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Results 201 - 250 of 1041
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Nieman David C - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of oat beta-glucan (BG) supplementation on chronic resting immunity, exercise-induced changes in immune function, and self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence in human endurance athletes. METHODS: Trained male cyclists were randomized to BG (N = 19) or placebo (P; N = 17) groups ...
Caviedes-Bucheli Javier - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to quantify the percentage and the mean fluorescence intensity of viable alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages (AAMø) CD163+ positive for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPr) within the total AAMø population in human dental pulp. Pulp tissue samples were collected from teeth with a clinical diagnosis of ...
Prestes J - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of short periods of exercise of different intensity on lymphocyte function and cytokines. Thirty Wistar rats, 2 months old, were used. They were divided into five groups of six rats: a sedentary control group; a group exercised for 5 minutes ...
Peeling Peter - - 2008
Iron is utilised by the body for oxygen transport and energy production, and is therefore essential to athletic performance. Commonly, athletes are diagnosed as iron deficient, however, contrasting evidence exists as to the severity of deficiency and the effect on performance. Iron losses can result from a host of mechanisms ...
Patrizi, Robert Michael
Contracting skeletal muscle is capable of producing a metabolic response involving the production of large amounts of intracellular messengers known as cytokines. IL-6 is one cytokine known to be released in response to muscular contraction. Plasma IL-6 concentrations have been shown to increase significantly followed intense resistive exercise, and muscle-derived ...
Jimenez Chantal - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: As exercise while wearing protective clothing exacerbates body heat storage compared to exercise in the heat, and as exercise alters immune responses, it appeared worthwhile to examine immune and stress responses while wearing protective clothing during moderate exercise. METHODS: Eight subjects completed two bouts of exercise at 45% Vo2(max) ...
Di Giancamillo A - - 2008
Probiotic research has been approached, above all in recent years, by widely differing points of view, both for human and animal uses. Lactic acid bacteria release bacteriocins, and some of them may function as probiotic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with ...
Laires Maria José - - 2008
Physical exercise may deplete magnesium, which together with a marginal dietary magnesium intake may impair energy metabolism, muscle function, oxygen uptake and electrolyte balance. Consequently, the ability to perform physical work may be compromised. Many aspects of immune function can be depressed temporarily by either a single bout of very ...
Nieman David C - - 2008
Multiple components of the immune systems in athletes exhibit transient dysfunction after prolonged, heavy exertion. During this "open window" of impaired immunity, pathogens may gain a foothold, increasing infection risk. Nutritional supplements have been studied as countermeasures to exercise-induced immune changes and infection risk. This review focuses on findings from ...
West N P - - 2010
METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective observational study comparing salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme concentration over 5 months (chronic changes) in elite rowers (n=17, mean age 24.3+/-4.0 years) with sedentary individuals (controls) (n=18, mean age=27.2+/-7.1 years) and a graded exercise test to exhaustion (acute changes) with a cohort of elite rowers ...
Tripette Julien - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers (SCT group) present a specific postexercise inflammatory response to repeated and strenuous exercise. DESIGN: The patterns of inflammatory markers in response to repeated heavy exercise were investigated in SCT carriers (SCT group: eight men, 20.0+/-0.7 years) and subjects with normal haemoglobin ...
Okutsu Mitsuharu - - 2008
CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and its ligand, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), are crucial for the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the relationship between stress, monocyte CCR2 expression and migration activity. First, we collected peripheral blood mononuclear ...
Markovitch Daniella - - 2008
Strenuous exercise induces an initial pro- and subsequent anti-inflammatory response, and it has been suggested that this may be one of the ways that regular exercise reduces chronic inflammation and therefore the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, public health recommendations emphasize moderate-intensity physical activity, and it is important to understand ...
Umeda Takashi - - 2008
In order to examine in detail the influence on the neutrophil immune function in sumo wrestlers of performing traditional and original training we examined changes in the neutrophil immune function in 17 male amateur university sumo wrestlers (aged 20.2 +/- 1.5 years), before ('Pre') and after the training ('Post') for ...
Berzins Lisha L - - 2008
Recently, there has been considerable interest in the role of the immune system in shaping life-history evolution, sexual selection strategies, and indexes of individual quality. The most frequently used assay of immune function, particularly in avian field studies, is the phytohemagglunitin (PHA) skin test. PHA is injected subcutaneously into the ...
Okutsu Mitsuharu - - 2008
We investigated the effect of 25 wk of exercise training on in vivo immune measures that depend on T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses in the elderly as a substudy of a randomized controlled trial to investigate health benefits of regular exercise training for the ...
Campbell Peter T - - 2008
Cross-sectional studies suggest that moderate physical activity is associated with enhanced resting immune function; however, few randomized controlled trials have investigated this link. We investigated the effect of 12-mo aerobic exercise, relative to stretching control, on in vitro immune function in a randomized, controlled trial of 115 postmenopausal, overweight, or ...
Castellano Vanessa - - 2008
Regular exercise reduces functional loss associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the impact of exercise on inflammatory mediators associated with disease activity remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ambulatory MS subjects would respond similarly to aerobic cycle training compared with matched controls on circulating ...
Sureda Antoni - - 2008
This study evaluated the gender differences in response to intense exercise on lymphocyte hydrogen peroxide production, nitric oxide handling and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and gene expression. Fifteen males and nine females participated voluntarily in the study and performed a swimming session at 75-80% of the maximal capacity. In ...
Cury-Boaventura Maria Fernanda - - 2008
Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide (Gln) supplementation was investigated. Nine triathletes performed two exhaustive exercise trials with a 1-week interval in a randomized, double blind, crossover protocol. Thirty minutes before treadmill exhaustive exercise at variable speeds in ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2008
Senescent T-lymphocytes are antigen-experienced cells that express the killer-cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and/or CD57; fail to clonally expand following further antigenic stimulation and prevail in the resting blood of older adults compared to the young. Physical exercise mobilises T-lymphocytes into the bloodstream and is therefore a model with which ...
Wardyn Gina G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exercise and/or training on hematologic indices, circulating side population (SP) cells, and cytokines. Specifically hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), white blood cell (WBC) and platelet (Plt) numbers, SP cells and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were analyzed before and following ...
You Tongjian - - 2008
Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived cytokines/proteins, may be important factors linking excess adipose tissue to individual metabolic risk factors, and the overall metabolic syndrome. Current evidence supports that aerobic exercise, alone or combined with hypocaloric diet, improves symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, possibly by altering systemic levels of inflammatory adipokines. A ...
Moir Hannah - - 2008
There is much evidence that prolonged intense exercise suppresses the immune system. However, the intracellular biochemical mechanisms linking exercise and immunosuppression remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that exercise-induced inactivation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) disrupts individual immune cell function, and thus may be ...
Hong Suzi - - 2008
High blood pressure (BP) and monocyte activation are associated with atherogenic processes. Especially, CD16 expressing monocytes are shown to be activated in many inflammatory conditions but their characteristics in hypertension is unknown. We compared CD16(++), CD16(+) and CD16(-) monocyte populations and their cellular adhesion molecule (CAM), chemokine receptor, and activation ...
Escribano Begoña M - - 2008
Gender differences have not been shown in relation to the immune system in athletic horses. The aim of the present paper was to elucidate gender differences in the non-specific immune response of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN), plasma glucose and in hormones before and after an exercise in the lactate threshold ...
Van Craenenbroeck Emeline M F - - 2008
Mobilization of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) might explain exercise-induced improvement of endothelial function. We assessed whether a maximal exercise bout could alter the number of circulating EPC in healthy subjects and whether this effect is related to their cardiovascular risk profile. Additionally, we investigated possible mediators of this ...
Wagner P D - - 2008
This short review addresses modern concepts of oxygen transport and utilization. It consists of two sections. The first deals with the underlying concepts and is largely theoretical. It first presents the transport pathway components as a linked in series system. Then, the way in which the components are integrated to ...
Umeda Takashi - - 2008
The present study examined the effects of judo training on neutrophil and related functions. We measured and studied changes in the neutrophil and its related functions in 22 male university judoists immediately before (Pre values) and immediately after (Post values) a 2 h training session: reactive oxygen species (ROS) production ...
Timmons Brian W - - 2008
Natural killer (NK) cells are the most responsive immune cell to acute exercise. This sensitivity to physiological stress combined with their role in innate immune defences suggests that these cells may be a link between regular physical activity and overall health status. NK cells are a heterogeneous population consisting of ...
Teodorczyk-Injeyan Julita A - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT) accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in ...
Di Santolo Manuela - - 2008
We evaluated the effects of regular physical exercise on anemia and iron status in young non-professional female athletes. A total of 191 healthy white Italian women (23.5 +/- 4.68 years) were analyzed; 70 were non-professional athletes performing 11.1 +/- 2.63 h week(-1) exercise and 121 were sedentary controls. Blood markers ...
Pacque P F J - - 2007
AIM: There are reports of the effect of endurance exercise on mucosal immune function and of the effect of short duration exercise on humoral immune function. However, little is known of the effect of endurance exercise on humoral immune function and the related risk of infection. This study examined the ...
Radom-Aizik Shlomit - - 2008
Relatively brief bouts of exercise alter gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but whether exercise changes gene expression in circulating neutrophils (whose numbers, like PBMCs, increase) is not known. We hypothesized that exercise would activate neutrophil genes involved in apoptosis, inflammation, and cell growth and repair, since these ...
Lagranha C J - - 2008
Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Its primary source is skeletal muscle, from where it is released into the bloodstream and transported to a variety of tissues. Several studies have shown that glutamine is important for rat and human neutrophil function and that these cells ...
Radom-Aizik Shlomit - - 2007
Exercise affects t-cell cytokine production. Whether or not these effects are caused by circulating factors associated with physical activity (e.g., inflammatory mediators, acidosis) is unknown. To investigate this, we incubated sera (10%), obtained from 16 young-adults before (PRE) and after (END) 30-min of exercise, with commercially available Jurkat cells, a ...
Krüger K - - 2008
Acute exercise is known for causing considerable changes in leukocyte counts and function. In this paper we report that differentiated changes in T-lymphocyte distribution occur in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs depending on the type and the intensity of exercise. Using fluorescent cell tracking we observed a release of T-cells from ...
Markovitch Daniella - - 2007
It was postulated that prior demanding exercise would suppress the induction of the oxidant-responsive protein Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in mononuclear cells following subsequent ex vivo H(2)O(2) treatment. Eight male subjects completed two trials in a randomized order (one rest and one exercise) and ex vivo HO-1 protein induction was determined ...
Avloniti Alexandra A - - 2007
PURPOSE: To investigate the acute changes in leukocyte number and cortisol after a single bout of soccer training. METHODS: Ten elite female national-team soccer players and 8 nonathletes participated in the study. The duration of the exercise was 2 h, and it was performed at an intensity of 75% of ...
Laso Francisco Javier - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. METHODS: Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) ...
Lagranha Claudia J - - 2007
We have previously shown that a single session of exercise induces DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increases expression of pro-apoptotic genes (bax and bcl-xS) and decreases expression of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-xL) in rat neutrophils. Glutamine supplementation had a protective effect in the apoptosis induced by a single session of exercise. ...
Nieman David C - - 2007
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of quercetin supplementation on incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and exercise-induced changes in immune function. METHODS: Trained male cyclists (N=40) were randomized to quercetin (N=20) or placebo (N=20) groups and, under double-blind procedures, received 3 wk quercetin (1000 mg.d(-1)) or placebo before, during, ...
Jimenez Chantal - - 2007
Different stress hormones are released during prolonged exercise and passive hyperthermia. We hypothesized that these different hormonal responses could contribute to the different changes in the immune response during these two challenges. Methods: Eight subjects completed three trials in a randomized order. In the control trial (C), the subjects remained ...
Markovitch Daniella - - 2008
Oxidative stress induces the expression of the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory protein haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In the present investigation, we show that anticipation of subsequent exercise elevates the expression of HO-1 mRNA in lymphocytes. A between-groups comparison of HO-1 mRNA expression in subjects about to complete a half marathon race vs. ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2007
The lymphocytopenia that occurs during the recovery stage of exercise may be a result of apoptosis through an increased expression of CD95, a loss of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59, or both. Trained subjects completed intensive, moderate, and downhill treadmill-running protocols. Blood lymphocytes isolated before, immediately after, 1h ...
Phillips George C - - 2007
Glutamine is a popular dietary supplement consumed for purported ergogenic benefits of increased strength, quicker recovery, decreased frequency of respiratory infections, and prevention of overtraining. From a biochemical standpoint, glutamine does play a physiologic role in each of these areas, but it remains only one of a host of factors ...
Gluhovschi Cristina - - 2007
Steroids are still the mainstay of therapy in primary chronic glomerulonephritis (PCGN), regardless of underlying disturbance or pathology. Moreover, relationship between known abnormalities and disease manifestation is stochastic, therefore treatment continues to be empirical. It is not known whether responsiveness is related to immune phenotype. We performed flowcytometric lymphocyte (Ly) ...
Walsh Catherine J - - 2007
Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide ...
Peeling Peter - - 2007
This investigation examined the effect of intramuscular iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance in iron-deficient women. Sixteen athletes performed a 10-min steady-state submaximal economy test, a VO2max test, and a timed test to exhaustion at VO2max workload. Subjects were randomly assigned to an iron-supplemented group (IG) receiving intramuscular iron injections or ...
Sigal Leonard H - - 2007
There has been a sea change in our understanding of atherosclerosis. We have come a long way from the days where eating too much fat and not getting enough exercise and having the wrong genetic background was thought to be the entire story. A few years ago, the cardiologists began ...
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