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Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2010
Blood undergoes oxidative stress during severe hypoxia or intense exercise. Excessive exposure to oxidative stress induces replicative senescence and apoptosis of lymphocytes. This study determines how various exercises with/without hypoxia affect lymphocyte subset mobilization and oxidative stress-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. Eighteen sedentary males randomly engaged in two normoxic exercise bouts [severe ...
Nieman David C - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to test the influence of 2.4 g/d fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) over 6 wk on exercise performance, inflammation, and immune measures in 23 trained cyclists before and after a 3-d period of intense exercise. Participants were randomized to n-3 PUFA ...
Martin Stephen A - - 2009
Prolonged intense exercise causes immunosuppression, whereas moderate-intensity exercise improves immune function and potentially reduces risk and severity of respiratory viral infections. Here, based on available evidence, we present a model whereby moderate exercise-induced increases in stress hormones reduce excessive local inflammation and skew the immune response away from a TH1 ...
Möbius-Winkler Sven - - 2009
Exercise stimulates the release of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) from the bone marrow. However, no data are available concerning the time frame of EPC release during strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent release of progenitor cells during strenuous exercise. Eighteen healthy ...
Giraldo Esther - - 2010
This study evaluated the role of toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) in the interaction of 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp72, a stress-inducible protein) with neutrophils and the participation on TLR-2 in the stimulation of neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities by post-exercise physiological concentrations of Hsp72. Human peripheral blood ...
Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2009
Natural killer cells (NKs) are important to the clearance of transformed cells. This investigation elucidates how systemic hypoxia influences mobilization of the NK subsets and cytotoxicity of NKs to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPCs) during exercise. Sixteen sedentary men performed six distinct experimental tests in an air-conditioned normobaric hypoxia chamber: high-intensity ...
Thorell Daniel - - 2009
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) seem to play an important role in vessel formation. While EPCs seem to exert their function mainly through a paracrine effect, the OECs can develop into mature endothelial cells and form tubular structures. Exercise is known to increase angiogenic factors ...
Navalta James Wilfred - - 2009
Exercise as a stimulus to induce lymphocyte apoptosis remains controversial. Differences may be due to participant fitness level or the methodology of assessing cell death. Another important issue is the mode of exercise used to induce physiological changes. Treadmill exercise typically induces significant apoptosis in human lymphocytes; however, the effect ...
dos Santos Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli - - 2009
This study investigated the effect of exercise on glutamine metabolism in macrophages of trained rats. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary (SED); moderately trained (MOD) rats that were swim trained 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; and exhaustively trained (EXT) rats that were similarly trained as MOD for ...
Hurst Suzanne Maria - - 2009
Prolonged oxidative stress is detrimental to health; however, transient oxidative stress may improve immune capability. We examined whether exercise-induced increases in the plasma oxidative generating capability enhance immune responsiveness to potential pathogens. Twelve individuals underwent a 30-min row and pre and post-exercise bloods were collected for oxidative stress and immune ...
Ortega Eduardo - - 2009
We studied the physiological role of the 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp72, a stress-inducible protein) in modulating neutrophil chemotaxis during a single bout of intense exercise performed by sedentary women, together with various cell mechanisms potentially involved in the modulation. For each volunteer, we evaluated neutrophil chemotaxis and ...
Zwart Sara R - - 2009
Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes that are associated with spaceflight. Nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 d of head-down bed rest were evaluated. A total of 13 subjects (8 men, 5 women; ages 26-54 yr) participated in either 60 or ...
Radom-Aizik Shlomit - - 2009
Recent studies show that brief exercise alters circulating neutrophil and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression, ranging from cell growth to both pro-and anti-inflammatory processes. These initial observations were made solely in males, but whether PBMC gene expression is altered by exercise in females is not known. Ten early-pubertal ...
Murakami Shigeki - - 2009
Athletes become increasingly susceptible to infection with intense training that results in immune suppression. The immune state was investigated after administering cystine/theanine (CT), which has been reported to have an immune reinforcement effect, to athletes before training involving a prolonged period of intense exercise. Fifteen long-distance runners were each allocated ...
Radom-Aizik Shlomit - - 2009
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are stimulated by exercise and contribute not only to host defense, but also to growth, repair, and disease pathogenesis. Whether PBMC gene expression is altered by exercise in children is not known. Ten early pubertal boys (8-12 y) and 10 late pubertal boys (15-18 y) ...
Anane Leila H - - 2009
The mobilization of cytotoxic lymphocytes, such Natural Killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells, during stress and exercise is well documented in humans. However, humans have another cytotoxic lymphocyte subset that has not been studied in this context: the Gamma Delta (gammadelta) T lymphocyte. These cells play key roles in ...
Troadec Marie-Bérengère - - 2009
Hepcidin and hemojuvelin (HJV) are two critical regulators of iron metabolism as indicated by the development of major iron overload associated to mutations in hepcidin and HJV genes. Hepcidin and HJV are highly expressed in liver and muscles, respectively. Intensive muscular exercise has been reported to modify serum iron parameters ...
West, Nic
We conducted a prospective observational study comparing salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme concentration over five months (chronic changes) in elite rowers (n=17, mean age 24.3 ± 4.0y) with sedentary individuals (controls) (n=18, mean age = 27.2 ± 7.1 y) and a graded exercise test to exhaustion (acute changes) with a cohort ...
Davison Glen - - 2009
There are many factors in mucosal secretions that contribute to innate immunity and the 'first line of defence' at mucosal surfaces. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of exercise on many of these 'defence' factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of prolonged ...
Krüger K - - 2009
Intensive and exhaustive exercise induces an activation of blood T-lymphocytes, which seems to be terminated by apoptotic processes in the postexercise period. Here, we report that exercise-induced T-lymphocyte apoptosis is a systemic phenomenon occurring in various lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. The apoptosis rate could be related to exercise intensity and ...
Finnoff Jonathan T - - 2009
This self-directed learning module highlights medical coverage of sports events and artistic performances. It is part of the study guide on sports and performing arts medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Using a case vignette format, this article specifically focuses ...
Campbell John P - - 2009
An acute bout of exercise evokes mobilisation of lymphocytes into the bloodstream, which can be largely attributed to increases in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8TLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Evidence further suggests that, even within these lymphocyte subsets, there is preferential mobilisation of cells that share certain functional and phenotypic ...
Goussetis Evgenios - - 2009
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the recently described circulating fibrocytes (CFs) are strongly associated with tissue repair. We investigated the kinetics of both "repair" progenitor cells in healthy athletes who participated in the "Spartahlon" ultradistance foot race (246 km continuous running exercise), which provides a unique model of inducing dramatic ...
Shearer William T - - 2009
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether a prolonged period of bed rest will affect human immune responses, particularly in female subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure immune responses in adult female subjects exposed to prolonged bed rest. METHODS: Adult (25-40 years) female volunteers (n = 24) were maintained in a supine ...
Smith, C; ;
Objective. To investigate the effect of pre-exercise glutamine supplementation and the influence of a prior acute bout of glycogen-reducing exercise on the general stress and immune response to acute high-intensity cycling. Design. Randomised, double-blind, cross-over supplementation study. Setting and intervention. Subjects performed a series of 4 simulated mountain-bike races lasting ...
Semple, SJ; ;
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant that increases in response to noxious stimuli that inevitably induce cellular and/or tissue injury. The increased synthesis of CRP occurs predominantly in the liver and peaks 24 - 48 hours after the inciting stimulus. CRP forms an integral component of innate immunity and ...
Adler Elizabeth M - - 2009
This year's signaling breakthroughs extended from protein crystals to cells and subcellular structures to whole genomes. Nominations included research on synapses in brains and in B cells; the evolution and regulation of signaling networks; the identification of a new class of plant hormones; insights into the causes and treatments of ...
Neves Sergio da Cunha Sda C - - 2009
It has been suggested that elderly people are more susceptible to infectious diseases because of immunosenescence. The well-described transient immunosuppressive effect of exercise may increase health risks in such populations. Although resistance training has been recommended to older individuals, little is known regarding its acute effects on immune indexes. This ...
Bramuglia Guillermo F - - 2009
Indinavir, a HIV-1 protease inhibitor, showed large inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. It has been proposed as a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, that may contribute to limit indinavir bioavailability. A liquid formulation of indinavir was developed from indinavir capsules in order to study indinavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Compartmental ...
West N P - - 2009
Nutritional practices that promote good health and optimal athletic performance are of interest to athletes, coaches, exercise scientists and dietitians. Probiotic supplements modulate the intestinal microbial flora and offer promise as a practical means of enhancing gut and immune function. The intestinal microbial flora consists of diverse bacterial species that ...
Groër Maureen W - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To explore relationships between self-reported exercise in postpartum women and concentrations of cytokines and secretory immunoglobulin A in their milk. METHOD: Fifty-eight frozen, unthawed aliquots of human hindmilk were available for analysis from a previous larger study on the influence of lactation on postpartum stress and immunity. The samples ...
Ferrer Miguel D - - 2009
The aims of this study were to assess the effects of a swimming session on the peripheral blood neutrophil and lymphocyte pro- and antioxidant system, identify any differences between the sexes and the regulatory mechanisms that might induce the immune cell adaptive response to exercise. Twenty-four swimmers (15 males, 9 ...
Giraldo E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: It is still not really known what is the optimal level of exercise that improves, but does not impair or overstimulate the innate immune function. This is especially the case in women, who have higher basal levels of 'inflammatory markers' than men. The aim of this work was to ...
Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2009
PURPOSE: Natural killer cells (NK) induce the death of tumor cells by perforin/granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas platelets reduce the capacity of NK to destroy tumor cells. Physical exercise affects both immune function and platelet activity because responses depend on type, intensity, and duration of exercise. This investigation explores how various exercise ...
Lauer Amanda M - - 2009
Belgian Waterslager canaries (BWC), bred for a distinct low-pitched song, have an inherited high-frequency hearing loss associated with hair cell abnormalities. Hair cells near the abneural edge of the papilla, which receive primarily efferent innervation in normal birds, are among the most severely affected. These cells are thought to support ...
Zwart Sara R - - 2009
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) underwater habitat is a useful analogue for spaceflight. However, the increased air pressure in the habitat exposes crewmembers to higher oxygen pressures, which increases their risk for oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. Studies from a previous NEEMO ...
Inglis Jordan E - - 2008
The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement ...
Ricardo J S Costa - - 2009
A one night period without sleep is not uncommon amongst athletes travelling across time zones and military personnel during training and operations. However, the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to strenuous exercise remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of one night ...
Johannsen N M - - 2010
To examine the association between fitness, BMI, and neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil concentrations in apparently healthy, non-smoking men. Cross-sectional study of 452 men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study examining the resting concentration of white blood cell subfractions across fitness (maximal METs during a treadmill exercise test) and ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2009
Monocytes are a heterogeneous group of cells, the relative distribution of which change in peripheral blood following a strenuous bout of aerobic exercise. Monocyte subtypes can be identified in blood based on the cell surface expression of CD14 and CD16: classic (CD14(++bright)/CD16(-negative)) and the CD16(+dim) (CD14(++bright)/CD16(+dim)) and CD16(++bright) (CD14(+dim)/CD16(++bright)) pro-inflammatory ...
Gleeson Michael - - 2008
Some athletes can have high intakes of l-glutamine because of their high energy and protein intakes and also because they consume protein supplements, protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids. Prolonged exercise and periods of heavy training are associated with a decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration and this has been ...
Biondo Patricia D - - 2008
Ginseng is a popular herbal remedy that is reputed to increase resistance to stress and improve immune function. Regular exercise results in acute physiologic stress that affects the immune response. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily consumption of a standardized ginsenoside-containing North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) ...
Laing Stewart J - - 2008
The aim was to investigate the effects of 48 hr of fluid, energy, or combined fluid and energy restriction on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subset counts (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy men (M +/- SEM age 21 +/- 1 ...
Masello Juan F - - 2009
The different leucocyte types are an important part of the immune system. Thus, they have been used in ecological studies to assess immune function and physiological stress in wild birds. It is generally assumed that increased stress and decreased condition are associated with an increase in the ratio of heterophils ...
Yaegaki Makoto - - 2008
In order to develop a predictive marker of overtraining in athletes, we examined the changes in neutrophil function [reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability and phagocytic activity (PA)] for 10 male and 13 female judoists attending a training camp. Measurements were taken four times in total--immediately before and after a ...
Gavrieli Ronit - - 2008
PURPOSE: Intense exercise bouts are associated with a reduction of immune function and increased susceptibility to infections. Neutrophils act as a first line of defense to eliminate infectious agents and are also involved in muscle tissue inflammatory response to exercise. Intensive exercise suppresses several neutrophil functions including chemotaxis. The study ...
Wang Xiang - - 2008
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immune-mediated chronic vasculitis of large- and medium-sized vessels usually occurring in White individuals aged over 50 years, in Western countries. The pathological hallmark of GCA is granulomatous inflammation of the involved vessels. Headache of new-onset is the most common clinical manifestation, and permanent vision ...
Timmerman Kyle L - - 2008
Exercise training or higher levels of physical activity are known to exert anti-inflammatory effects. CD14+CD16+ monocytes are potent producers of inflammatory proteins, and elevated levels of these "inflammatory" monocytes have been implicated in disease development. Little is known about the influence of exercise training on this cell population. On the ...
Adams P C - - 2008
Hemochromatosis has often been associated with progressive iron overload, but the natural history of iron accumulation in untreated C282Y homozygotes has been reported infrequently. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study screened 101 168 primary care participants for iron overload using transferrin saturation, unbound iron-binding capacity, Serum ferritin (SF), ...
Tanimura Yuko - - 2008
Post high-intensity exercise lymphocytopenia is well documented, but its underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. A possible mechanism is a reactive oxygen species-induced DNA damage after high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, lymphocyte apoptosis related to DNA damage might contribute to exercise-induced lymphocytopenia. PURPOSE: This study examined lymphocytopenia, lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage, ...
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