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Results 451 - 500 of 1195
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Nye Joseph S JS - - 2008
The next U.S. administration will face enormous challenges to world peace, the global economy, and the environment. Exercising military and economic muscle alone will not bring peace and prosperity. According to Nye, a former U.S. government official and a former dean at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, ...
Yamaji Shunsuke - - 2008
This study was designed to clarify a sex difference in muscle power output properties by intermittent elbow flexion using various loads. 10 young males and 10 young females performed intermittent elbow flexion power outputs at 30 times x min.(-1) for 1 min. using 30%, 40%, and 50% MVC loads. For ...
Little Jonathan P - - 2008
Creatine (Cr) supplementation increases muscle mass, strength, and power. Arginine a-ketoglutarate (A-AKG) is a precursor for nitric oxide production and has the potential to improve blood flow and nutrient delivery (i.e., Cr) to muscles. This study compared a commercial dietary supplement of Cr, A-AKG, glutamine, taurine, branched-chain amino acids, and ...
Lenton John P - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of wheeling experience on efficiency, metabolic cost, and differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) during synchronous and asynchronous hand-rim propulsion with varying arm frequencies. Fourteen able-bodied (AB) male participants and 8 male wheelchair sportsmen (WS) performed tests of peak oxygen ...
Kerr Rebecca - - 2008
Graded exercise tests are commonly used to assess peak physiological capacities of athletes. However, unlike time trials, these tests do not provide performance information. The aim of this study was to examine the peak physiological responses of female outrigger canoeists to a 1000-m ergometer time trial and compare the time-trial ...
Koshida Sentaro - - 2008
Previous studies have suggested that resistance training exercise under unstable conditions decreases the isometric force output, yet little is known about its influence on muscular outputs during dynamic movement. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an unstable condition on power, force, and velocity outputs during ...
Garland Stephen W - - 2008
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of sample site (earlobe vs toe) and incremental exercise protocol (continuous vs discontinuous) on training zone prescription in rowing. METHODS: Twenty-six rowers performed two incremental exercise tests on an ergometer: (1) a five-step discontinuous test with 4-min stages and 30-W increment, with blood samples taken ...
Kounalakis Stylianos N - - 2008
PURPOSE: Handball is a sport with high anaerobic demands in lower body as has been indicated by Wingate test (WT) performed with the legs, but there are no data available concerning power production during a WT performed with the arms in handball players (HndP). Therefore, the purpose of this study ...
Herrero Salvador - - 2008
Using the traditional serological tests and the most novel techniques for DNA fingerprinting, forensic scientists scan different traits that vary from person to person and use the data to include or exclude suspects based on matching with the evidence obtained in a criminal case. Although the forensic application of these ...
Sassi Aldo - - 2008
The primary purpose of this study was to compare seasonal changes in cycling gross efficiency (GE) and economy (EC) with changes in other aerobic fitness indices. The secondary aim was to assess the relationship between maximum oxygen consumption, GE, and EC among elite cyclists. The relationships of maximum oxygen consumption ...
Koninckx Erwin - - 2008
In this study, we evaluated the effects of a novel pedal design, characterized by a downward and forward shift of the cleat fixing platform relative to the pedal axle, on maximal power output and mechanical efficiency in 22 well-trained cyclists. Maximal power output was measured during a series of short ...
Mendez-Villanueva Alberto - - 2008
The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual's anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e., the difference between the maximum anaerobic (Pana) and aerobic power (Paer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular activity, as evidenced ...
Theurel Jean - - 2008
The present study compared neuromuscular fatigue of the knee extensor muscles following highly variable versus constant power output cycling. Ten subjects performed two 33-min cycling trials of the same average power output, in a random order. Cycling exercise was performed either at constant (CST) power output, corresponding to 70% of ...
Hansen Ernst A - - 2008
It is not known whether the seated or standing position favours performance during intensive bouts of uphill cycling. The following hypotheses were therefore tested: (1) the standing position results in better performance at a high power output, while (2) the seated position is best at a moderate power output. We ...
Kamarajan Chella C Henri Begleiter Neurodynamics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Box 1203, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. - - 2008
Event-related oscillations (EROs) have proved to be very useful in the understanding of a variety of neurocognitive processes including reward/outcome processing. In the present study, theta power (4.0-7.0 Hz) following outcome stimuli in the time window of the N2-P3 complex (200-500 ms) was analyzed in healthy normals (20 males and ...
Szecsi J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cycling is a safe and functionally effective exercise for patients with early post-stroke and poor balance. Such exercise is considered even more effective when functional electrical stimulation is added. Our principal aim was to determine the biomechanically quantifiable parameters of cycling that can be improved in patients with subacute ...
Huang Liping - - 2008
Pentose and humic acids (HA) are the main components of hydrolysates, the liquid fraction produced during thermohydrolysis of lignocellulosic material. Electricity generation integrated with xylose (typical pentose) degradation as well as the effect of HA on electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined. Without HA addition the maximum ...
Guiraud T - - 2010
The validity of five brands of cycle ergometers was evaluated by the comparison of the Vo(2) requirements at different displayed power. Five physically active men performed a continuous incremental exercise test on five ergometers (Ergomeca, Lifecycle, Monark, Polar S710 and CompuTrainer). The latter was also compared with a standard dynamometer ...
Abbiss C R - - 2010
In this study, the amplitude and time distribution of power output in a variety of competitive cycling events through the use of a new mathematical analysis was examined: exposure variation analysis (EVA). Descriptive field study. Various professional road cycling events, including; a 5-day-eight-stage tour race, a 1-day World Cup event ...
Hendrix C R - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of power output and pedaling cadence on the amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF) of the mechanomyographic (MMG) signal during submaximal cycle ergometry. Nine adults (mean age +/- SD = 22.7 +/- 2.1 yrs) performed an incremental (25 W increase ...
Bortolan L - - 2008
AIM: Despite the recent development of cross-country ski technique having led to an increase in the importance of upper body power, there is a substantial lack of specific equipment for upper body force and power evaluation. In order to achieve good reproducibility of the skiing motion, a new upper body ...
Kirkland A - - 2008
The aim of this investigation was to assess the validity and reliability of the Ergomopro powermeter. Nine participants completed trials on a Monark ergometer fitted with Ergomopro and SRM powermeters simultaneously recording power output. Each participant completed multiple trials at power outputs ranging from 50 to 450 W. The work ...
Tokui Masato - - 2008
It has been reported that oxygen uptake (VO2) increases exponentially with levels of the pedal rate during cycling. The purpose of this study was therefore to test the hypothesis that the O2 cost for internal power output (Pint) exerted in exercising muscle itself would be larger than for an external ...
Sawicki Gregory S - - 2008
Robotic lower limb exoskeletons that can alter joint mechanical power output are novel tools for studying the relationship between the mechanics and energetics of human locomotion. We built pneumatically powered ankle exoskeletons controlled by the user's own soleus electromyography (i.e. proportional myoelectric control) to determine whether mechanical assistance at the ...
Kerr Rebecca M - - 2008
The aim of this study was to establish a graded exercise test protocol for determining the peak physiological responses of female outrigger canoeists. Seventeen trained female outrigger canoeists completed two outrigger ergometer graded exercise test protocols in random order: (1) 25 W power output for 2 min increasing by 7.5 ...
Cormie Prue - - 2008
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of load on the power-, force- and velocity-time curves during the jump squat. The analysis of these curves for the entire movement at a sampling frequency of 200-500 Hz averaged across 18 untrained male subjects is the most novel aspect ...
Candotti Cláudia Tarragô - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of using the electromyography (EMG) signal as a noninvasive method of estimating the lactate threshold (LT) power output in recreational cyclists. Using an electromagnetic bicycle ergometer and constant pedaling cadence of 80 rpm, 24 recreational cyclists performed an incremental exercise ...
Chiu Loren Z F - - 2008
For simplicity of biomechanical analyses, the weightlifting barbell is typically modelled as a rigid, nondeformable object. Most coaches and weightlifters, however, are aware of the elastic nature of the barbell, and its influence on the successful completion of lifting attempts. Variables such as velocity, work performed, and power output are ...
Rodríguez-Marroyo José Antonio - - 2008
The aim of this study was to analyze the pedaling rate (PR) adopted by professional cyclists in different mountain passes. PR, heart rate (HR), velocity and power to overcome gravity were monitored during special (HM), 1st (M1), 2nd (M2) and 3rd (M3) category mountain passes. HM and M1 within high-mountain ...
Hornung Tassilo T School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 874501, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, - - 2008
The torque generated by the power stroke of Escherichia coli F(1)-ATPase was determined as a function of the load from measurements of the velocity of the gamma-subunit obtained using a 0.25 micros time resolution and direct measurements of the drag from 45 to 91 nm gold nanorods. This result was ...
Mornieux G - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different shoe-pedal interfaces and of an active pulling-up action during the upstroke phase on the pedalling technique. Eight elite cyclists (C) and seven non-cyclists (NC) performed three different bouts at 90 rev . min (-1) and 60 % of ...
Ogai R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Petrissage is assumed to influence circulation as well as interstitial drainage of both superficial and deep tissues. To study its effect it was applied between consecutive bouts of supramaximal exercise performed by the lower leg muscles. METHODS: Subjects were 11 healthy female students actively engaged in sports. Exercise bouts ...
González-Haro Carlos - - 2008
The aim of this study was to assess which of the equations that estimate peak power output and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the velodrome adapt best to the measurements made by reference systems. Thirty-four endurance cyclists and triathletes performed one incremental test in the laboratory and two tests in ...
Morton R Hugh - - 2009
It is common for athletes striving to achieve maximal effort to exercise in the presence of a visible clock. It is implicitly assumed that calibration of the clock is normal (i.e. accurate). This study was designed to test the effect of secretly manipulating the clock calibration on maximal effort as ...
Jones Leon C - - 2008
We examined the effects of active dehydration by exercise in a hot, humid environment on anaerobic muscular power using a test-retest (euhydrated and dehydrated) design. Seven subjects (age, 27.1 +/- 4.6 years; mass, 86.4 +/- 9.5 kg) performed upper and lower body Wingate anaerobic tests prior to and after a ...
Rambaud Olivier - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of upper-limb inertia on the force-velocity relationship and maximal power during concentric bench press exercise. Reference peak force values (Fpeakp) measured with a force plate positioned below the bench were compared to those measured simultaneously with a kinematic device fixed ...
Dane Senol - - 2008
In the present study, the relations of simple reaction times of right and left hands with muscle powers of right and left hands, back, and leg were examined. Hand preference was assessed by the modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measurements for reaction time were taken using the Newtest 2000 Reaction Time ...
Rossato M - - 2008
This study investigated the effects of changing cadence and workload on pedaling technique. Eight cyclists were evaluated during an incremental maximal cycling and two 30-minute submaximal trials at 60% and 80% of maximal power output (W(60%) and W(80%), respectively). During submaximal 30-minute trials, they cycled for 10 minutes at a ...
Böhm Harald - - 2008
SmartCranks use a free running bearing to promote independent pedal work by each leg during cycling. This system is designed for training the upstroke phase during cycling. The effects of training with SmartCranks on the power output (PO) and on cycle work distribution at the anaerobic threshold and the maximum ...
Bessot Nicolas - - 2008
The objective of this study was to verify the following hypothesis: the pedal rate that minimizes root mean square (RMS) slope and the slow component amplitude of oxygen consumption could be close to the freely chosen pedal rate (FCPR) used by well-trained cyclists. Nine male competitive cyclists performed a 21 ...
Shimoda M - - 2009
We studied the relationship between stroke power consistency and 2000 m rowing time besides determining maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and leg extension power. The subjects (n=16, male varsity rowers) carried out an incremental test to volitional exhaustion on a rowing ergometer, and the VO(2) at each stage was determined. The ...
Joseph Trent - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) increases during steady-state, open-loop exercise in proportion to the relative time to fatigue. This suggests that RPE is scalar and integrates physiological status and homeostatic disturbances. PURPOSE: This study assessed the relationship between the rate of change in RPE, ...
Li Jia-Yi - - 2008
To explore whether exercise is related to electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate changes, continuous EEG power spectral analysis was performed on rats during treadmill exercise. Compared with before exercise, treadmill exercise resulted promptly in a higher mean power frequency and theta (6-10 Hz) power of the EEG, but lower delta ...
Bafghi H Abbasi - - 2008
Hand cycling is a popular form of wheeled mobility. This study evaluates biophysical differences between synchronous/asynchronous hand cycling. During submaximal hand cycling on a motor driven treadmill, 9 able-bodied subjects performed 2 series of 4 steady state exercise bouts at 1.11 to 2.78 m/s. Metabolic parameters, mean force on the ...
Kerr R M - - 2008
This study examined the relationships between body composition, peak oxygen consumption and 1000-m time trial performance of female outrigger canoeists. Female outrigger canoeists (n = 17) completed anthropometric profiling and a 1000-m outrigger ergometer time trial, during which expired air was measured continuously and analysed at 15-s intervals for determination ...
Kounalakis Stylianos N - - 2008
This study examined the role of muscle pump in the development of cardiovascular drift (CVdrift) during cycling. Twelve healthy males (23.4 +/- 0.5 years, mean +/- SE) exercised for 90 min with 40 and 80 pedal revolutions per minute (rpm) at the same oxygen consumption, in two separate days. CVdrift ...
Kang Joo-Hyon - - 2008
Although street sweeping is commonly regarded as a cost-effective stormwater best management practice, there is little quantitative evidence that street sweeping directly improves runoff water quality. In this paper, several previous street sweeping studies were re-evaluated using statistical power analysis. Two-group, independent-sample one-sided t-test power analyses were performed using log-transformed ...
Parry Sian - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether postactivation potentiation (PAP) would have any effect on high intensity cycle ergometer performance. Two different squatting exercises of different loads were presented in a random fashion prior to ergometric exercise. Seven male rugby players volunteered to participate in the study. There ...
Arias-Hernandez L A - - 2008
Several authors have shown that dissipative thermal cycle models based on finite-time thermodynamics exhibit loop-shaped curves of power output versus efficiency, such as it occurs with actual dissipative thermal engines. Within the context of first-order irreversible thermodynamics (FOIT), in this work we show that for an energy converter consisting of ...
Haapala Stephenie A - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the hip, knee and ankle during a progressive resistance cycling protocol in an effort to detect and measure the presence of muscle fatigue. It was hypothesized that knee power output can be used as an indicator of fatigue in ...
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