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Sevi A - - 2003
The effects of ventilation on air quality, and on the welfare and production performance of dairy ewes were assessed in a 6-wk trial conducted during the winter of 2002. Thirty-six midlactation Comisana ewes were divided into three groups of 12, which were randomly balanced for parity, time of lambing, and ...
Fuschillo S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe kyphoscoliosis, with or without stable respiratory failure, frequently experience oxyhaemoglobin desaturation during sleep, exercise, or both. Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) applied during sleep has been demonstrated to be able to control nocturnal desaturations and also improve diurnal respiratory failure, if this is present, in ...
Holliday Jerome E JE Medical Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St. Louis MO 63106, USA. - - 2003
Previous studies have shown that relaxation biofeedback reduced the amount of time spent receiving ventilation for difficult-to-wean patients. The present study was begun to test the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism of biofeedback ventilator weaning was the reduction of neural respiratory drive (NRD). Prospective. Pulmonary Medicine division in a Veterans ...
Subhan Mirza M F - - 2003
There are conflicting reports on the reproducibility of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the modified Borg scale for the estimation of breathlessness during exercise. In an attempt to clarify the situation, two groups of healthy subjects undertook a progressive exercise test either daily (Group A) or weekly (Group B) ...
Dettenkofer Markus - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: In hospital operating rooms (ORs), specially conditioned air is supplied to protect patients from airborne agents that may cause infections. This study investigated whether it is hygienically safe to shut down the air supply at night if measures are taken to ensure a timely restart before surgery is performed. ...
Dorph E - - 2003
Current adult basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend a 2:15 ventilation:compression ratio, while the optimal ratio is unknown. This study was designed to compare arterial and mixed venous blood gas changes and cerebral circulation and oxygen delivery with ventilation:compression ratios of 2:15, 2:50 and 5:50 in a model of basic ...
Highcock M P - - 2003
Evidence that noninvasive intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NiIPPV) improves exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. The effectiveness of different ventilators in this setting has not been studied. Three bilevel pressure support ventilators (Bipap S/T 30, Nippy2 and Vpap II ST), applied via a mouthpiece, were compared during ...
Gaitini Luis A - - 2003
The Laryngeal Tube is a new supraglottic ventilatory device for airway management. It has been developed to secure a patent airway during either spontaneous or mechanical ventilation. In this study, we sought to determine the effectiveness of the Laryngeal Tube for primary airway management during routine surgery with mechanical ventilation. ...
Daigle Christopher C - - 2003
Ultrafine particles (diameter < 100 nm) may be important in the health effects of air pollution, in part because of their predicted high respiratory deposition. However, there are few measurements of ultrafine particle deposition during spontaneous breathing. The fractional deposition for the total respiratory tract of ultrafine carbon particles (count ...
Panigada M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of the horizontal orientation of endotracheal tube and neck on bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in anesthetized sheep on mechanical ventilation, without use of antibiotics. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: National Institutes of Health research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated sheep. INTERVENTIONS: Sheep ...
Koike Akira - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration alternating between hyperpnea and hypopnea has been considered a sign of severe heart failure, the clinical status of cardiac patients who exhibit oscillatory ventilation during wakefulness has not been clarified. This study was carried out to determine the relation between oscillatory ventilation during wakefulness and ...
Hadfield Pandora J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the incidence and indications for paediatric tracheostomy in this unit have changed over recent years. METHODS: All paediatric tracheostomies performed between 1993 and 2001 were identified from our departmental database. The indications for these were ascertained by retrospective case note review. RESULTS: Over the 9-year period ...
van Kaam Anton H - - 2003
It has been shown that application of the open-lung concept (OLC) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) attenuates pulmonary inflammation. We hypothesized that this attenuation could also be achieved by applying the OLC during positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). After repeated whole-lung lavage, newborn piglets were assigned to one of three ventilation groups: ...
Hoffman Leslie A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Tracheal gas insufflation reduces inspired tidal volume and minute ventilation in spontaneously breathing patients and may facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: To determine if tracheal gas insufflation can reduce ventilatory demand during weaning trials in patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A reduction in ventilatory demand was ...
Freytag C C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms become attracted to polymer surfaces for a number of reasons including positive charge of biomaterial or concentration of nutrients on the biomaterial surface. Many bacteria additionally possess specific receptors for the interaction with extracellular host protein components that adhere on the biomaterial surface. Several authors suggest that application ...
Mitchell Gordon S - - 2003
Although recent evidence demonstrates considerable neuroplasticity in the respiratory control system, a comprehensive conceptual framework is lacking. Our goals in this review are to define plasticity (and related neural properties) as it pertains to respiratory control and to discuss potential sites, mechanisms, and known categories of respiratory plasticity. Respiratory plasticity ...
McMahon Michael E - - 2002
Well-trained endurance athletes frequently have a lower peripheral chemoreceptor (pR(c)) sensitivity and a lower minute ventilation (E) during exercise compared to untrained individuals. We speculated that the decreased pR(c) response may be specifically associated with repeated exposure to the high rates of ventilation occurring during exercise training. We therefore examined ...
Charles Pierre-Emmanuel - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high rate of therapeutic failures in ventilator-associated pneumonia, up to now there has been no animal model specifically designed for antimicrobial evaluation. A rabbit model of ventilator-associated pneumonia is described for the first time in this study. DESIGN Prospective, randomized experimental study. SETTING: An animal research laboratory. ...
Boggs Dona F - - 2002
Interactions between locomotion and ventilation have now been studied in several species of reptiles, birds and mammals, from a variety of perspectives. Among these perspectives are neural interactions of separate but linked central controllers; mechanical impacts of locomotion upon ventilatory pressures and flows; and the extent to which the latter ...
Fauroux B - - 2002
Chronic respiratory insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by an increase in respiratory load, which leads to alveolar hypoventilation with the preservation of respiratory muscle strength. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is able to improve alveolar ventilation and thus gas exchange and allow the the respiratory muscles to rest in ...
Willey-Courand Donna Beth - - 2002
Regional changes in ventilation and perfusion occurring in the early hours after smoke inhalation injury were evaluated through the use of positron emission tomography. Five lambs were imaged before and 1, 2, and 4 h after receiving 100 breaths of cotton smoke. Utilizing a recently developed model of (13)N tracer ...
Taenzer Andreas H - - 2002
Anesthesiologists often administer care outside the operating room. These locations may depend on gas cylinders for their oxygen source more than the operating suites supplied by dedicated central pipelines. Using full E-cylinders, we determined the oxygen consumption of two often used, pneumatically driven anesthesia ventilators to answer three questions: How ...
Nabetani Teru - - 2002
This study was conducted to assess whether respiratory frequency can be used as a valid parameter for estimating ventilatory threshold and for examining differences in exercise modes such as a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. 24 men and 12 women performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ...
Jolliet Philippe - - 2002
Because of its low density, the He/O2 mixture markedly affects the dynamics of gas-flow, increasing inspiratory and expiratory flows, reducing WOB and respiratory acidosis, and relieving dyspnea in various clinical situations associated with obstructive airway disease. The magnitude of these changes varies according to the proportion of turbulent, transitional, and ...
Blitz Dawn M - - 2002
Neural networks that produce rhythmic behaviors require flexibility to respond to changes in the internal and external state of the animal. It is important to not only understand how a network responds during such perturbations but also how the network recovers. For example, the respiratory network needs to respond to ...
Warren Valerie C - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This case report describes the use of glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) and neck accessory muscle breathing (NAMB) in the treatment of an individual who was dependent on a ventilator secondary to a spinal cord injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 19-year-old man with C2 complete tetraplegia. He ...
Arantes-Costa F M - - 2002
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is associated with heat and water loss from the airways. It is not known whether these conditions can influence the response to bronchoactive agonists. The effects of different degrees of alveolar ventilation on the pulmonary response to methacholine and the role of humidity and temperature in this response ...
Abraham Kirk A - - 2002
We tested the hypothesis that abdominal muscles are active during the expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle during exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded during incremental exercise to exhaustion and during 30 min of constant work rate exercise at an intensity of 85 ...
Ikoma Masanobu - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The effect of exercise protocol on the slope of the relationship between minute ventilation and carbon dioxide production (deltaVE/deltaVCO2) has not fully been studied. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers performed two sessions of incremental bicycle exercise, one with a rapidly increasing staged (RIS: 25W every minute) protocol and another with ...
Zanetta G - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate portable ventilators. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Bench study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five portable ventilators used for transporting ICU patients [Osiris 1, (ventilator a), Osiris 2, (ventilator b), Oxylog 1000, (ventilator c), Oxylog 2000, (ventilator d), AXR1a, (ventilator e)] and three ICU ventilators which can be used for this ...
Duncan Frances D - - 2002
This study correlates the pattern of external gas exchange with the diel activity of nine species of tenebrionid beetle from the Negev Desert, Israel. The study species are active throughout the summer months when daytime temperatures are high and no rain falls. There were no differences in standard metabolic rate, ...
Gandevia S C - - 2002
1. The present brief review covers some novel aspects of integration between respiration and movement of the body. 2. There are potent viscerosomatic reflexes in animals involving small-diameter pulmonary afferents that, when excited, would limit exercise. However, recent studies using lobeline injections to excite pulmonary afferents in awake humans suggest ...
Hocking Martin B - - 2002
The small air space available per person in a fully occupied aircraft passenger cabin accentuates the human bioeffluent factor in the maintenance of air quality. The accumulation of carbon dioxide and other contributions to poor air quality that can occur with inadequate ventilation, even under normal circumstances, is related to ...
Doganay Z - - 2002
Amitraz, a formamidine insecticide and acaricide used in veterinary practice, presents side effects in humans related to its pharmacological activity on alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. There is little information available in the literature about the toxicology of the product in man and the treatment of this poisoning. In this report, the ...
Mohr A M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The exact mechanism by which tracheostomy results in clinical improvement in respiratory function and liberation from mechanical ventilation remains unknown. Physiologic dead space, which includes both normal and abnormal components of non-gas exchange tidal volume, is a clinical measure of the efficiency of ventilation. Theoretically, tracheostomy should reduce dead ...
Watt J W - - 2001
A pilot case control study of the acid-base and electrolyte status in 30 long-term ventilator-dependent (LTVD) and 30 self ventilating persons with tetraplegia. To assess the extent of respiratory alkalosis and screen for associated hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and/or hypophosphataemia. Medically stable persons with tetraplegia under the long-term care of the Southport ...
MacKay-Lyons M - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: External support of body weight, a technique used for the gait training of patients with neurologic conditions, may also be beneficial for tests of exercise capacity in people whose impairments in motor function and balance have traditionally precluded such testing. The purpose of this study was to ...
Dehkordi O - - 2001
We have previously reported that the anticholinergic properties of cocaine may be important in cocaine induced apneusis. We have studied the effects of the cholinergic muscarinic antagonist atropine (ATR) on cocaine induced apneusis at the caudal chemosensitive areas of the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (CVLM). Experiments were performed in urethane anesthetized ...
Alani A - - 2001
The aim of this work is to define the basis for design guidelines that will minimise the risk of exposure from airborne organisms in hospital isolation rooms. This research employs an algorithm that combines an understanding of the interaction between the room airflow and the ultra violet (UV) system. The ...
Gulsvik A - - 2001
In a population survey on the south-western coast of Norway, 373 never smokers aged 18-73 years (230 women) without respiratory symptoms performed a standardized, progressive, incremental submaximal bicycle exercise test. All individuals were able to do an exercise involving oxygen uptake of 1.0 l min(-1), 80% of the subjects reached ...
Walker G M - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the quality of expired air given during mouth-to-mouth ventilation differs between one- and two-person basic life support. METHODS: 15 young fit volunteers performed 15-min simulated resuscitation on a manikin. The oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration of their expired breath and the total ventilation was continuously monitored. ...
Jaeger K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have revealed that gelatin and HES produce increased neutrophil respiratory burst activity. It was investigated whether 3-percent gelatin (MW 35,000) and three types of 6-percent HES (MW 70,000; degree of substitution, 0.5; 200,000/0.5; 450,000/0.7) preparations can influence superoxide anion production during respiratory burst under clinical conditions. STUDY ...
Oppenheim-Eden A A Departments of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Carmel Lady Davis Medical Center, Technion Medical School, Haifa, Israel. - - 2001
To assess in vitro the performance of five mechanical ventilators-Siemens 300 and 900C (Siemens-Elma; Solna, Sweden), Puritan Bennett 7200 (Nellcor Puritan Bennett; Pleasanton, CA), Evita 4 (Dragerwerk; Lubeck, Germany), and Bear 1000 (Bear Medical Systems; Riverside CA)-and a bedside sidestream spirometer (Datex CS3 Respiratory Module; Datex-Ohmeda; Helsinki, Finland) during ventilation ...
Campbell E J - - 2001
A collection of 12 papers published between 1957 and 1972 are revisited. The papers had a common theme of the use of rebreathing carbon dioxide and explored a variety of topics in respiratory physiology. The first study established a method for the noninvasive and indirect estimation of arterial carbon dioxide ...
Cole C R - - 2001
Although rate responsive pacing based on impedance minute ventilation (IMV) is now standard, there is almost no data confirming the relationship between IMV from an implanted pacemaker and measured minute ventilation (VE) during exercise. Nineteen completely paced adults implanted with Medtronic Kappa 400 pacemakers underwent symptom-limited maximal metabolic treadmill testing ...
Mahler D A - - 2001
A continuous method for recording changes in breathlessness (dyspnea) during exercise is introduced and compared with the traditional discrete method. In study 1, a category-rating scale was presented on a computer screen, and 14 healthy, young female subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer until exhaustion. Two approaches were used to ...
Beck K C - - 2001
Expired gas concentrations were measured during a multibreath washin of He in one female and seven male subjects at rest (seated) and during cycle exercise at work rates of 70-210 W. In a computational model, the ventilation distribution was represented as a log-normal distribution with standard deviation (sigmaV); values of ...
Heier T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Because of the rapid recovery of neuromuscular function after succinylcholine administration, there is a belief that patients will start breathing sufficiently rapidly to prevent significant oxygen desaturation. The authors tested whether this belief was valid. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers aged 18-45 yr participated in the study. After preoxygenation to ...
Perchiazzi G - - 2001
We evaluated 1) the performance of an artificial neural network (ANN)-based technology in assessing the respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and compliance (Crs) in a porcine model of acute lung injury and 2) the possibility of using, for ANN training, signals coming from an electrical analog (EA) of the lung. Two ...
Serra S M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation, by exercise stress testing, of the cardiorespiratory effects of pyridostigmine (PYR), a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison of hemodynamic and ventilation variables of 10 healthy subjects who underwent three exercise stress tests (the first for adaptation and determination of tolerance to exercise, ...
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