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Results 451 - 500 of 1060
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Landa A S - - 2003
Axillary malodour is caused by the biotransformation of non-odorous precursors present in apocrine sweat and sebum by the axillary microflora. To counter this, underarm products typically contain high levels of bactericides. However, after an initial decrease in bacterial numbers, the surviving cells grow, producing a concomitant rise in axillary odour. ...
Miles M P - - 2003
AIM: The mechanism linking exercise intensity to the magnitude of the immune response is not completely understood. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the immune response to resistance exercise was associated with (1) changes in workload or (2) anaerobic exercise intensity. METHODS: Previously untrained women underwent 6 ...
Miletić I - - 2003
To study in vitro the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of AH26 and AH Plus. Cytotoxic effects on Chinese hamster V79 cells were determined by counting viable cells following incubation with eluations of AH26 and AH Plus. In one set of experiments, the materials were mixed, set for 1 h and ...
Halson Shona L - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Acute bouts of prolonged strenuous exercise are often associated with immune suppression and an increased risk of infection. However, few studies have examined immunological responses to intensified training that results in overreaching or overtraining. We investigated the effects of intensified training on plasma cytokines, glutamine, glutamate, and other related ...
Nikolaidis Michalis G - - 2003
Serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) has been proposed as a more stable index of iron status than serum ferritin in athletes. However, the variation in sTfR concentration during recovery from acute exercise is unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prolonged moderate exercise on ...
Green Katherine J - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of acute exercise on the proliferation and expression of activation markers on T-lymphocytes. METHODS: Seventeen well-trained male endurance runners completed 60 min of treadmill running at 95% of ventilatory threshold and a resting, no exercise, control session at the same time of ...
Liao Robert S - - 2003
Amphotericin B treatment was previously shown to inhibit Candida albicans reproduction and reduce the fluorescence of vitality-specific dyes without causing a corresponding increase in the fluorescence of the mortality-specific dyes bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol and SYBR Green I. In the present study, we have confirmed these results and have shown that ...
Flynn M G - - 2003
Twenty-two trained women runners (.VO2peak 48.1 + 1.2 ml x kg -1 x min -1) were divided into an iron supplement (n = 13) or placebo group (n = 9) based on initial serum ferritin concentration (24.2 +/- 2.9 and 58.5 +/- 4.0 microg x l -1, respectively). Exercise consisted ...
Mooren F C - - 2003
Magnesium status is a well-known modulator of the immune system. In the present study we investigated the effect of magnesium on granulocyte signalling and function. Furthermore, we performed a double-blinded randomised study investigating the effect of a two-month magnesium supplementation period on the exercise-associated alterations in immune function. In vitro ...
Kim H H Research Institute of Sports Science, Korea University, Seoul, - - 2003
The duration-dependence of the effect of forced treadmill exercise on the immune system is a subject of ongoing research. In this study, the effect of forced treadmill exercise on immune responses was investigated by evaluating the lymphocyte subset fractions in the peripheral blood and spleen of Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparative investigation ...
Morozov Vladimir I - - 2003
Exercise sessions (swimming in rats and treadmill running in humans) resulted in stimulation of neutrophil degranulation in the experiments with animals and in the human study. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) (+67%) and lysozyme (+51%) quantities in the plasma of rats increased significantly immediately after exercise. The blood plasma lysozyme concentration was increased ...
Green Katherine J - - 2003
Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinamidyl ester (CFSE) labeling of lymphocyte populations can provide unique insights into cell function at rest and with exercise, due to its ability to quantify cell division on an individual cell basis. This study aimed to characterize the effect of acute, intense exercise on T-lymphocyte function. Well-trained endurance ...
Billert Hanna - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute hypercapnia due to the mechanical hypoventilation on the oxidative metabolism of peripheral blood neutrophils in the rabbit. METHODS: The study was performed on 24 Chinchilla rabbits, randomized into normo- and hypercapnia groups (P(a)CO(2) between 9 ...
Koh Young Yull - - 2003
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is characterized by chronic upper and lower respiratory infections which are caused by the grossly impaired ciliary transport. Since the cilia and neutrophils both utilize microtubular system for their movement, it has been speculated that neutrophil motility such as chemotaxis might be impaired in patients with primary ...
Suzuki Katsuhiko - - 2003
PURPOSE: To investigate whether cytokines and neutrophils mediate exercise-related pathogenesis, we examined their responses and possible association after exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Plasma and urine samples were obtained from 10 male runners before and after a 42.195-km marathon race. Major cytokines and neutrophil activation markers [myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoferrin (LTF)] were ...
Gani F - - 2003
In the recent years, the importance of sports in everyday life has rapidly increased. Asthma and respiratory allergy are among the most common problems to be afforded in those individuals practising sports and therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of allergy in athletes have received in recent times a great ...
Brutsaert Tom D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Tissue iron depletion may negatively affect endurance performance and muscle fatigability. OBJECTIVE: We investigated tissue-level iron depletion and progressive fatigue of the quadriceps during dynamic knee-extension exercise in young women. DESIGN: Twenty iron-depleted (serum ferritin < 20 micro g/L), nonanemic (hemoglobin > 110 g/L) women (macro x +/- SEM ...
Nemet Dan - - 2003
PURPOSE: The effects of exercise on growth and development are mediated through a complex interaction between the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. Very little is known about how these systems respond to exercise in children or adolescents. Moreover, there are few studies that have examined growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and ...
Kaptanoğlu B - - 2003
In this study, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on tissue levels of iron, magnesium, and uric acid of rats. Twenty adult Wistar albino rats were used for the study. They were divided into two groups: controls (n=10) and the study group (n=10). The study group was left into ...
García Felipe - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with and without hydroxyurea (HU) on changes in plasma viral load (VL) set-point, and on HIV-1-specific responses, after five cycles of structured treatment interruptions (STI). METHODS: A group of 20 patients taking HAART for chronic HIV infection with VL ...
Natale Valéria Maria - - 2003
CONTEXT: High-intensity exercise causes tissue damage, production of stress hormones, and alterations in the function and quantity of various immune cells. Many clinical-physical stressors such as surgery, trauma, burns and sepsis induce a pattern of hormonal and immunological response similar to that of exercise. It has thus been suggested that ...
Suzuki Katsuhiko - - 2003
It is known that interleukin (IL)-12 p70 promotes the differentiation of type-1 helper T (Th1) cells, which produce type-1 cytokines such as IL-2 and interferon (IFN), thereby supporting cellular immunity, whereas IL-12 p40 acts as an antagonist of IL-12 p70. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-6 promote the differentiation of Th2 ...
Castell Linda - - 2003
In situations of stress, such as clinical trauma, starvation or prolonged, strenuous exercise, the concentration of glutamine in the blood is decreased, often substantially. In endurance athletes this decrease occurs concomitantly with relatively transient immunodepression. Glutamine is used as a fuel by some cells of the immune system. Provision of ...
Hsu Sheng-Feng - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on activator protein-1 (AP-1) in recombinant liver cells. In order to elucidate the molecular effects of electrical stimulation on cells, AP-1 expression was detected by a luciferase assay. The parameters used were taken from clinical electroacupuncture (EA) ...
Ali Shaukat - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes account for the exercise induced leucocytosis. Effects of intensity and duration of exercise on differential leucocytes count were observed in this study. METHODS: Two groups of normal healthy male adult subjects were exercised on treadmill for different duration and intensities. Group-I subjects (n ...
Hayes Sandra C - - 2003
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of undertaking peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBST) on T-cell number and function, and to determine the role of a mixed type, moderate intensity exercise program in facilitating the recovery of T-cell number and function. METHODS: Immunological measures of ...
Nielsen Henning Bay - - 2003
Exercise affects lymphocytes as reflected in total blood counts and the lymphocyte proliferative response. In addition, the production of immunoglobulins is impaired and during exercise the natural killer cell activity increases followed by suppression in the recovery period. Cardiopulmonary adjustments play a major role in lymphocyte response to physical activity. ...
Lee Myeong Soo - - 2003
The present study investigated the effects of in vitro and in vivo Korean ChunSoo Qi-Energy Healing on neutrophil superoxide generation. Neutrophil superoxide generation was measured by a chemiluminescence assay. Superoxide generation was significantly increased in vitro by emitted Qi-therapy (QT) of 60-second duration and 150-second duration compared to control (1.59-fold ...
Martínez Alfredo Córdova - - 2002
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both acute exercise and maintained training during a period of competition (3 mo, at the start of the season) on iron metabolism in sportsmen on a professional volleyball team. Twelve sportsmen volunteered for this study. The exercise test was ...
DeRuisseau Keith C - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 2-hour exercise bout on sweat iron and zinc concentrations and losses in males and females. Nine male and 9 female recreational cyclists exercised at approximately 50% VO(2peak) in a temperate environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = ...
Aue Arne - - 2003
After the recent diphtheria epidemics in Eastern Europe in the early 1990s, we re-evaluated the diphtheria and tetanus immunity of 321 German blood donors (192 men and 129 women). The mean antitoxin levels of all blood donors in this study, measured by commercial ELISA, revealed a questionable protection (0.1-1.0 IU/ml) ...
Qian Zhong Ming - - 2002
Accumulated data imply that exercise itself might not lead to a true iron deficiency or 'sport anaemia' in a healthy athlete who has adequate iron intake. The higher prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in younger female athletes might be not due to exercise itself, but probably results from dietary choices, ...
Bonsignore Maria R - - 2002
Because endurance exercise causes release of mediators and growth factors active on the bone marrow, we asked whether it might affect circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in amateur runners [n = 16, age: 41.8 +/- 13.5 (SD) yr, training: 93.8 +/- 31.8 km/wk] compared with sedentary controls (n = 9, ...
Drüeke Tilman - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Increased common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is a marker of early atherosclerosis. Low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Low-grade inflammation and increased CCA-IMT are observed in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Oxidative stress is involved in uremia-related inflammation. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are markers of ...
Dohi Keiichiro - - 2003
Plasma prolactin has been shown to increase during stress; the immune system is responsive to prolactin and affected by stress. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acute graded, maximal treadmill exercise on prolactin-receptor expression by lymphocytes. Eight healthy men underwent one exercise and one nonexercise session. ...
Bacurau R F P - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation upon some aspects of the immune function in athletes during intense indoor cycling. METHODS: Twelve male athletes cycled for 20 min at a velocity corresponding to 90% of that obtained at the anaerobic threshold and rested for 20 min. This protocol was ...
Bøyum A - - 2002
In this study nine elite athletes each participated in three different 24- h trials, as follows: (1) complete bed rest (REST), (2) one bout of exercise at 1515 hours (ONE-EX), (3) two exercise bouts, one at 1100 hours and one at 1515 hours (TWO-EX-3 h), and (4) two exercise bouts, ...
Ampel Neil M - - 2002
Measurement of cellular immunity in human coccidioidomycosis has important diagnostic and prognostic implications. The coccidioidin skin test has been the standard for the measurement of this, but it is not available in the United States. We examined the utility of measuring surface expression of CD69 on T lymphocytes in whole ...
Shephard R J - - 2002
It seems likely that the disturbances of immune response induced by prolonged competitive exercise are exacerbated if athletes also face the stress of hot environmental conditions. We have investigated this question by manipulating the exercise-induced increases of body temperature in a climatic chamber and by submersion of exercisers in a ...
Escribano B M - - 2002
The aim of this work was to assess whether progressive training caused an improvement in the nonspecific immune response of colts because several unusual infections are due to defects inherent in the neutrophilic function among which respiratory diseases are a major defect in the performance of athletes taking part in ...
Kohut Marian L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Decreases in immune responsiveness with age contribute to the increased incidence and severity of infectious disease among elderly adults. The immune response to immunization also decreases with advancing age. Lifestyle factors (exercise, diet) have been established to play an important role in immunosenescence, and the practice of "healthy" behavior ...
Hiscock Natalie - - 2002
The amino acid glutamine is known to be important for the function of some immune cells in vitro. It has been proposed that the decrease in plasma glutamine concentration in relation to catabolic conditions, including prolonged, exhaustive exercise, results in a lack of glutamine for these cells and may be ...
Rhind Shawn G - - 2002
Physical stress is associated with circulating cytokinemia. However the mechanisms of cytokine regulation during such stress are not clearly defined. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including indomethacin, are widely used in countering the effects of excessive exercise, but their impact on circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in healthy humans also ...
Cinel Ismail - - 2002
In this lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia model, the effects of 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibitor, on ileal apoptosis were evaluated by light microscopy and M30 cell death staining. Moreover, the relationship between Bcl-2, iNOS expression, and serum nitrate (NO(3)(-)) levels were investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220g were ...
Scharhag J - - 2002
Prolonged, strenuous exercise may lead to suppressive effects on the immune system, which might be responsible for a greater susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of carbohydrate substitution (CHS) during prolonged, strenuous exercise on neutrophil granulocytes and their oxidative burst (intracellular oxidation ...
Ali Shaukat - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Leucocytes the mobile units of the protective system of the body, may circulate freely in the blood, adhere to the vascular endothelium in sites where blood flow is relatively slow and then once again re-enter the circulation in a process of continuous exchange. This process of continuous exchange of ...
Mooren F C - - 2002
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a process of fundamental importance for regulation of the immune response. Several reasons suggest that apoptosis is involved in exercise-induced alterations of the immune system such as postexercise lymphocytopenia. Healthy volunteers performed two treadmill exercise tests; the first was performed at 80% maximal oxygen ...
Li Yongmei - - 2002
We have examined the effect of neutrophil concentration on killing of a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Human neutrophils at concentrations varying from 10(5) to 10(7) per ml were mixed in suspension with S. epidermidis at concentrations varying from 10(3) to 10(8) colony-forming units/ml, and the concentration of viable bacteria ...
Schumacher Y Olaf - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) is a new marker of iron status and erythropoietic activity. It has been included in multivariable blood testing models for the detection of performance enhancing erythropoietin misuse in sport. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different types and volumes of physical activity on sTfr concentration, ...
Green Katherine J - - 2002
This study utilized recently developed microbead technology to remove natural killer (NK) cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) preparations to determine the effect of acute exercise on T-lymphocyte function, independent of changes in lymphocyte subpopulations. Twelve well-trained male runners completed a 60-min exercise trial at 95% ventilatory threshold and ...
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