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Leicht Christof A - - 2010
A respiratory warm-up (RWU) can improve exercise performance in able-bodied athletes. However, its effects in paraplegic individuals are unknown. On two occasions, nine male active paraplegic individuals performed an arm cranking test to exhaustion at 85% of their peak power output. In the intervention (INT) trial, this procedure was preceded ...
Woods Paul R - - 2010
Patients with heart failure (HF) develop abnormal pulmonary gas exchange; specifically, they have abnormal ventilation relative to metabolic demand (ventilatory efficiency/minute ventilation in relation to carbon dioxide production [V(E)/VCO₂]) during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the factors that underlie the abnormal breathing efficiency in this population. ...
Fauroux Brigitte - - 2010
A physiological rationale has been demonstrated for the use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with cystic fibrosis. Indeed, as lung disease progresses, respiratory muscle load increases. As a result, patients develop a compensatory mechanism of a rapid shallow breathing pattern in an attempt to reduce this increase ...
Sato K - - 2010
Heavy resistance exercise may be associated with a small risk of cerebral aneurysm rupture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and symptoms of dizziness or outright weight-lifters' blackout, which may be induced by a rapid change in the cerebral blood flow. We hypothesized that these changes during heavy exercise could be associated with the ...
da Silva Evelise Guimarães - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maximal respiratory pressures, pulmonary volumes and capacities and exercise functional capacity in pregnant women with preeclampsia. METHOD: Primigravid women with preeclampsia and healthy primigravid women were evaluated by means of manovacuometry, spirometry and the 6-minute walk test. RESULTS: The group with preeclampsia showed higher minute ventilation and ...
Xanthos Theodoros - - 2009
This study assessed the time it takes for newly trained basic life-support/automated external defibrillator (BLS/AED) providers to complete five cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and whether it is easier to follow a 2-min time frame or to count five cycles of CPR. Then, it assesses how many chest compressions are ...
Davies Rosemary C - - 2009
This study examined the effect of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on ventilatory and perceived exertion responses to cycle exercise. Ten healthy, physically active men cycled for 6 min at moderate intensity and to exhaustion at severe intensity before and 48 h after eccentric exercise (100 squats with a load corresponding ...
Vogiatzis Ioannis - - 2009
We investigated whether, during maximal exercise, intercostal muscle blood flow is as high as during resting hyperpnoea at the same work of breathing. We hypothesized that during exercise, intercostal muscle blood flow would be limited by competition from the locomotor muscles. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus ...
Heine Martin - - 2009
We tested hypothesis that cerebral deoxygenation near maximal exercise intensity is mediated by hyperventilation, via hypocapnia-induced reductions in cerebral blood flow, by utilizing canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to determine the relative influence of cardiopulmonary changes on cerebral oxygenation, as assessed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-three subjects performed incremental exercise ...
Jensen Dennis - - 2009
We examined the contribution of alterations in central ventilatory control, static and dynamic respiratory mechanics and their interaction to exertional breathlessness in healthy human pregnancy. Detailed ventilatory, respiratory mechanical/muscular and perceptual responses to incremental cycle exercise were compared in the third trimester (TM(3)) and again approximately 5 months post-partum (PP) ...
Jensen Dennis - - 2009
The healthy human respiratory system has impressive ventilatory reserve and can easily meet the demands placed upon it by strenuous exercise. Several acute physiological adaptations during exercise ensure harmonious neuromechanical coupling of the respiratory system, which allow healthy humans to reach high levels of ventilation without perceiving undue respiratory discomfort ...
Wan Li - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effect of repeated hypercapnic challenges on the sensory (intensity [I]) and affective (unpleasantness [U]) dimensions of breathlessness. METHODS: Three subsequent rebreathing trials (Read, 1968) were administered to healthy men and women (n = 39). The I and U of breathlessness were rated every 20 ...
Nowicki Thomas A - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Paramedics often encounter patients with difficult airways requiring emergent airway management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare intubation utilizing the Airtraq with direct laryngoscopy (DL) in the manikin model. We evaluated the number of attempts, the time to successful intubation, and the Airtraq's learning curve. METHODS: ...
Szpisjak Dale F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Field anesthesia machines (FAM) have been developed for remote locations where reliable supplies of compressed medical gases or electricity may be absent. In place of electricity, pneumatically controlled ventilators use compressed gas to power timing circuitry and actuate valves. We sought to determine the total O(2) consumption and ventilator ...
Michallet A-S - - 2008
AIM: Indirect calorimetry during exercise provides two metabolic indices of substrate oxidation balance: the crossover point (COP) and maximum fat oxidation rate (LIPOXmax). We aimed to study the effects of the analytical device, protocol type and ventilatory response on variability of these indices, and the relationship with lactate and ventilation ...
Devaquet Jérôme - - 2008
A high respiratory rate associated with the use of small tidal volumes, recommended for acute lung injury (ALI), shortens time for gas diffusion in the alveoli. This may decrease CO(2) elimination. We hypothesized that a postinspiratory pause could enhance CO(2) elimination and reduce Pa(CO(2)) by reducing dead space in ALI. ...
Pulletz S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is becoming a new medical imaging modality for continuous monitoring of regional lung function in the intensive care unit or operating room. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of EIT in detecting regional tidal volumes in patients during volume-controlled mechanical ventilation ...
Brinker A - - 2008
Bag-valve-mask ventilation is a key component of life support, but only one handheld resuscitator is designed to operate in contaminated or toxic atmospheres. Following Institutional Review Board approval we determined the efficacy of this device. Twenty anaesthetists ventilated a modified manikin, either with or without a combination filter attached to ...
Littmann Laszlo - - 2008
Electrocardiographic artifact is generally considered to be a nuisance. Respiratory artifact, however, is a physiologic signal that may carry useful diagnostic information. Our goal was to evaluate the characteristics, prevalence, and clinical significance of respiratory artifact observed in electrocardiograms (ECGs). ECGs exhibiting repetitive microoscillations were systematically collected. The morphologic characteristics ...
Ogoh Shigehiko - - 2008
Cerebrovascular reactivity to changes in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P(a,CO(2))) via limiting changes in brain [H(+)] modulates ventilatory control. It remains unclear, however, how exercise-induced alterations in respiratory chemoreflex might influence cerebral blood flow (CBF), in particular the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2). The respiratory chemoreflex system controlling ...
Kift Jamie - - 2008
Inadequate ventilation is not usually considered an exercise-limiting factor because it is thought that the respiratory system's maximum ventilatory capacity is never reached during exercise. This so-called reserve can be defined as the difference between the ventilated volume, attained during a maximum voluntary ventilation manoeuvre (MVV) and the maximum ventilation ...
Bussotti Maurizio - - 2008
High arterial CO(2) pressure (P(a)CO(2)) measured in athletes during exercise suggests inadequate hyperventilation. End-tidal CO(2) pressure (P (ET)CO(2)) is used to estimate P(a)CO(2.) However, P(ET)CO(2) also depends on exercise intensity (CO(2) production, .VCO2) and ventilation efficiency (being P(ET)CO(2) function of respiratory rate). We evaluated P(ET)CO(2) as a marker, which combines ...
MacIntyre Neil R - - 2008
Tidal breaths are an important component of mechanical ventilation. However, an inappropriate tidal volume setting can overstretch and injure the lung. Maximal stretch, tidal stretch, frequency of stretch, and rate of stretch are all implicated in such injury. Clinical trials have shown that limiting maximal and tidal stretch improves outcomes, ...
Maruscak Adam A - - 2008
Lung injury due to mechanical ventilation is associated with an impairment of endogenous surfactant. It is unknown whether this impairment is a consequence of or an active contributor to the development and progression of lung injury. To investigate this issue, the present study addressed three questions: Do alterations to surfactant ...
Verges Samuel - - 2008
Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) was shown to increase endurance performance in healthy subjects. Reduced adverse respiratory sensations might contribute to this improvement. In the present study, we aimed to assess the relationship between changes in respiratory sensations and changes in ventilation and endurance performance after RMET. Fourteen healthy subjects ...
Ng Calvin S H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A complex inflammatory response associated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass may ultimately lead to organ dysfunction. We investigate the effect of continuing ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass on inflammatory reactions and cardiopulmonary function. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were prospectively randomized to continuous ventilation and nonventilation groups. Plasma ...
Agostoni Piergiuseppe - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Periodic breathing (PB) in heart failure (HF) is attributed to many factors, including low cardiac output delaying the time it takes pulmonary venous blood to reach the central and peripheral chemoreceptors, low lung volume, lung congestion, augmented chemoreceptor sensitivity, and the narrow difference between eupneic carbon dioxide tension and ...
Verges Samuel - - 2008
Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) can improve respiratory muscle endurance as well as cycling and swimming endurance. Whether these improvements are caused by reduced perception of adverse respiratory sensations and/or a change in ventilatory output remains unclear. We re-analysed nine (five randomized controlled) RMET studies performed in our laboratory. One ...
Linstedt U - - 2007
BACKGROUND: We use an intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in preference to an endotracheal tube (ETT) as the ventilatory device during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) to overcome potential problems such as difficult ventilation, accidental extubation, damage of the ETT or of the bronchoscope, and need for additional assistant to secure the ...
Soong Wen-Jue - - 2007
A young child with jaw-neck-sternum immobility suffering from acute upper airway obstruction was treated with nasotracheal intubation using flexible endoscope (FE). During this difficult intubation, an inserted trimming endotracheal tube acted as a nasopharyngeal airway and simultaneous supplement with mechanical ventilation through the tube successfully resuscitated and improved the patients ...
Hari Churunal K - - 2007
The risk of leaving an iatrogenic foreign body in the bronchus, while using a reusable flexible suction catheter tube during rigid bronchoscopy is reported. A 6-year-old girl underwent rigid bronchoscopy to rule out foreign body inhalation as the possible cause of her unilateral pneumonia and lung collapse. While performing the ...
Safavi Mohammadreza - - 2007
This study examines the efficacy of the predicting power for need for mechanical ventilation and duration of mechanical ventilation of three different scoring systems in a medical-surgical intensive care unit. One-hundred eighty critically ill patients were included prospectively in our study in a consecutive period of seven months. On the ...
Mentzelopoulos Spyros D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), high-frequency oscillation (HFO) improves oxygenation relative to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Alveolar ventilation is improved by adding tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) to CMV. We hypothesized that combined HFO and TGI (HFO-TGI) might result in improved gas exchange relative to both standard HFO and ...
Sauvageau Anny - - 2007
The forensic literature on the pathophysiology of human hanging is still limited. Therefore, forensic pathologists often feel uncomfortable when confronted with related questions. Here presented is the filmed suicidal hanging of a 37-year-old man. This recording allows a unique analysis of agonal movement sequences: loss of consciousness (13 sec), convulsions ...
Cannon Daniel T - - 2007
The role of the serratus anterior (SA) as an accessory muscle of ventilation and its physiologic significance under exercising conditions remains unclear. Recent investigations have utilized the measurement of SA as an analog for respiratory muscle oxygenation. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the action of the serratus ...
Hager Alfred - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome lack ventilatory chemosensitivity and depend at least in part on the ergoreceptor function during exercise. In these patients a substantial increase of ventilation has been reported for passive movement during sleep as well as active movement on a treadmill. OBJECTIVES: The aim of ...
Poon Chi-Sang - - 2007
Homeostasis is a basic tenet of biomedicine and an open problem for many physiological control systems. Among them, none has been more extensively studied and intensely debated than the dilemma of exercise hyperpnea - a paradoxical homeostatic increase of respiratory ventilation that is geared to metabolic demands instead of the ...
Simbruner George - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of doubling minute ventilation (either by doubling ventilator frequency [Freq] or tidal volume [V T]) and of normal minute ventilation prolonged to 12-fold duration, synchronously at biophysical, biochemical/cellular, histological, and transcriptional levels in a model of mild lung injury. A ...
Galvan Carrie Chueiri Ramos - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of utilization of a specific training program of respiratory muscles on pulmonary function in tobacco smokers. METHODS: Fifty asymptomatic tobacco smokers with age superior to 30 years were studied, at the moments: A0 - initial evaluation followed by protocol of respiratory exercises; A1 - reevaluation ...
Salas Nichole - - 2007
PURPOSE: To determine the performance of two person CPR on an instrumented manikin by registered nurses using conventional bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation or the Impact Model 730 automatic transport ventilator (Impact 730, Impact Instrumentation, Inc., West Caldwell, NJ) in CPR mode using a face mask. DESIGN: Randomized crossover quasi-experimental. ...
Löndahl Jakob - - 2007
Airborne ultrafine particles (diameter <100 nm) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been associated with adverse health effects. The respiratory-tract deposition of these particles is fundamentally influenced by their hygroscopicity: their ability to grow by condensation of water in the humid respiratory system. Ambient particles are typically hygroscopic, to ...
Tsai Larry W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The development of bronchoscopic therapies for emphysema has renewed interest in collateral ventilation. The success or failure of bronchoscopically placed valves or biologic glues may be determined by collateral ventilation, which is exaggerated in emphysema. Furthermore, the validity of various animal models of emphysema for testing such techniques must ...
Kedan G - - 2007
Many modern tower silos used in the agricultural industry for hay and grain storage are oxygen-limiting by design. Forced-air ventilation using a forage blower is a method commonly used to decrease concentrations of toxic and asphyxiant gases and to increase the O2 content within a silo headspace prior to worker ...
Price Edwin R - - 2007
The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings' ...
Budweiser Stephan - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in patients with restrictive thoracic disorders and intermittent noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV). DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Home-based RMT, with assessment in a primary care pulmonary center. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients with restrictive thoracic disorders; 28 patients completed the trial. ...
Testelmans Dries - - 2006
Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used in the intensive care setting, but they have occasionally been associated with development of myopathy. In addition, diaphragmatic atrophy and a reduction in diaphragmatic force were reported after short-term controlled mechanical ventilation in animal models. We hypothesized that infusion of rocuronium, an aminosteroidal ...
Tumminello Gabriele - - 2007
Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome characterized by myocardial dysfunction and a poor prognosis. Among multiple markers of severity, an exercise ventilation inefficiency has important clinical and prognostic value. The pathophysiology determining exercise ventilatory inefficiency is complex and not definitively clarified. Three different mechanisms have been identified: (i) increased ...
Heidenreich Joseph W - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Continuous chest-compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCC-CPR) has been advocated as an alternative to standard CPR (STD-CPR). Studies have shown that CCC-CPR delivers substantially more chest compressions per minute and is easier to remember and perform than STD-CPR. One concern regarding CCC-CPR is that the rescuer may fatigue and be unable ...
Zubieta-Calleja G R - - 2006
Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) patients have repeatedly been found to hypoventilate. Low saturation in CMS is attributed to hypoventilation. Although this observation seems logical, a further understanding of the exact mechanism of hypoxia is mandatory. An exercise study using the Bruce Protocol in CMS (n = 13) compared to normals ...
Iben Sabine C - - 2006
We used a rat pup model to delineate whether mechanical ventilation of <or=4 h duration in the absence of supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of airway hyperreactivity. Eight-day-old rat pups were assigned to unventilated normoxic controls, ventilated under normoxic conditions, ventilated under hyperoxic conditions (100% O2), or unventilated hyperoxic ...
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