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Ghanbari-Niaki Abbass - - 2010
Exercise-induced leukocytosis and lymphocytosis is accompanied by up-regulation and down-regulation of hundreds of genes in white blood cells (WBCs). Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptide secreted predominantly from the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP affects feeding behavior and plays a role in energy and glucose homeostasis and adiposity. ...
Moir Hannah - - 2010
We previously proposed 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) dephosphorylation within immune cells as an intracellular mechanism linking exercise and immunosuppression. In this study, AMPK phosphorylation underwent transient (<1 h) decreases (53.8+/-7.2% basal) immediately after exercise (45 min of cycling at 70% VO2max) in a cohort of 16 adult male participants. Similar ...
Michishita Ryoma - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: It has been well known that physical inactivity is associated with a significantly higher incidence of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to test our hypothesis that endurance aerobic exercise training has cardiovascular protective effects as a result of inhibiting inflammatory processes. METHODS: Forty-two overweight women [age, 53.4 +/- ...
Boettger Silke - - 2010
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have repeatedly been described to exhibit both a humoral as well as a cellular pro-inflammatory state. Acute exercise, representing physical stress, can further aggravate such an immune dysbalance. In the light of recommended exercise programmes for depressed patients, we aimed to investigate the inflammatory ...
Radom-Aizik Shlomit - - 2010
Exercise leads to a rapid change in the profile of gene expression in circulating neutrophils. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered to play important roles in immune function and often act to attenuate or silence gene translation. We hypothesized that miRNA expression in circulating neutrophils would be affected by brief exercise. ...
Oliveira Marta - - 2010
Several studies have reported that some immune cell functions including monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and antigen presentation are temporarily impaired following acute bouts of strenuous exercise, which could represent an 'open window' to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). However, we do not know the time course of effects of ...
Navalta James Wilfred - - 2010
While the stress associated with acute exercise has been reported to induce significant lymphocyte apoptosis, not all investigations have confirmed this finding. Regardless of animal or human subjects, exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis may be induced via an external receptor-mediated pathway, or internally via the mitochondria through an oxidative-mediated pathway. On the ...
Kakanis M W - - 2010
The 'open window' theory is characterised by short term suppression of the immune system following an acute bout of endurance exercise. This window of opportunity may allow for an increase in susceptibility to upper respiratory illness (URI). Many studies have indicated a decrease in immune function in response to exercise. ...
Suchánek Ondřej - - 2010
We analyzed the frequency and absolute numbers of circulating myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs in peripheral blood and evaluated their maturation status to test the hypothesis that significant physical stress to the body might induce measurable changes in DCs subsets, phenotype and function, which would complete existing knowledge about the response ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2010
Acute bouts of aerobic exercise are known to mobilize antigen-experienced CD8+ T-cells expressing the cell surface marker of senescence, KLRG1, into the blood. It is not known; however if this is due to a selective mobilization of terminally differentiated T-cells (i.e., KLRG1 +/CD28-/CD57+) or a population of effector memory T-cells ...
Agostini Francesco - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is largely synthesized in skeletal muscles and provides fuel to rapidly dividing cells of the immune system and precursors to gluconeogenesis in the liver. Physical exercise is known to affect glutamine synthesis and to modulate glutamine uptake. Overtraining is frequently associated with reduced availability of glutamine ...
Peters Edith M - - 2010
To determine the association between variation in exercise load, immunoglobulin (Ig) status, and self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in ultramarathon runners. Longitudinal observational field study. Four weeks before and 2 weeks after an 86.5-km Comrades Marathon, South Africa. Fourteen randomly selected, amateur, male, ultramarathon runners. Daily record ...
Murakami Shigeki - - 2010
Intense exercise induces increased blood neutrophil counts and decreased lymphocyte counts, and leads to inflammation and immunosuppression. It was previously reported that cystine and theanine (CT) supplementation by long-distance runners before a training camp suppressed the changes of these blood parameters observed in un-supplemented control subjects after the camp. The ...
Cywińska A - - 2010
Strenuous exercise is recognized as a stress, which may induce functional immunodeficiency and increase individual susceptibility to infection. It has been shown in equine athletes, that alterations in leukocyte functions occur after moderate and submaximal exertion, however, no data deal with the effect of extreme physical exertion. In this study, ...
Davison Glen - - 2010
Oral supplementation with bovine colostrum (COL) has been shown to enhance immunity in human subjects. However, there is limited research on the use of bovine COL supplementation to counter exercise-induced immunodepression, as a model of stress-induced immunodepression, and previous research has focused primarily on salivary IgA. The aim of the ...
Vitorino Daniele Cristina - - 2010
Previous studies have reported that chronic supplementation with shark liver oil (SLO) improves immune response of lymphocyte, macrophage and neutrophil in animal models and humans. In a similar manner, exercise training also stimulates the immune system. However, we are not aware of any study about the association of exercise and ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2010
The elderly population is at an unprecedented risk of infectious diseases and malignancy due to apparently inevitable age-related declines in immunity. The 'immune risk profile' (IRP) is an array of biomarkers that has been used to predict morbidity and mortality in older adults. As it is generally accepted that middle-aged ...
Nakamura Seiji - - 2010
A 4-h bout of exercise induces immunomodulatory effects. Peripheral blood was withdrawn before, and at 4, 8 and 24h after the start of exercise. RNA from the unfractionated white blood cells was analyzed using Agilent human 44K microarray. The expression profiles were sorted into seven clusters based on their unique ...
Watson T - - 2010
Endothelial damage/dysfunction is involved in numerous cardiovascular disease processes. Given that the mature endothelial cells have limited capacity for self regeneration, circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) may modulate the balance between vascular damage and regeneration. The three aims of the present study were 1) to define the influence of exercise treadmill ...
Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2010
Blood undergoes oxidative stress during severe hypoxia or intense exercise. Excessive exposure to oxidative stress induces replicative senescence and apoptosis of lymphocytes. This study determines how various exercises with/without hypoxia affect lymphocyte subset mobilization and oxidative stress-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. Eighteen sedentary males randomly engaged in two normoxic exercise bouts [severe ...
Nieman David C - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to test the influence of 2.4 g/d fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) over 6 wk on exercise performance, inflammation, and immune measures in 23 trained cyclists before and after a 3-d period of intense exercise. Participants were randomized to n-3 PUFA ...
Martin Stephen A - - 2009
Prolonged intense exercise causes immunosuppression, whereas moderate-intensity exercise improves immune function and potentially reduces risk and severity of respiratory viral infections. Here, based on available evidence, we present a model whereby moderate exercise-induced increases in stress hormones reduce excessive local inflammation and skew the immune response away from a TH1 ...
Möbius-Winkler Sven - - 2009
Exercise stimulates the release of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) from the bone marrow. However, no data are available concerning the time frame of EPC release during strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent release of progenitor cells during strenuous exercise. Eighteen healthy ...
Giraldo Esther - - 2010
This study evaluated the role of toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) in the interaction of 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp72, a stress-inducible protein) with neutrophils and the participation on TLR-2 in the stimulation of neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities by post-exercise physiological concentrations of Hsp72. Human peripheral blood ...
Wang Jong-Shyan - - 2009
Natural killer cells (NKs) are important to the clearance of transformed cells. This investigation elucidates how systemic hypoxia influences mobilization of the NK subsets and cytotoxicity of NKs to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPCs) during exercise. Sixteen sedentary men performed six distinct experimental tests in an air-conditioned normobaric hypoxia chamber: high-intensity ...
Thorell Daniel - - 2009
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) seem to play an important role in vessel formation. While EPCs seem to exert their function mainly through a paracrine effect, the OECs can develop into mature endothelial cells and form tubular structures. Exercise is known to increase angiogenic factors ...
Navalta James Wilfred - - 2009
Exercise as a stimulus to induce lymphocyte apoptosis remains controversial. Differences may be due to participant fitness level or the methodology of assessing cell death. Another important issue is the mode of exercise used to induce physiological changes. Treadmill exercise typically induces significant apoptosis in human lymphocytes; however, the effect ...
dos Santos Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli - - 2009
This study investigated the effect of exercise on glutamine metabolism in macrophages of trained rats. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary (SED); moderately trained (MOD) rats that were swim trained 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; and exhaustively trained (EXT) rats that were similarly trained as MOD for ...
Hurst Suzanne Maria - - 2009
Prolonged oxidative stress is detrimental to health; however, transient oxidative stress may improve immune capability. We examined whether exercise-induced increases in the plasma oxidative generating capability enhance immune responsiveness to potential pathogens. Twelve individuals underwent a 30-min row and pre and post-exercise bloods were collected for oxidative stress and immune ...
Ortega Eduardo - - 2009
We studied the physiological role of the 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp72, a stress-inducible protein) in modulating neutrophil chemotaxis during a single bout of intense exercise performed by sedentary women, together with various cell mechanisms potentially involved in the modulation. For each volunteer, we evaluated neutrophil chemotaxis and ...
Zwart Sara R - - 2009
Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes that are associated with spaceflight. Nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 d of head-down bed rest were evaluated. A total of 13 subjects (8 men, 5 women; ages 26-54 yr) participated in either 60 or ...
Radom-Aizik Shlomit - - 2009
Recent studies show that brief exercise alters circulating neutrophil and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression, ranging from cell growth to both pro-and anti-inflammatory processes. These initial observations were made solely in males, but whether PBMC gene expression is altered by exercise in females is not known. Ten early-pubertal ...
Murakami Shigeki - - 2009
Athletes become increasingly susceptible to infection with intense training that results in immune suppression. The immune state was investigated after administering cystine/theanine (CT), which has been reported to have an immune reinforcement effect, to athletes before training involving a prolonged period of intense exercise. Fifteen long-distance runners were each allocated ...
Radom-Aizik Shlomit S Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, Orange, California 92868, - - 2009
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are stimulated by exercise and contribute not only to host defense, but also to growth, repair, and disease pathogenesis. Whether PBMC gene expression is altered by exercise in children is not known. Ten early pubertal boys (8-12 y) and 10 late pubertal boys (15-18 y) ...
Anane Leila H - - 2009
The mobilization of cytotoxic lymphocytes, such Natural Killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells, during stress and exercise is well documented in humans. However, humans have another cytotoxic lymphocyte subset that has not been studied in this context: the Gamma Delta (gammadelta) T lymphocyte. These cells play key roles in ...
Troadec Marie-Bérengère - - 2009
Hepcidin and hemojuvelin (HJV) are two critical regulators of iron metabolism as indicated by the development of major iron overload associated to mutations in hepcidin and HJV genes. Hepcidin and HJV are highly expressed in liver and muscles, respectively. Intensive muscular exercise has been reported to modify serum iron parameters ...
West, Nic
We conducted a prospective observational study comparing salivary lactoferrin and lysozyme concentration over five months (chronic changes) in elite rowers (n=17, mean age 24.3 ± 4.0y) with sedentary individuals (controls) (n=18, mean age = 27.2 ± 7.1 y) and a graded exercise test to exhaustion (acute changes) with a cohort ...
Davison Glen - - 2009
There are many factors in mucosal secretions that contribute to innate immunity and the 'first line of defence' at mucosal surfaces. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of exercise on many of these 'defence' factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of prolonged ...
Krüger K - - 2009
Intensive and exhaustive exercise induces an activation of blood T-lymphocytes, which seems to be terminated by apoptotic processes in the postexercise period. Here, we report that exercise-induced T-lymphocyte apoptosis is a systemic phenomenon occurring in various lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. The apoptosis rate could be related to exercise intensity and ...
Finnoff Jonathan T - - 2009
This self-directed learning module highlights medical coverage of sports events and artistic performances. It is part of the study guide on sports and performing arts medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Using a case vignette format, this article specifically focuses ...
Campbell John P - - 2009
An acute bout of exercise evokes mobilisation of lymphocytes into the bloodstream, which can be largely attributed to increases in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8TLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Evidence further suggests that, even within these lymphocyte subsets, there is preferential mobilisation of cells that share certain functional and phenotypic ...
Goussetis Evgenios - - 2009
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the recently described circulating fibrocytes (CFs) are strongly associated with tissue repair. We investigated the kinetics of both "repair" progenitor cells in healthy athletes who participated in the "Spartahlon" ultradistance foot race (246 km continuous running exercise), which provides a unique model of inducing dramatic ...
Shearer William T - - 2009
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether a prolonged period of bed rest will affect human immune responses, particularly in female subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure immune responses in adult female subjects exposed to prolonged bed rest. METHODS: Adult (25-40 years) female volunteers (n = 24) were maintained in a supine ...
Smith, C; ;
Objective. To investigate the effect of pre-exercise glutamine supplementation and the influence of a prior acute bout of glycogen-reducing exercise on the general stress and immune response to acute high-intensity cycling. Design. Randomised, double-blind, cross-over supplementation study. Setting and intervention. Subjects performed a series of 4 simulated mountain-bike races lasting ...
Semple, SJ; ;
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant that increases in response to noxious stimuli that inevitably induce cellular and/or tissue injury. The increased synthesis of CRP occurs predominantly in the liver and peaks 24 - 48 hours after the inciting stimulus. CRP forms an integral component of innate immunity and ...
Adler Elizabeth M - - 2009
This year's signaling breakthroughs extended from protein crystals to cells and subcellular structures to whole genomes. Nominations included research on synapses in brains and in B cells; the evolution and regulation of signaling networks; the identification of a new class of plant hormones; insights into the causes and treatments of ...
Neves Sergio da Cunha Sda C - - 2009
It has been suggested that elderly people are more susceptible to infectious diseases because of immunosenescence. The well-described transient immunosuppressive effect of exercise may increase health risks in such populations. Although resistance training has been recommended to older individuals, little is known regarding its acute effects on immune indexes. This ...
Bramuglia Guillermo F - - 2009
Indinavir, a HIV-1 protease inhibitor, showed large inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. It has been proposed as a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, that may contribute to limit indinavir bioavailability. A liquid formulation of indinavir was developed from indinavir capsules in order to study indinavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Compartmental ...
West N P - - 2009
Nutritional practices that promote good health and optimal athletic performance are of interest to athletes, coaches, exercise scientists and dietitians. Probiotic supplements modulate the intestinal microbial flora and offer promise as a practical means of enhancing gut and immune function. The intestinal microbial flora consists of diverse bacterial species that ...
Groër Maureen W - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To explore relationships between self-reported exercise in postpartum women and concentrations of cytokines and secretory immunoglobulin A in their milk. METHOD: Fifty-eight frozen, unthawed aliquots of human hindmilk were available for analysis from a previous larger study on the influence of lactation on postpartum stress and immunity. The samples ...
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