, have an inherited high-frequency hearing loss associated with hair cell abnormalities. Hair cells near the abneural edge of the papilla, which receive primarily efferent innervation in normal birds, are among the most severely affected. These cells are thought to support ...
Zwart Sara R - - 2009
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) underwater habitat is a useful analogue for spaceflight. However, the increased air pressure in the habitat exposes crewmembers to higher oxygen pressures, which increases their risk for oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. Studies from a previous NEEMO ...
Inglis Jordan E - - 2008
The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement ...
Ricardo J S Costa - - 2009
A one night period without sleep is not uncommon amongst athletes travelling across time zones and military personnel during training and operations. However, the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to strenuous exercise remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of one night ...
Johannsen N M - - 2010
To examine the association between fitness, BMI, and neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil concentrations in apparently healthy, non-smoking men. Cross-sectional study of 452 men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study examining the resting concentration of white blood cell subfractions across fitness (maximal METs during a treadmill exercise test) and ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2009
Monocytes are a heterogeneous group of cells, the relative distribution of which change in peripheral blood following a strenuous bout of aerobic exercise. Monocyte subtypes can be identified in blood based on the cell surface expression of CD14 and CD16: classic (CD14(++bright)/CD16(-negative)) and the CD16(+dim) (CD14(++bright)/CD16(+dim)) and CD16(++bright) (CD14(+dim)/CD16(++bright)) pro-inflammatory ...
Gleeson Michael - - 2008
Some athletes can have high intakes of l-glutamine because of their high energy and protein intakes and also because they consume protein supplements, protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids. Prolonged exercise and periods of heavy training are associated with a decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration and this has been ...
Biondo Patricia D - - 2008
Ginseng is a popular herbal remedy that is reputed to increase resistance to stress and improve immune function. Regular exercise results in acute physiologic stress that affects the immune response. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily consumption of a standardized ginsenoside-containing North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) ...
Laing Stewart J - - 2008
The aim was to investigate the effects of 48 hr of fluid, energy, or combined fluid and energy restriction on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subset counts (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy men (M +/- SEM age 21 +/- 1 ...
Masello Juan F - - 2009
The different leucocyte types are an important part of the immune system. Thus, they have been used in ecological studies to assess immune function and physiological stress in wild birds. It is generally assumed that increased stress and decreased condition are associated with an increase in the ratio of heterophils ...
Yaegaki Makoto - - 2008
In order to develop a predictive marker of overtraining in athletes, we examined the changes in neutrophil function [reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability and phagocytic activity (PA)] for 10 male and 13 female judoists attending a training camp. Measurements were taken four times in total--immediately before and after a ...
Gavrieli Ronit - - 2008
PURPOSE: Intense exercise bouts are associated with a reduction of immune function and increased susceptibility to infections. Neutrophils act as a first line of defense to eliminate infectious agents and are also involved in muscle tissue inflammatory response to exercise. Intensive exercise suppresses several neutrophil functions including chemotaxis. The study ...
Wang Xiang - - 2008
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immune-mediated chronic vasculitis of large- and medium-sized vessels usually occurring in White individuals aged over 50 years, in Western countries. The pathological hallmark of GCA is granulomatous inflammation of the involved vessels. Headache of new-onset is the most common clinical manifestation, and permanent vision ...
Timmerman Kyle L - - 2008
Exercise training or higher levels of physical activity are known to exert anti-inflammatory effects. CD14+CD16+ monocytes are potent producers of inflammatory proteins, and elevated levels of these "inflammatory" monocytes have been implicated in disease development. Little is known about the influence of exercise training on this cell population. On the ...
Adams P C - - 2008
Hemochromatosis has often been associated with progressive iron overload, but the natural history of iron accumulation in untreated C282Y homozygotes has been reported infrequently. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study screened 101 168 primary care participants for iron overload using transferrin saturation, unbound iron-binding capacity, Serum ferritin (SF), ...
Tanimura Yuko - - 2008
Post high-intensity exercise lymphocytopenia is well documented, but its underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. A possible mechanism is a reactive oxygen species-induced DNA damage after high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, lymphocyte apoptosis related to DNA damage might contribute to exercise-induced lymphocytopenia. PURPOSE: This study examined lymphocytopenia, lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage, ...
Nieman David C - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of oat beta-glucan (BG) supplementation on chronic resting immunity, exercise-induced changes in immune function, and self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence in human endurance athletes. METHODS: Trained male cyclists were randomized to BG (N = 19) or placebo (P; N = 17) groups ...
Caviedes-Bucheli Javier - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to quantify the percentage and the mean fluorescence intensity of viable alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages (AAMø) CD163+ positive for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPr) within the total AAMø population in human dental pulp. Pulp tissue samples were collected from teeth with a clinical diagnosis of ...
Prestes J - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of short periods of exercise of different intensity on lymphocyte function and cytokines. Thirty Wistar rats, 2 months old, were used. They were divided into five groups of six rats: a sedentary control group; a group exercised for 5 minutes ...
Peeling Peter - - 2008
Iron is utilised by the body for oxygen transport and energy production, and is therefore essential to athletic performance. Commonly, athletes are diagnosed as iron deficient, however, contrasting evidence exists as to the severity of deficiency and the effect on performance. Iron losses can result from a host of mechanisms ...
Patrizi, Robert Michael
Contracting skeletal muscle is capable of producing a metabolic response involving the production of large amounts of intracellular messengers known as cytokines. IL-6 is one cytokine known to be released in response to muscular contraction. Plasma IL-6 concentrations have been shown to increase significantly followed intense resistive exercise, and muscle-derived ...
Jimenez Chantal - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: As exercise while wearing protective clothing exacerbates body heat storage compared to exercise in the heat, and as exercise alters immune responses, it appeared worthwhile to examine immune and stress responses while wearing protective clothing during moderate exercise. METHODS: Eight subjects completed two bouts of exercise at 45% Vo2(max) ...
Di Giancamillo A - - 2008
Probiotic research has been approached, above all in recent years, by widely differing points of view, both for human and animal uses. Lactic acid bacteria release bacteriocins, and some of them may function as probiotic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with ...
Laires Maria José - - 2008
Physical exercise may deplete magnesium, which together with a marginal dietary magnesium intake may impair energy metabolism, muscle function, oxygen uptake and electrolyte balance. Consequently, the ability to perform physical work may be compromised. Many aspects of immune function can be depressed temporarily by either a single bout of very ...
Nieman David C - - 2008
Multiple components of the immune systems in athletes exhibit transient dysfunction after prolonged, heavy exertion. During this "open window" of impaired immunity, pathogens may gain a foothold, increasing infection risk. Nutritional supplements have been studied as countermeasures to exercise-induced immune changes and infection risk. This review focuses on findings from ...
West N P - - 2010
METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective observational study comparing salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme concentration over 5 months (chronic changes) in elite rowers (n=17, mean age 24.3+/-4.0 years) with sedentary individuals (controls) (n=18, mean age=27.2+/-7.1 years) and a graded exercise test to exhaustion (acute changes) with a cohort of elite rowers ...
Tripette Julien - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers (SCT group) present a specific postexercise inflammatory response to repeated and strenuous exercise. DESIGN: The patterns of inflammatory markers in response to repeated heavy exercise were investigated in SCT carriers (SCT group: eight men, 20.0+/-0.7 years) and subjects with normal haemoglobin ...
Okutsu Mitsuharu - - 2008
CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and its ligand, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), are crucial for the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the relationship between stress, monocyte CCR2 expression and migration activity. First, we collected peripheral blood mononuclear ...
Markovitch Daniella - - 2008
Strenuous exercise induces an initial pro- and subsequent anti-inflammatory response, and it has been suggested that this may be one of the ways that regular exercise reduces chronic inflammation and therefore the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, public health recommendations emphasize moderate-intensity physical activity, and it is important to understand ...
Umeda Takashi - - 2008
In order to examine in detail the influence on the neutrophil immune function in sumo wrestlers of performing traditional and original training we examined changes in the neutrophil immune function in 17 male amateur university sumo wrestlers (aged 20.2 +/- 1.5 years), before ('Pre') and after the training ('Post') for ...
Berzins Lisha L - - 2008
Recently, there has been considerable interest in the role of the immune system in shaping life-history evolution, sexual selection strategies, and indexes of individual quality. The most frequently used assay of immune function, particularly in avian field studies, is the phytohemagglunitin (PHA) skin test. PHA is injected subcutaneously into the ...
Okutsu Mitsuharu - - 2008
We investigated the effect of 25 wk of exercise training on in vivo immune measures that depend on T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses in the elderly as a substudy of a randomized controlled trial to investigate health benefits of regular exercise training for the ...
Campbell Peter T - - 2008
Cross-sectional studies suggest that moderate physical activity is associated with enhanced resting immune function; however, few randomized controlled trials have investigated this link. We investigated the effect of 12-mo aerobic exercise, relative to stretching control, on in vitro immune function in a randomized, controlled trial of 115 postmenopausal, overweight, or ...
Castellano Vanessa - - 2008
Regular exercise reduces functional loss associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the impact of exercise on inflammatory mediators associated with disease activity remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ambulatory MS subjects would respond similarly to aerobic cycle training compared with matched controls on circulating ...
Sureda Antoni - - 2008
This study evaluated the gender differences in response to intense exercise on lymphocyte hydrogen peroxide production, nitric oxide handling and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and gene expression. Fifteen males and nine females participated voluntarily in the study and performed a swimming session at 75-80% of the maximal capacity. In ...
Cury-Boaventura Maria Fernanda - - 2008
Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide (Gln) supplementation was investigated. Nine triathletes performed two exhaustive exercise trials with a 1-week interval in a randomized, double blind, crossover protocol. Thirty minutes before treadmill exhaustive exercise at variable speeds in ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2008
Senescent T-lymphocytes are antigen-experienced cells that express the killer-cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and/or CD57; fail to clonally expand following further antigenic stimulation and prevail in the resting blood of older adults compared to the young. Physical exercise mobilises T-lymphocytes into the bloodstream and is therefore a model with which ...
Wardyn Gina G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exercise and/or training on hematologic indices, circulating side population (SP) cells, and cytokines. Specifically hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), white blood cell (WBC) and platelet (Plt) numbers, SP cells and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were analyzed before and following ...
You Tongjian - - 2008
Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived cytokines/proteins, may be important factors linking excess adipose tissue to individual metabolic risk factors, and the overall metabolic syndrome. Current evidence supports that aerobic exercise, alone or combined with hypocaloric diet, improves symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, possibly by altering systemic levels of inflammatory adipokines. A ...
Moir Hannah - - 2008
There is much evidence that prolonged intense exercise suppresses the immune system. However, the intracellular biochemical mechanisms linking exercise and immunosuppression remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that exercise-induced inactivation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) disrupts individual immune cell function, and thus may be ...
Hong Suzi S Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, - - 2008
High blood pressure (BP) and monocyte activation are associated with atherogenic processes. Especially, CD16 expressing monocytes are shown to be activated in many inflammatory conditions but their characteristics in hypertension is unknown. We compared CD16(++), CD16(+) and CD16(-) monocyte populations and their cellular adhesion molecule (CAM), chemokine receptor, and activation ...
Escribano Begoña M - - 2008
Gender differences have not been shown in relation to the immune system in athletic horses. The aim of the present paper was to elucidate gender differences in the non-specific immune response of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN), plasma glucose and in hormones before and after an exercise in the lactate threshold ...
Van Craenenbroeck Emeline M F - - 2008
Mobilization of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) might explain exercise-induced improvement of endothelial function. We assessed whether a maximal exercise bout could alter the number of circulating EPC in healthy subjects and whether this effect is related to their cardiovascular risk profile. Additionally, we investigated possible mediators of this ...
Wagner P D - - 2008
This short review addresses modern concepts of oxygen transport and utilization. It consists of two sections. The first deals with the underlying concepts and is largely theoretical. It first presents the transport pathway components as a linked in series system. Then, the way in which the components are integrated to ...
Umeda Takashi - - 2008
The present study examined the effects of judo training on neutrophil and related functions. We measured and studied changes in the neutrophil and its related functions in 22 male university judoists immediately before (Pre values) and immediately after (Post values) a 2 h training session: reactive oxygen species (ROS) production ...
Timmons Brian W - - 2008
Natural killer (NK) cells are the most responsive immune cell to acute exercise. This sensitivity to physiological stress combined with their role in innate immune defences suggests that these cells may be a link between regular physical activity and overall health status. NK cells are a heterogeneous population consisting of ...
Teodorczyk-Injeyan Julita A - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT) accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in ...
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