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Results 451 - 500 of 671
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Jungersten L - - 1997
We analyzed nitrate, a major stable end product of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in vivo in plasma and urine from groups of healthy subjects with different working capacities. Resting plasma nitrate was higher in athletic subjects than in nonathletic controls [45 +/- 2 vs. 34 +/- 2 (SE) microM; P ...
McAuley E - - 1997
In the context of sedentary middle-aged adults, the present study examined the relationships among domain-specific and global levels of self-esteem over the course of a 20-week exercise program. Additionally, the roles played by physical fitness, body composition, self-efficacy, and exercise participation as possible contributors to changes in physical self-worth were ...
Convertino V A - - 1997
Reduction of exercise capacity with confinement to bed rest is well recognized. Underlying physiological mechanisms include dramatic reductions in maximal stroke volume, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake. However, bed rest by itself does not appear to contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Increased muscle fatigue is associated with reduced muscle blood flow, ...
Tuomi K - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explain changes in work ability through occupational and life-style factors. METHODS: Work ability was measured by an index describing workers' health resources in regard to their work demands. The work factors mainly included physical and mental demands, social organization and the physical work environment. ...
Seccareccia F - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis is to relate the performance at cycloergometer of healthy middle aged men, identified in a population, with a number of personal characteristics to explain part of their physical fitness indicators. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 5,163 men aged 40-59, belonging to sedentary occupational ...
Ries M D - - 1997
Thirty patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty and 18 patients with medically treated arthritis participated in this study. Both groups of patients underwent a cardiovascular fitness exercise test on entering the study and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years later. Fitness was assessed by patient performance on a graded ...
Park R J - - 1997
There are many criteria by which advances in "sports medicine" and "exercise science" may be assessed. Historical developments in the basic and applied sciences--and in clinical practices, as well--may best be explored by those who are experts in particular fields. It is encouraging that more studies of this type have ...
Daley A J - - 1996
As physical activity and fitness are believed to influence esteem and self-perceptions positively, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among participation in physical activity, aerobic capacity, and physical self-perceptions in 40 men and 33 women, members of a British corporate health and fitness club. Hierarchical multiple ...
Babcock M A - - 1996
We used bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation (BPNS; at 1, 10, and 20 Hz at functional residual capacity) to compare the amount of exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue between two groups of healthy subjects, a high-fit group [maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) = 69.0 +/- 1.8 ml.kg-1.min-1, n = 11] and a fit group ...
Lardon M T - - 1996
Electrophysiologic effects of physical exercise were investigated by comparing groups of individuals who engage in regular intensive physical exercise (12 + h/week) to control subjects (2 + h/week). Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded under eyes open/closed conditions to assess baseline differences between these groups. Spectral power was less for the ...
Qureshi I A - - 1996
1. Several studies have shown that exercise reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) in sedentary subjects, but the effects of exercise in physically fit subjects are not fully known. Accordingly, the present study was planned to investigate the effects of exercise on intraocular pressure in physically fit subjects after elimination of those ...
Monod H - - 1996
Physical work is still present in many countries, specially in developing ones. The physiological analysis of the work load could be conducted through two different ways, referring to his energetic cost and/or to the mechanical power of the human motor. The purpose of ergonomics is to organize any physical professional ...
Egwu M O - - 1996
To determine the musculoskeletal problems associated with high intensity physical exercise among non-athletic youth subjects. 484 fresh Nigerian graduates participating in the mandatory National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) programme were studied. At the start of the four week intensive physical training which formed part of the orientation course for the ...
Travlos A K - - 1996
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of fitness level and gradually increased amounts of exercise on individuals' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). 20 men served as paid subjects. They were divided into groups of high ( > 56 ml/kg/min.) and low fitness ( < 46 ml/kg/min.) according to ...
Zelingher J - - 1996
Exercise-induced hyponatremia is commonly believed to be associated only with extraordinary physical efforts, or particularly strenuous exercise. Hyponatremia complicating moderate exercise has not been described previously. The authors describe the characteristics of seven patients with life-threatening hyponatremia associated with mild to moderate exercise. All patients suffered from nausea, vomiting, agitation, ...
Seier J V - - 1996
A mobile exercise cage that expands the quantity and improves the quality of the space available to singly caged adult Vervet monkey males is described. It was easily fitted into an existing caging system and the addition of a resident consort female made it possible for the males to mate ...
Capodaglio E M - - 1996
A good level of physical fitness is a fundamental prerequisite of many occupations, hence the importance of valid methods of fitness assessment. A method, using submaximal treadmill exercise, was tested in a group of Urban Police Officers. Physiology variables and subjective perceptions were monitored. The trend of individual variables provided ...
Salokhe V M - - 1995
An investigation was conducted to determine the physical workload on agricultural workers during selected farm operations in paddy fields in Thailand. Four male and four female agricultural workers were randomly selected. Four common farm operations, i.e. ploughing, planting, weeding and harvesting, were selected. The physical responses in terms of heart ...
Jiang W - - 1995
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between physical fitness and transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) in the laboratory and during daily life, in a sample of coronary patients with a recent positive exercise test. METHODS: 47 patients with coronary disease (CAD) participated in laboratory mental and exercise stress testing and 48-hour outpatient ...
Minor M A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To investigate physical fitness and work capacity in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The 42 subjects were a subset of a prospective trial of conditioning exercise in rheumatic disease. Assignment to an exercise or nonexercise group was determined by proximity to the intervention, a 3-month supervised group exercise ...
Deijen J B - - 1995
Extensive research has shown that the phasic pupil size (peak level on each trial) is a sensitive measure of the degree of mental effort demanded by a task. In the present study, the validity of the pupil response as an index of mental effort in suboptimal conditions was investigated. Thirteen ...
Bergman A - - 1995
Wright first introduced the idea that random genetic drift and classical mass-action selection might combine in such a way as to allow populations to find the highest peak in complicated adaptive surfaces. His theory assumes large but structured populations, in which mating is spatially local. If gene flow is sufficiently ...
Viitanen J V - - 1995
Long-term effects of three or four-week inpatient physiotherapy and exercise courses were studied in 141 adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Eight cervical and thoracolumbar range of motion (ROM) measurements and straight leg raise test, vital capacity (VC) and fitness index were measured at the beginning and end of an ...
Ferreira M I - - 1995
The electromyographic activity of the shoulder muscles Deltoid--anterior portion (DA) and Pectoralis major--clavicular portion (PMC) was tested on 24 male volunteers using a 2 channel TECA TE4 electromyograph and Hewlett Packard surface electrodes during the execution of four different modalities of rowing exercises with middle grip. The results showed that ...
Martinić I - - 1995
Results of investigation into the physical exertion of the log skidding workers: tractor driver, winch operator and choker are presented. The investigation consisted of laboratory and field measurements and included measurements of the heart rate and assessment of the work effect, the work time structure, and the worker's physical exertion ...
McAlister W H - - 1995
All people attempting to enlist in the U.S. Army must undergo a physical examination that requires a rudimentary vision screening. Those who pass the physical, upon reporting to basic training, are again evaluated and any treatment necessary to allow the recruits to function during their initial indoctrination is provided. Those ...
Travlos A K - - 1995
To examine the effects of increasing amounts of exercise on attention and speed of information processing 20 paid male subjects were separated into groups of high and low fitness according to their VO2max values. The experiment involved an attentional task (Random Number Generation) that was given after every 10 min. ...
O'Connor P J - - 1995
Several research paradigms have been used to examine the influence of exercise on sleep. Epidemiological studies show that exercise is perceived as helpful in promoting sleep and suggest that regular physical activity may be useful in improving sleep quality and reducing daytime sleepiness. Additional epidemiological inquiry is clearly warranted based ...
Longhini C - - 1995
In upper middle age healthy subjects the functional cardiac reserve is known to be decreased (Port et al., 1980; Aubert et al., 1994). On the other hand regular physical exercise improves the cardiovascular function (Nishimura et al., 1980). The aim of this study was to establish whether regular physical exercise ...
Beaumont M - - 1995
Adult brown trout (300&shy;600 g) were acclimated for 2 weeks to an artificial soft water (Ca2+, 50 &micro;mol l-1) and maintained at either 5 &deg;C (October to March) or 15 &deg;C (May to August). Following insertion of a cannula into the dorsal aorta under MS-222 anaesthesia and a recovery period ...
Viikari-Juntura E - - 1994
A prospective study on the effects of occupational and individual factors on neck trouble was carried out among 1832 men representing static work with whole-body vibration (machine operators), dynamic physical work (construction carpenters) and sedentary work (office workers). Neck trouble and occupational and individual factors were inquired about via postal ...
Burckhardt C S - - 1994
Outcome assessments of physical fitness attributes such as endurance, strength, and flexibility are not measured routinely in clinical trials or clinical practice in either adults or children with rheumatic diseases. Although physical fitness is not a measure of disease severity, it can be a critical indicator of capacity to function. ...
Lundbom J - - 1994
This investigation was performed to study the reasons for receiving disability pension after aortocoronary bypass surgery. During the period March 1983 to November 1985, 250 patients underwent aortocoronary bypass surgery. At a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (range 3.6-6.7) after the operation, 31 patients were dead. Of the 219 survivors, ...
Franke W D - - 1994
This investigation examined the associations between exercise habits, measures of physical fitness, and 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (CVD10, expressed as %) among 470 law enforcement officers of differing ages (range = 21 to 63 y). Only 32% of this group exercised regularly (> or = 3 days/week, > or = ...
Purcell J S - - 1994
Exercise and physical conditioning or physical fitness play an important role in disease prevention. The three primary components of physical conditioning are endurance, flexibility, and strength training. Like adults, adolescents can improve their aerobic fitness by doing aerobic activity with achievement of 60% to 90% of the maximum heart rate ...
Manson J - - 1994
Exercise and noise exposure causes temporary hearing loss. Yet, a direct relationship may exist between cardiovascular health and hearing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether noise and exercise caused different levels of hearing loss depending on one's cardiovascular fitness. Twenty-eight volunteers were considered: high fit VO2peak = ...
Després J P - - 1994
Physically active individuals generally show a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to the sedentary population. However, whether such reduction in CHD risk mainly results from the concomitant improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness or from the alterations in CHD risk factors has yet to be clearly established. Furthermore, there ...
Doyle I R - - 1994
We have tested the hypothesis that the composition of alveolar surfactant varies with pattern of breathing and level of fitness. We examined three major components of surfactant, surfactant protein A (SP-A), disaturated phospholipids (DSP), and cholesterol (CHOL) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 12 healthy men before and after exercise. ...
Shephard R J - - 1994
Interrelationships between metabolic and cardiorespiratory health were examined in 350 healthy adults. Four principal components accounted for 66.7% of the variance in 172 males (M) and for 62.4% in 178 females (F). Factor 1, "obesity," related to body mass index, abdominal circumference, total skinfold thickness, and (M only) abdominal/hip circumference ...
Swain R A - - 1994
Exercise-associated lower gastrointestinal symptoms seem to be a fairly common clinical finding occurring in anywhere from 10-50% of runners. However, it is unclear what percentage of those affected may have discrete medical conditions that are exacerbated by strenuous physical exertion. Perhaps, difficult physical training sessions function as a "stress test" ...
Ellam L D - - 1994
In this investigation the physical fitness of 34 recruits to the UK Fire Service was assessed before and after their initial training (tests 1-2) and on three occasions (tests 3-5) during the first 18 months of their service (n = 34 + 6 = 40). The initial training (test 2-test ...
Krishnan U - - 1994
Variation in fit factors during quantitative respirator fit testing was studied for a high degree of fit (aerosol fit factors > 1000) and a low degree of fit (aerosol fit factors < 1000). In a controlled human study, fit factors were determined sequentially for three different exercises by (1) an ...
Caspersen C J - - 1994
Physical activity epidemiological studies provide one of many types of research evidence that are necessary to assess the importance of physical activity to health. Available epidemiological evidence, when coupled with relevant experimental and clinical research, suggests that physical activity has the potential to favourably influence the development and progression of ...
Engdahl B - - 1994
The reproducibility and short-term, less than 3 days, variability of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were studied in 23 young, otologically healthy subjects engaged either in strenuous physical exercise or relatively sedentary occupations. Tympanometry was also performed. TEOAEs were highly reproducible. No differences were found between the two subject groups, ...
Brhel P - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to determine physical fitness level of lignite miners in the Czech Republic. The authors have examined a representative group of 152 active lignite miners by bicycle spiroergometry. The duration of employment in coal mines ranged between 5 and 32 years. The average age was ...
Swain D P - - 1994
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends the use of 40%, 60%, 80%, and 85% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) as target values in developing exercise prescriptions. Further, the ACSM states that 55%, 70%, 85%, and 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) may be used as indices of these ...
Makowiec-Dabrowska T - - 1994
This study measured the association between the severity of work in occupations performed most frequently by women, workload (as relative aerobic strain and heart rate during work) and the reaction to work measured on the basis of changes after work in the subjective fatigue rating and working ability. The results ...
Douthitt V L - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to identify some psychological determinants of exercise adherence on which public school physical education programs may have an impact. Data were collected twice, once representing a structured physical education classroom setting (N = 132), and later representing an unstructured summer vacation exercise setting (N ...
Liu F - - 1993
The effects of two weeks of reduced activity on gastrointestinal transit time were studied in nine healthy elderly subjects, who had engaged in regular recreational exercise for ten years. Physical inactivity was achieved by a restriction of all kinds of physical exercise and by staying at home. Mouth-to-cecum transit time ...
Santiago M C - - 1993
The effects of aerobic exercise on the fitness level of adults with physical disabilities were examined in this research. Twenty-one individuals participated in a pretest-posttest research design that compared the effects of an aerobic exercise program upon experimental and control subjects, specifically, on body weight, resting, and exercise cardiorespiratory and ...
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