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Results 101 - 150 of 882
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Yerokhin Vadim - - 2011
ABSTRACT Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. ...
Moreira Sérgio R - - 2011
This study compared the effects of resistance exercise (RE) intensities on blood glucose (GLUC) of individuals without (ND) and with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nine individuals with T2D and ten ND performed: 1) RE-circuit at 23% of one repetition maximum (1RM) (RE_L); 2) RE-circuit at 43%1RM (RE_M); and 3) control session ...
Meyer Philippe - - 2012
There are little data on the optimization of high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE) protocols in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Therefore, we compared acute cardiopulmonary responses to 4 different HIIE protocols to identify the optimal one. Twenty men with stable systolic CHF performed 4 different randomly ordered single HIIE ...
Hancock Nicola J - - 2011
This review systematically synthesized current evidence on the effects of lower limb reciprocal pedalling exercise on motor function poststroke. Detailed analysis of single studies in the review revealed multiple instances of heterogeneity including outcome measures; therefore we decided to avoid undertaking a single, potentially misleading meta-analysis. We found that despite ...
Knöchel Christian - - 2011
The current review outlines the under-appreciated effects of physical exercise on the course of psychiatric disorders, focussing on recent findings from animal and human research. Several studies have shown that regular physical exercise is significantly beneficial for psychiatric patients both on a biological and a psychological level. Positive effects of ...
David Fabian J - - 2012
This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise (PRE) on Parkinson's disease (PD). First, this paper discusses the rationale for PRE in PD. Within the first section, the review discusses the central mechanisms that underlie bradykinesia and muscle weakness, highlights findings related to the central changes that ...
Burden Richard J - - 2011
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ionised and non-ionised compression tights on sprint and endurance cycling performance. Using a randomised, blind, crossover design, 10 well-trained male athletes (age: 34.6 ± 6.8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 82.2 ± 10.4 kg; VO2max: 50.86 ...
Daniels Willie M U - - 2011
Many studies have reported on the detrimental effects of early life adversity and the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these various effects remain poorly understood. The advent of advanced proteomic analysis techniques has enabled simultaneous measurement of protein expression in a wide ...
Froehlich-Grobe Katherine K The University of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas Regional Campus, Dallas, TX 78390, United States. - - 2012
There is growing interest in promoting health for people with disabilities, yet evidence regarding community-based interventions is sparse. This paper describes the design details of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will test the effectiveness of a multi-component behaviorally based, intervention to promote exercise adoption (over 6 months) and maintenance ...
Oh Hwajung - - 2011
Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15years, BMI: 23.56±3.78kg/m(2) abstained for 2days. They were randomly assigned ...
Lin Tzu-Wei - - 2011
Different exercise paradigms show differential effects on various forms of memory. We hypothesize that the differential effects of exercises on memory performance are caused by different neuroplasticity changes in relevant brain regions in response to different exercise trainings. We examined the effects of treadmill running (TR) and wheel running (WR) ...
McMillan Elliott M - - 2011
The use of exercise interventions to manage cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a rapidly developing field of study. However, results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret across the literature, making it difficult to draw accurate conclusions regarding the true effectiveness of exercise interventions for CRF management. The aims of this study ...
Craft Lynette L LL Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2012
Depression is a distressing side effect of cancer and its treatment. In the general population, exercise is an effective antidepressant. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the antidepressant effect of exercise in cancer survivors. In May 2011, we searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, CINAHL, CDSR, CENTRAL, AMED, Biosis ...
Fryer John D JD Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2011
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a translated CAG repeat in Ataxin-1 (ATXN1). To determine the long-term effects of exercise, we implemented a mild exercise regimen in a mouse model of SCA1 and found a considerable improvement in survival accompanied by up-regulation ...
Alonso-Frech Fernando - - 2011
Experimental research has produced evidence in recent years underlying the beneficial effects that exercise can have in preventing and deceleration of the development of Parkinson disease. These beneficial effects are exerted through various mechanisms such as neuroprotection, neurotransmission, plasticity, neurogenesis, homeostasis, and neurotrophic factors. Studies on clinical application at an ...
Spaccarotella Kim J - - 2011
Spaccarotella, KJ and Andzel, WD. Building a beverage for recovery from endurance activity: A review. J Strength Cond Res 25(11): 3198-3204, 2011-Recovery beverages are commonly used by endurance and team-sport athletes during the time between exercise sessions. Practical recommendations on the optimal nutrient composition of these drinks and timing of ...
Stepto Nigel K - - 2011
This study investigated the effects of high-dose large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation on attenuating fatigue-induced decrements in exercise and motor skill performance in Australian Rules Football (ARF) players. Fifteen subelite ARF players participated in 3 testing sessions separated by 7 days. Players completed an initial control trial involving a reactive ...
Malatesta Manuela - - 2011
Abstract Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, strength, and function, a condition known as sarcopenia, which represents an important risk factor for physical disability in elderly. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia are still largely unknown, and no specific therapy is presently available to counteract its onset ...
Snel Marieke - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short- and long-term effects of addition of exercise to a very low calorie diet (VLCD) on low-grade inflammation in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Twenty seven obese, insulin-dependent T2DM patients followed a 4-month VLCD with (n=13) or without (n=14) exercise and were ...
Eyre Harris - - 2011
The search for an extended understanding of the causes of depression, and for the development of additional effective treatments is highly significant. Clinical and pre-clinical studies suggest stress is a key mediator in the pathophysiology of depression. Exercise is a readily available therapeutic option, effective as a first-line treatment in ...
MacRae Braid A - - 2011
Compression garments (CGs) provide a means of applying mechanical pressure at the body surface, thereby compressing and perhaps stabilizing/supporting underlying tissue. The body segments compressed and applied pressures ostensibly reflect the purpose of the garment, which is to mitigate exercise-induced discomfort or aid aspects of current or subsequent exercise performance. ...
Freimuth Marilyn - - 2011
This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be ...
Babatunde O O - - 2011
A snapshot of current evidence from 6 randomised controlled trials for the effects of short bouts of high-impact exercises in 256 women via meta-analysis reveals that ample osteogenic response could be realised at the femoral neck and trochanter of premenopausal women with rest-inserted bouts of few mechanical bone loading cycles. ...
Straznicky Nora E - - 2011
Aims: Insulin resistance and visceral adiposity are predisposing factors for fatty liver disease. The main objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of caloric restriction alone (CR) or together with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (CR+EX) on liver enzymes, a surrogate marker of liver injury, in obese metabolic ...
Magkos Faidon - - 2012
An increase in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content is the hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is strongly associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although regular aerobic exercise improves metabolic function, its role in regulating fat accumulation in the liver is incompletely understood, and human data are scarce. Results ...
Brudvig Tracy J - - 2011
Systematic review with meta-analysis. To pool and summarize the published research evidence examining if the combination of therapeutic exercise and joint mobilization is more beneficial than therapeutic exercise alone in patients with shoulder dysfunction. Therapeutic exercise is an effective intervention for patients with shoulder dysfunction, which is often supplemented by ...
Lawler Patrick R - - 2011
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remains an underused tool for secondary prevention post-myocardial infarction (MI). In part, this arises from uncertainty regarding the efficacy of CR, particularly with respect to reinfarction, where previous studies have failed to show consistent benefit. We therefore undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ...
O'Gorman Donal J - - 2011
Lifestyle intervention programs encompassing exercise and healthy diets are an option for the treatment and management of obesity and type 2 diabetes and have long been known to exert beneficial effects on wholebody metabolism, in particular leading to enhanced insulin-sensitivity. Obesity is associated with increased risk of several illnesses and ...
Vandenbogaerde Tom J - - 2011
Research on the performance effects of acute carbohydrate supplementation is comprehensive. Here we present the first meta-analytic review of this research. Eighty-eight randomized crossover studies in which carbohydrate supplements were consumed with or without protein before and/or during exercise provided 155 estimates for performance effects in time-to-exhaustion tests or in ...
Dwyer Tiffany J - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Consensus statements about the care of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) recommend exercise as part of a wider management strategy. Many of these recommendations are based on high-quality evidence that regular exercise improves some important clinical outcomes, such as lung function and quality of life. However, the ...
Charoenphandhu Narattaphol - - 2011
Endurance swimming is known to increase duodenal calcium absorption in normal rats and bone strength in estrogen-deficient rats. Because the stress resulting from forced training often attenuates the stimulatory effect of exercise, swimming in an inescapable chamber should reveal both the positive effect of the exercise and the negative effect ...
Gleeson Michael - - 2011
Regular exercise reduces the risk of chronic metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, in part because exercise exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, these effects are also likely to be responsible for the suppressed immunity that makes elite athletes more susceptible to infections. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise may be mediated via both ...
Gay Jennifer L - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging of the combined effects of psychosocial and environmental determinants on exercise. PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the moderating effects of convenience, facilities at places of worship, access, crime/safety, and neighborhood characteristics on the relationship between exercise and psychosocial needs satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). METHODS: ...
Bayod S - - 2011
Exercise enhances general health. However, its effects on neurodegeneration are controversial, and the molecular pathways in the brain involved in this enhancement are poorly understood. Here, we examined the effect of long-term moderate treadmill training on adult male rat cortex and hippocampus to identify the cellular mechanisms behind the effects ...
Hopkins M E ME Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, - - 2011
It is well established that physical exercise can enhance hippocampal-dependent forms of learning and memory in laboratory animals, commensurate with increases in hippocampal neural plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] mRNA/protein, neurogenesis, long-term potentiation [LTP]). However, very little is known about the effects of exercise on other, non-spatial forms of learning ...
Costa Claudia Barsanelli - - 2011
Immediate effects of an exercise with the vocal tract semi-closed. To investigate the immediate effects of the phonation exercise in a straw in individuals with and without vocal fold lesions. Prospective study. 48 individuals, aged between 18 and 55 years participated in the study, and they were distributed into two ...
McDonnell Michelle N - - 2011
McDonnell MN, Smith AE, Mackintosh SF. Aerobic exercise to improve cognitive function in adults with neurological disorders: a systematic review. To evaluate whether aerobic exercise improves cognition in adults diagnosed with neurologic disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, AMED, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, ERIC, ...
Wagner Karl-Heinz - - 2011
Regular moderate physical activity reduces the risk of several noncommunicable diseases. At the same time, evidence exists for oxidative stress resulting from acute and strenuous exercise by enhanced formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may lead to oxidatively modified lipids, proteins, and possibly negative effects on DNA stability. ...
Bos I - - 2011
Commuting by bike has a clear health enhancing effect. Moreover, regular exercise is known to improve brain plasticity, which results in enhanced cognition and memory performance. Animal research has clearly shown that exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF - a neurotrophine) enhancing brain plasticity. Studies in humans found an increase ...
Peng Wei - - 2011
Abstract This article reports a meta-analysis of energy expenditure (EE) of playing active video games (AVGs). In particular, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), and EE were assessed and three moderators for the effects of AVGs-types of AVG, player age, and player weight status-were analyzed. The results show that playing ...
Trombold Justin R - - 2011
Trombold, JR, Reinfeld, AS, Casler, JR, and Coyle, EF. The effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on strength and soreness after eccentric exercise. J Strength Cond Res 25(X): 000-000, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine if pomegranate juice supplementation improved the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after eccentric exercise ...
Hicks A L - - 2011
Study design:Systematic review.Objectives:To conduct a systematic review of evidence surrounding the effects of exercise on physical fitness in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Canada.Methods:The review was limited to English-language studies (published prior to March 2010) of people with SCI that evaluated the effects of an exercise intervention on at least ...
Tomayko Emily J - - 2011
Soy protein consumption and exercise training have been widely studied for their effects on the vasculature and bone in healthy populations, but little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular disease and bone fracture risk are significantly elevated in CKD, and current pharmacological ...
Kjeken Ingvild - - 2011
To describe and evaluate the design and effects of splints and exercise programs in hand osteoarthritis. Controlled trials identified through systematic literature reviews were included. Design of splints and exercise programs were evaluated according to existing recommendations and classification systems. The risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers ...
Coiro Vittorio - - 2011
• Alprazolam (ALP), a benzodiazepine activating GABAergic receptors, is involved in ACTH secretion. • This study demonstrates a partial opioid influence in the inhibitory effect of ALP on the release of ACTH/cortisol during physical exercise. To establish the possible involvement of alprazolam (ALP) and/or opiates in the mechanism underlying the ...
van der Vlist Bram - - 2011
An increasing number of people are having trouble staying fit and maintaining a healthy bodyweight because of lack of physical activity. Getting people to exercise is crucial. However, many struggle with developing healthy exercising habits, due to hurdles like having to leave the house and the boring character of endurance ...
O'Neill Brendan C - - 2011
To assess the effects of currently used prescribed in-shoe custom foot orthoses (CFOs) on a number of biomechanical variables during the power phase of cycling, including: hip adduction, knee abduction and tibial internal rotation. Before and after cross-over study recording subjects' biomechanical variables with and without their CFOs. Twelve competitive ...
Møllerløkken A - - 2012
A key process in the pathophysiological steps leading to decompression sickness (DCS) is the formation of inert gas bubbles. The adverse effects of decompression are still not fully understood, but it seems reasonable to suggest that the formation of venous gas emboli (VGE) and their effects on the endothelium may ...
Lackinger Christian - - 2011
We aimed to evaluate if an outpatient department is a suitable place to recruit people who suffer from Diabetes Mellitus for exercise programs. Therefore, a survey was conducted at the outpatient department of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Medical University of Vienna. All in all, 104 persons (44 women, 60 ...
Belarbi Karim - - 2011
Tau pathology is encountered in many neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity is a lifestyle factor affecting processes crucial for memory and synaptic plasticity. Whether long-term voluntary exercise has an impact on Tau pathology and its pathophysiological consequences is currently unknown. To address this question, we ...
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