Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 586
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Verbandt Y - - 2000
We studied the ventilation-perfusion matching pattern in normal gravity (1 G) and short- and long-duration microgravity (microG) using the cardiogenic oscillations in the sulfur hexaflouride (SF(6)) and CO(2) concentration signals during the phase III portion of vital capacity single-breath washout experiments. The signal power of the cardiogenic concentration variations was ...
Pinna G D - - 2000
In this study, we applied time- and frequency-domain signal processing techniques to the analysis of respiratory and arterial O(2) saturation (Sa(O(2))) oscillations during nonapneic periodic breathing (PB) in 37 supine awake chronic heart failure patients. O(2) was administered to eight of them at 3 l/min. Instantaneous tidal volume and instantaneous ...
O'Connor S - - 2000
In the presence of an externally applied thoracic restriction, conflicting ventilatory responses to exercise have been reported, which could be accounted for by differences in exercise protocol. Seven male subjects performed two incremental and two constant-workload ergometer tests either unrestricted or in the presence of an inelastic corset. Ventilatory variables ...
Henderson D R - - 2000
Increased respiratory dead space increases the exercise ventilatory response, a response known as short-term modulation (STM). We hypothesized that STM results from a spinal, serotonin (5-HT)-dependent mechanism. Because 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors on caudal brain stem raphe neurons inhibit 5-HT release, we hypothesized that 5-HT(1A)-receptor agonists would inhibit, whereas 5-HT(1A)-receptor antagonists would ...
Russell W C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess the subjective feeling of comfort of healthy volunteers breathing on various modes of ventilation used in intensive care. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective, double-blinded, crossover trial using volunteers. SETTING: An intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. INTERVENTIONS: We compared, by using healthy volunteers, the subjective feeling ...
Hoit J D - - 2000
This study was conducted to explore the influence of speaking on ventilation. Twenty healthy young men were studied during periods of quiet breathing and prolonged speaking using noninvasive methods to measure chest wall surface motions and expired gas composition. Results indicated that all subjects ventilated more during speaking than during ...
Zegdi R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in mechanically ventilated critically ill adult patients and to determine the influence of inspired oxygen fraction on this measurement. DESIGN: Prospective physiologic study. SETTING: Medical ICU in a community hospital. PATIENTS: The study was performed on nine mechanically ventilated ...
Moosavi S H - - 2000
Breathing sensations of AIR HUNGER, WORK and EFFORT may depend on projections of central motor discharge (corollary discharge) to the forebrain. Source of motor drive (brainstem or cortex) may determine what is perceived. To test the effect of changing motor discharge at constant ventilation, we induced partial neuromuscular blockade during ...
Slater T - - 2000
AIMS: To assess changes in work practice among eight New Zealand engineering sites, following a study of occupational respiratory symptoms in welders two years previously. METHODS: In 1996, we found that an acute decrease in lung function was more common in welders working without local exhaust ventilation. Findings were reported ...
Ambrosino N - - 2000
Breathlessness is the most common symptom that limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and who may receive benefit from exercise training programmes. Exercise intensity may influence the physiological benefits of the programme. Although the exact underlying physiopathological mechanism is still unclear, there is laboratory evidence that continuous ...
Farmer C G - - 2000
A number of anatomical characters of crocodilians appear to be inconsistent with their lifestyle as sit-and-wait predators. To address this paradoxical association of characters further, we measured lung ventilation and respiratory gas exchange during walking in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). During exercise, ventilation consisted of low-frequency, large-volume breaths. The alligators ...
Langeron O - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of airway patency and oxygenation are the main objectives of face-mask ventilation. Because the incidence of difficult mask ventilation (DMV) and the factors associated with it are not well known, we undertook this prospective study. METHODS: Difficult mask ventilation was defined as the inability of an unassisted anesthesiologist ...
Lovell S L - - 2000
Pharmacological stress testing may be used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease when there are contra-indications to the use of conventional exercise protocols. The responses to such testing using arbutamine and to conventional treadmill exercise were compared in eight patients. Respiratory gas analysis and cardiovascular observations were performed during ...
Demian A D - - 2000
We have studied the acid-base equilibrium in 12 patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) during capnoretroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy. Bupivacaine (12 mL, 0.375%) and morphine (2mg) were given in the lumbar epidural space, and fentanyl (0.5 microg kg(-1)) and midazolam (50 microg kg(-1)) were given intravenously. Anaesthesia was induced by thiopental, maintained ...
Ritz T - - 2000
We investigated the effects of phasic emotional stimuli on total respiratory resistance (TRR) in 16 nonasthmatic students. Six series of happy, neutral, and depressing affective pictures and self-referent Velten statements were presented. Each stimulus was presented for 12 s and subsequently imagined for 12 s. TRR was measured by forced ...
Dörges V - - 2000
The European Resuscitation Council has recommended decreasing tidal volume during basic life support ventilation from 800 to 1200 ml, as recommended by the American Heart Association, to 500 ml in order to minimise stomach inflation. However, if oxygen is not available at the scene of an emergency, and small tidal ...
Siegel G J - - 2000
The author presents a description of a technique he developed called laser office ventilation of ears (LOVE). LOVE, an office-based procedure performed under local anesthesia, can provide intermediate-term ventilation for middle ear disease. This procedure has potential to change the standard of care for otitis media. Such changes might include ...
Perez C A - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To study changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 during intratracheal pulmonary ventilation (ITPV) and hybrid intratracheal pulmonary ventilation (h-ITPV) compared with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in a rabbit model of respiratory failure, and to define the technique of h-ITPV that combines conventional mechanical ventilation and ITPV. DESIGN: Prospective, interventional study. ...
Mutch W A - - 2000
We have studied the time course of changes in gas exchange and respiratory mechanics using two different modes of ventilation during 7 h of isoflurane anaesthesia in pigs. One group received conventional control mode ventilation (CV). The other group received biologically variable ventilation (BVV) which simulates the breath-to-breath variation in ...
Hirschl R B - - 2000
Perfluorocarbons accumulate in the dependent regions of the lungs, which may result in regional hypoxia if ventilation with oxygen is insufficient to oxygenate the dependent perfluorocarbon-filled alveoli. In this issue of Critical Care, Max et al present data that demonstrate a decrease in arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) at 30 min ...
Stephenson R - - 2000
Mechanisms underlying the circadian rhythm in lung ventilation were investigated. Ten healthy male subjects were studied for 36 h using a constant routine protocol to minimize potentially confounding variables. Laboratory light, humidity, and temperature remained constant, subjects did not sleep, and their meals and activities were held to a strict ...
Chao C Y - - 1999
A series of measurements were conducted to study the indoor radon pollution in air-conditioned high-rise office buildings. Continuous monitoring of indoor radon levels in nine air-conditioned premises located in six office buildings in Hong Kong was conducted from August 1996 to February 1998. Each of the tests lasted for at ...
Terkelsen K E - - 1999
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that altering the ventilation-perfusion ratio of the lung by changing the body position from erect to supine would alter the ventilatory response to exercise as described by the slope of the relationship between minute ventilation and carbon dioxide production. METHODS: Ten normal subjects volunteers (5 ...
Artlich A - - 1999
This study compared the effects of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) on the homeostasis of nitric oxide (NO) in the lower respiratory tract of healthy rabbits. The mechanisms underlying a putative stretch response of NO formation in the airways were further elucidated. Male New Zealand ...
Lee J K - - 1999
From August till November 1998, the Paediatric and Anaesthetic Units of Hospital Kuala Terengganu managed three patients from Kuala Terengganu District who were ventilated for respiratory diphtheria. Their ages were 5, 4 and 7 years old and their immunisation for diphtheria were not complete. All three patients presented with respiratory ...
Nourdine K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To observe the nosocomial infection (NI) distribution in ventilated patients of a single intensive care unit (ICU) according to the kind of control of the upper airways: noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) versus endotracheal intubation (ETI). SETTING: ICU of a general hospital. DESIGN: Prospective clinical and epidemiologic survey. PATIENTS: ...
Puri G D - - 1999
Respiratory physiological deadspace (VDphys) during normocapnic ventilation under anaesthesia was studied in 253 patients scheduled for elective non-thoracic surgery. Subjects were ventilated with SERVO 900B ventilator using CO2 analyser 930 (Siemens-Elema Sweden) to adjust minute volume sufficient to maintain end-tidal carbon dioxide fraction (FECO2) around 5.5kPa with normocapnic confirmation using ...
DiMario F J - - 1999
In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that intrinsic and extrinsic brainstem lesions situated within the pontomedullary region would effect the integrity of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The study sample consisted of three patients with anatomic brainstem abnormalities associated with isolated Chiari I malformation, Chiari II malformation with syringobulbia, and ...
Melsom M N - - 1999
Considerable heterogeneity unrelated to the effect of gravity has been demonstrated for both local ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) in the lung. Local ventilation and perfusion are well matched, so that the heterogeneity of the V/Q ratio is less than for ventilation or perfusion alone (Melsom et aL 1997). We ...
Brandi L S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of acute changes in minute ventilation (VE) on oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory quotient, and energy expenditure during volume-controlled mechanical ventilation in the critically ill surgical patient. The effects on some oxygen transport variables were assessed as well. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical ...
Natalini G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Work of breathing (WoB) is currently employed to assess the afterload on the respiratory muscles and to estimate the energy expenditure for breathing. Since WoB depends on the ventilated tidal volume (TV), WoB*L(-1), the indicized form of WoB has been employed as a measure of WoB which is independent ...
Nishino T - - 1999
We have measured how a low concentration of nitrous oxide affected respiratory sensation and ventilation. Severe dyspnoea was induced in nine normal subjects by a combination of hypercapnia and inspiratory elastic load (50 cm H2O litre-1). Subjects were asked to rate their sensation of respiratory discomfort using a visual analogue ...
Davis K K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of tracheostomy on respiratory mechanics and work of breathing (WOB). DESIGN: A before-and-after trial of 20 patients undergoing tracheostomy for repeated extubation failure. SETTING: Surgical intensive care unit at a university teaching hospital and a level I trauma center. PATIENTS: A consecutive sample of 20 ...
Johansson A - - 1999
To evaluate the possibility of respiratory-volume measurement using photoplethysmography (PPG), PPG signals from 16 normal volunteers are collected, and the respiratory-induced intensity variations (RIIV) are digitally extracted. The RIIV signals are studied while respiratory volume is varied. Furthermore, respiratory rate, body posture and type of respiration are varied. A Fleisch ...
Gerak L R - - 1998
This study examined changes in ventilation produced by negative gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) modulators in rhesus monkeys. The effects of Ro 15-4513, beta-CCE and beta-CCM were examined in four rhesus monkeys breathing air or 5% CO2 in air. When monkeys breathed CO2, minute volume (VE) and frequency (f) increased, on average, ...
Tanabe Y - - 1998
We evaluated the effect of percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) on ventilatory variables and dyspnea during recovery from a 6-minute submaximal constant workload exercise, and showed that the decrease in postexercise ventilation after PTMC was closely related to improvement in postexercise dyspnea after PTMC. Ventilation during recovery from submaximal constant ...
Spengler C M - - 1998
Breathlessness arises from increased medullary respiratory center activity projecting to the forebrain (respiratory corollary discharge hypothesis). Subjects with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) lack the normal hyperpnea and breathlessness during hypercapnia. The corollary discharge hypothesis predicts that if CCHS subjects have normal hyperpnea during exercise, they will experience normal breathlessness ...
Reid K H - - 1998
In the clinical literature there are reports of patients failing to breathe and becoming comatose when supplied with 100% oxygen for respiratory distress. This effect has been attributed to a loss of respiratory drive. Recent studies have established that this explanation is incorrect, but have left the phenomenon unexplained. We ...
Armour W - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Patients with heart failure frequently complain of orthopnoea. The objective was to assess the ventilatory response of patients with chronic heart failure during erect and supine exercise. DESIGN: Maximal incremental exercise testing with metabolic gas exchange measurements in erect and supine positions conducted in random order. SETTING: Tertiary referral ...
Gdovin M J - - 1998
A decerebrate, spontaneously breathing tadpole preparation (Taylor-Kollros stages 16-19) was used to test the general hypothesis that the efferent bursting activities of cranial nerves (CN) V, VII and spinal nerve (SN) II are respiratory in nature, and, in particular, to identify separate and specific neural correlates of gill and lung ...
Wright D - - 1998
We studied 19 patients anaesthetised for routine surgery using isoflurane delivered from a Komesaroff vaporiser mounted within a circle system. Their lungs were ventilated using a Penlon Nuffield ventilator attached to the circle system by a trunk of tubing. Fresh gas flow rates of 1, 2 or 31.min-1 were used. ...
Nash M S - - 1998
This single-subject case examined oxyhemoglobin saturation and alveolar end-tidal carbon dioxide levels in a ventilator-dependent tetraplegic patient undergoing electrical stimulation cycle ergometry. When exercising with a closed tracheostomy cuff under resting ventilator settings (resting intermittent mandatory ventilation; frequency = 6breaths/min, tidal volume = 83.3mL, minute ventilation =5L/min), his oxyhemoglobin saturation ...
Uchida T - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the efficacy of the combination of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in ARDS. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: A research laboratory at a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Thirty-two rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were anesthetized and ventilated via tracheostomy (tidal volume=40 mL; respiratory ...
Neal J M - - 1998
The incidence and clinical significance of hemidiaphragmatic paresis after supraclavicular block of the brachial plexus is unknown. Eight healthy volunteers received a supraclavicular block with a standard technique using 30 mL of 1.5% lidocaine. Respiratory function was assessed with ultrasound of the diaphragm, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP), and pulmonary function ...
Haberthür C - - 1998
We investigated the effect of mechanical unloading and loading on Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in seven intubated patients with preexisting CSR. For mechanical loading patients had to breathe against the resistance of the endotracheal tube. For mechanical unloading patients were supported with a volume-proportional pressure support in the proportional assist ventilation ...
Hachey W E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) and conventional ventilation (CV) in a piglet model of meconium aspiration syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized control study. SUBJECTS: Piglets 1 to 2 wks of age. INTERVENTIONS: Meconium aspiration was induced in 30 piglets. They were then randomized to CV, ...
Bloch-Salisbury E - - 1998
Elevated end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PET(CO2)) causes air hunger; this sensation becomes intense with a relatively small rise in PET(CO2) if ventilation is held constant. Spontaneously breathing subjects increase ventilation in response to CO2, thereby greatly diminishing air hunger. In healthy subjects and ventilator-dependent patients, experimenter-induced increases in ventilator ...
Rubertsson S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation always includes ventilation with pure oxygen, this kind of ventilation has been reported to be associated with worse neurological outcome than ventilation with air in experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of the present investigation was to compare the systemic oxygen uptake during experimental closed-chest ...
McDonald P F - - 1998
Our clinical experience has shown that the use of a constant distending airway pressure of 30 cm water for 10 s, termed a timed reexpansion inspiratory manoeuvre (TRIM), is often successful in correcting oxyhaemoglobin desaturation in anaesthetized children. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of TRIM ...
Rehder K - - 1998
Changes in body position alters the functional residual capacity (FRC). Most anesthetics reduce FRC in the recumbent but not sitting position. Inspired gas distribution in anesthesia-paralyzed subjects whose lungs are mechanically ventilated, is different from that in the awake state in all but the prone position. The function of the ...
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