Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 594
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Uchida T - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the efficacy of the combination of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in ARDS. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: A research laboratory at a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Thirty-two rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were anesthetized and ventilated via tracheostomy (tidal volume=40 mL; respiratory ...
Neal J M JM Department of Anesthesiology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98101, - - 1998
The incidence and clinical significance of hemidiaphragmatic paresis after supraclavicular block of the brachial plexus is unknown. Eight healthy volunteers received a supraclavicular block with a standard technique using 30 mL of 1.5% lidocaine. Respiratory function was assessed with ultrasound of the diaphragm, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP), and pulmonary function ...
Haberthür C - - 1998
We investigated the effect of mechanical unloading and loading on Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in seven intubated patients with preexisting CSR. For mechanical loading patients had to breathe against the resistance of the endotracheal tube. For mechanical unloading patients were supported with a volume-proportional pressure support in the proportional assist ventilation ...
Hachey W E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) and conventional ventilation (CV) in a piglet model of meconium aspiration syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized control study. SUBJECTS: Piglets 1 to 2 wks of age. INTERVENTIONS: Meconium aspiration was induced in 30 piglets. They were then randomized to CV, ...
Bloch-Salisbury E - - 1998
Elevated end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PET(CO2)) causes air hunger; this sensation becomes intense with a relatively small rise in PET(CO2) if ventilation is held constant. Spontaneously breathing subjects increase ventilation in response to CO2, thereby greatly diminishing air hunger. In healthy subjects and ventilator-dependent patients, experimenter-induced increases in ventilator ...
Rubertsson S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation always includes ventilation with pure oxygen, this kind of ventilation has been reported to be associated with worse neurological outcome than ventilation with air in experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of the present investigation was to compare the systemic oxygen uptake during experimental closed-chest ...
McDonald P F - - 1998
Our clinical experience has shown that the use of a constant distending airway pressure of 30 cm water for 10 s, termed a timed reexpansion inspiratory manoeuvre (TRIM), is often successful in correcting oxyhaemoglobin desaturation in anaesthetized children. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of TRIM ...
Rehder K - - 1998
Changes in body position alters the functional residual capacity (FRC). Most anesthetics reduce FRC in the recumbent but not sitting position. Inspired gas distribution in anesthesia-paralyzed subjects whose lungs are mechanically ventilated, is different from that in the awake state in all but the prone position. The function of the ...
Pellegrino R - - 1998
Ventilation during exercise is near-normal in double-lung transplant recipients despite lung denervation. We tested the hypothesis that denervation effects might be unmasked during exercise by exposing these patients to an expiratory load. Eight double-lung recipients and nine intact control subjects were exercised to exhaustion. Ergometer work increased 20 Watt every ...
Clark A L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Exogenous catecholamine administration in humans stimulates ventilation. The present study was designed to investigate whether increased endogenous catecholamine release influences objective measures of ventilation and subjective measures of breathlessness in normal subjects. METHODS: Yohimbine, a pre-synaptic alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist, or placebo was administered to 10 normal male subjects ...
Wang T - - 1997
The extent to which lizards ventilate their lungs during locomotion is controversial. Direct measurements of airflow across the nostrils suggest a progressive reduction in tidal volume and minute ventilation with increased running speed, while other studies have demonstrated that arterial PO2 remains constant during exercise. To resolve these conflicting findings, ...
Tsuboi T - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether intermittent positive pressure ventilation through a nasal mask (NIPPV) applied during exercise in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae (PTS) could improve arterial blood gas measurements, ameliorate breathlessness, and increase exercise endurance. PATIENTS: Seven PTS patients with a severe restrictive ...
Helbling D - - 1997
The fast initial increase in ventilation at the start of exercise is generally assumed to be of reflex origin (exercising limbs) and/or caused by a 'feedforward' mechanism increasing breathing via brainstem respiratory centres or cortical areas controlling respiratory muscles. We wanted to test whether this ventilatory increase is in part ...
Roe S M - - 1997
Increases in arterial plasma potassium during exercise may provide an important drive to ventilation. We examined the changes in arterialized venous plasma potassium concentration ([K +]av) and ventilation that occur during sustained exercise at workloads above and below the ventilatory threshold (Vt) in young health humans. After the onset of ...
Anzueto A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To study diaphragmatic strength and endurance after a prolonged period of mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Seven uninjured adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were anesthetized with ketamine, sedated, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Animals were monitored with pulmonary arterial and peripheral arterial catheters. INTERVENTIONS: Mechanical ...
Chatha D - - 1997
The pattern of breathing following a 10-breath voluntary hyperventilation period during hyperoxic rebreathing was compared to that without hyperventilation in 6 subjects (3 male and 3 female). The aim was to measure the posthyperventilation short-term potentiation of ventilation without changes in respiratory chemoreflex drives induced by the voluntary hyperventilation. Hyperoxia ...
Shibata Y - - 1997
Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has been indicated in infants with severe respiratory failure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the safety of an NO inhalation system with HFOV in terms of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) production. The NO inhalation system consisted of ...
Ross J A - - 1997
Twenty-six male workers from the North Sea offshore oil industry took part in a simulated escape exercise at the Offshore Fire Training Centre. The course was 370 m long and had 19.4 m of vertical ascent and descent using the stairs on simulated offshore structures. Inspired ventilation and oxygen consumption ...
Paterson D J - - 1997
The increase in ventilation caused by exercise is controlled by a combination of neural and chemical events, although the precise contribution and relative importance of these signals is still debated. It is generally agreed that the genesis of exercise hyperpnoea lies within the central nervous system and that peripheral reflexes, ...
Baden H P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an improvement in oxygenation when partial liquid ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation are combined in the treatment of acute lung injury, compared with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation alone. DESIGN: Controlled animal trial. SETTING: Research laboratory in a university setting. SUBJECTS: Ten 3-kg piglets. INTERVENTIONS: Anesthetized ...
Brown R E - - 1997
There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following ...
Kohl J - - 1997
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of exercise induced hyperventilation and hypocapnia on airway resistance (Raw), and to try to answer the question whether a reduction of Raw is a mechanism contributing to the increase of endurance time associated with a reduction of exercise induced ...
Venkateswaran R S - - 1997
The Computer-Based Respiratory Measurement System (CBRMS) is capable of analyzing individual breaths to monitor the kinetics of oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, tidal volumes, pulmonary ventilation, and other respiratory parameters during rest, exercise, and recovery. Respiratory gas volumes are measured by a calibrated turbine transducer while the respiratory gas concentrations ...
Atherton D P - - 1996
The ventilation-exchange bougie is a new airway device which can be mounted on a fibreoptic laryngoscope for passage through the larynx into the trachea via a laryngeal mask airway. Subsequent removal of the fibreoptic laryngoscope and laryngeal mask airway allows a tracheal tube to be railroaded into position over the ...
Kobayashi S - - 1996
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between breathlessness and the ventilatory response to hypercapnia or hypoxia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fifteen male patients (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1): 1.13 L) underwent tests to determine hyperoxic hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) ...
Tantucci C - - 1996
We have used diabetic autonomic neuropathy as a model of chronic pulmonary denervation to study the ventilatory response to incremental exercise in 20 diabetic subjects, 10 with (Dan+) and 10 without (Dan-) autonomic dysfunction, and in 10 normal control subjects. Although both Dan+ and Dan- subjects achieved lower O2 consumption ...
Bower S - - 1996
Exercise intolerance is a common finding in mitochondrial diseases, including Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), characterised by progressive external ophthalmoplegia, cardiac conduction defects and atypical pigmentary degeneration of the retina. Exercise studies were performed in a 32 year old woman with KSS who had received an atrio-ventricular sequential pacemaker because of continuing ...
Beals J A - - 1996
Assessments of inhalation exposure to environmental agents necessitate quantitative estimates of pulmonary ventilation rates. Estimating a range of exposures in a given population requires an understanding of the variability of ventilation rates in the population. Distributions of ventilation rates (Ve) were described based on the results of a large study ...
Johannigman J A - - 1996
Ventilatory support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be accomplished with an array of methods and devices. These run the gamut from expired air resuscitation, including mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-mask, to the use of ventilators including ventilator-to-mask and ventilator-to-artificial airway techniques. Appropriate application of these techniques depends on the clinical situation, rescuer training, ...
Asou T - - 1996
We report herein the findings of a 2-year-old boy in whom junctional tachycardia developed 2 days after he underwent a modified Fontan operation and thereafter was successfully treated by hypothermia without paralyzing and artificially ventilating the patient. Chlorpromazine was useful in achieving moderate hypothermia by surface cooling without producing any ...
Wang T - - 1996
Many reptiles, particularly diving species, display characteristic cardiovascular changes associated with lung ventilation (cardiorespiratory synchrony). Previous studies on freshwater turtles show that heart rate and pulmonary blood flow rate (Qpul) increase two- to fourfold during ventilation compared with breath-holding, and some studies report concomitant decreases in systemic blood flow rate ...
Kuo C Y - - 1996
We studied the effect of leaks around the endotracheal tube (ETT) on the measurement of pulmonary mechanics during mechanical ventilation. We also evaluated the influence of different ventilator settings on the magnitude of leak. An adjustable leak was created at the end of the ETT in a lung model with ...
Nakajima K - - 1996
An apparatus for simultaneously monitoring heart and respiratory rates was developed using photoplethysmography (PPG) and digital filters, and compared with conventional methods. The PPG signal, which includes both heart and respiratory components, was measured at the earlobe with an original transmission mode photoplethysmographic device. A digital filtering technique was used ...
Oku Y - - 1996
We studied the effects of changes in the level of ventilation on respiratory discomfort during isocapnic exercise. Six subjects exercised at 60 W on a cycle ergometer. They initially breathed 2.5% CO2 in oxygen for 75 breaths. Ventilatory parameters of the last 10 breaths were used as controls. In 7 ...
Sutherland R W - - 1996
We measured ventilation in 12 subjects anaesthetized with enflurane (end-tidal concentration 1.25-1.45%) and nitrous oxide to assess the effect of surgical stimulation on ventilation in humans. Tidal volume and respiratory timing were measured by pneumotachograph before and just after a standardized surgical skin incision. Surgical stimulation increased ventilation by increasing ...
Andreas S - - 1996
Patients with heart failure exhibit an increased ventilatory response to exercise; their slope of the overall ventilation/carbon dioxide production ratio (VE/VCO2) is elevated. This elevation is related to impaired exercise performance and is commonly explained by an increased ventilation-perfusion mismatch. However, the concept of afferents to the respiratory centre modulating ...
Idris A H - - 1996
In the United States debate continues about the necessity of ventilation during CPR because of fear of contracting infectious diseases. Three questions will be considered in this article. First, is ventilation necessary for the treatment of cardiac arrest? Second, is mouth-to-mouth ventilation any better than no ventilation at all? Third, ...
Torry M - - 1996
We studied the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) over the chest wall on breathlessness in normal subjects during exercise. Eleven male subjects performed a progressive incremental exercise test to break point on four consecutive days. TENS (continuous form, frequency 100 Hz, pulse width 200 microseconds) was applied during ...
Busso T - - 1996
Fifteen sedentary or mildly active men (low fit group) and 15 trained male athletes (high fit group) performed an incremental exercise bout on a cycle ergometer until exhaustion. At each submaximal load, minute ventilation (VE) and rate of change of mouth pressure (dP/dt) during a brief airway occlusion were computed. ...
Nisell O - - 1996
Respiratory functions operating to transport O2 are depicted by a flow diagram which consists of eight consecutive units, each depending on the preceding one. All the units are characterized by three features: applicable drive, special capability and outgoing flow. The flows are: respiratory centre output for breathing; effects of respiratory ...
Hamnegård C H - - 1996
When highly motivated normal subjects perform maximal isocapnic ventilation, a substantial fall in ventilation is observed during the first minute associated with slowing of the maximum relaxation rate (MRR) of the inspiratory muscles. This suggests that these muscles are excessively loaded, raising the possibility that overt contractile failure of the ...
Koehle M - - 1996
We examined the effect of exercise duration on the fast component of exercise hyperpnoea for light and moderate work rates [mean oxygen uptakes (SD) = 1.00 (0.27) 1.min-1 and 1.77 (0.53) 1.min-1, respectively]. Ten subjects exercised on a motor-driven treadmill while ventilation and end-expiratory partial pressures of carbon dioxide and ...
Clark A L - - 1996
The slope of the linear relationship between ventilation (V(E)) and carbon dioxide production (VC0(2)) has been thought to indicate that VC0(2) is one of the major stimuli to V(E). A group of 15 normal subjects undertook different incremental treadmill exercise protocols to explore the relationship between V(E) and VCO(2). An ...
Tucker Beatrice - - 1996
This review discusses the distribution of ventilation in the normal adult lung and includes the influence of quiet and deep breathing on regional ventilation. The effects of breathing at low lung volumes; inspiratory flow rate; posture; age; and body weight on ventilation are also described. A selection of breathing exercises ...
Barr J - - 1996
Peritoneal ventilation has been shown to be effective in achieving extrapulmonary oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination in an animal model of severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Cisapride is a "prokinetic" agent (increases gastric emptying), that may increase the splanchnic circulation and thus favourably affect gas exchange in peritoneal ventilation. ...
Wilcox D T - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange and the effects of inhaled nitric oxide during perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange in the congenital diaphragmatic hernia lamb model. DESIGN: Prospective, nonrandomized, controlled, nonhuman trial. SETTING: Animal research facility. SUBJECTS: Fetal lambs of 16 time-dated pregnant ewes, at 80 days gestation (term ...
Nunn D R - - 1995
The otologic consequences associated with cleft palates are well known. Closure of palatal clefts within the first weeks of life has many potential benefits, including improved feeding and cosmesis. The potential otologic benefits of very early closure are not known. Eighteen newborns have undergone closure of their palatal clefts within ...
Warkander D E - - 1995
Dead space in breathing apparatus may cause increased ventilation and/or CO2 retention. Interactions between ventilation and dead space were tested in the breathing apparatus of three divers: a full face mask with an oro-nasal cup (AGA), a full face mask without an oro-nasal cup (EXO-26) but designed to minimize dead ...
Hackman B B - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the quality of CPR provided by firefighters performing three-rescuer CPR with that achieved by firefighters trained to provide standard two-rescuer CPR. DESIGN: Eight months after training a large number of firefighters to perform three-rescuer CPR, we used a quasi-experimental design to compare the performance of a ...
Horner R L - - 1995
The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the persistence of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during central apnea. In five awake dogs, heart rate (HR) was recorded during constant mechanical ventilation (MV) and during central apneas produced by cessation of MV. For each of 10 control ...
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