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Baur Daniel A DA Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, - - 2014
The effects of glucose-and-fructose (GF) coingestion on cycling time trial (TT) performance and physiological responses to exercise were examined under postprandial conditions. Eight trained male cyclists (age, 25 ± 6 yr; height, 180 ± 4 cm; weight, 77 ± 9 kg; V˙O2max, 62 ± 6 mL·kg·min) completed the study. Subjects ...
Machado Marcus Vinicius MV 1 Laboratory of Cardiovascular Investigation, Oswaldo Cruz Institute , FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil - - 2014
Abstract Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are related to systemic functional microvascular alterations, including a significant reduction in microvessel density. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on functional capillary density in the skeletal muscle and skin of obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Methods: ...
Peake Jonathan M JM Queensland University of Technology - - 2014
This study investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus work-matched moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MOD) on metabolism and counter-regulatory stress hormones. In a randomized and counter-balanced order, 10 well-trained male cyclists and triathletes completed a HIIT session (81.6±3.7% VO2max; 72.0±3.2% peak power output; 792±95 kJ) and a MOD session ...
Sheikhzadeh Hesari Farzam F Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. - - 2014
High blood glucose levels increase the ratio of phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated connexin-43 amounts, which leads to the decomposition of the hyperphosphorylated connexin-43. This can cause heart arrhythmia in diabetic patients. Considering the effective role of exercise in diabetic patients, and because there are few studies regarding the effect of exercise ...
Furuyashiki Takashi T a Institute of Health Sciences, Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd , Osaka , - - 2014
We compared the effect of relatively low doses (15 g) of highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) with that of maltodextrin during endurance exercise on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a crossover, double-blind study of healthy volunteers. The RPE increased during exercise and its increase was significantly less at 30 ...
Taylor J David JD J.D. Taylor, PT, PhD, CSCS, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Central Arkansas, 201 Donaghey Ave, Physical Therapy Center, Room 319, Conway, AR 72035 - - 2014
Exercise training is effective for improving physical fitness and physical function in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. Investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity exercise training on physical fitness and physical function in people ...
Russell Ryan D RD 1Exercise and Metabolic Disease Research Laboratory, School of Nursing, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; 3Dept. of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, - - 2014
Family history of diabetes (FH) is associated with impaired cardiometabolic function. Aerobic exercise improves insulin sensitivity, though resistance training studies on fasting glucose (FG) in FH are lacking. This study examined the effects of 7-weeks of high-intensity-resistance-focused training (HIRFT), including circuit, core, and plyometric resistance training on FG in FH ...
Choo Jina - - 2014
Few studies have examined the differential effects of weight management by exercise mode on subclinical atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that 3 modes of aerobic, resistance, and combination exercises have differential effects on the flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as well as cardiometabolic profile ...
Bushman Barbara B Department of Kinesiology, Missouri State University, Springfield, - - 2014
Prediabetes and prehypertension are conditions that reflect higher-than-normal blood glucose level and elevated blood pressure. The use of the term "pre" helps highlight the potentially slippery slope toward fully realized diabetes or hypertension. In both situations, recommended lifestyle modifications include a focus on regular exercise, including cardiorespiratory (aerobic) activity and ...
Gim Jeong-An JA Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of - - 2014
Physical exercise induces gene expression changes that trigger glucose metabolism pathways in organisms. In the present study, we monitored the expression levels of LDHA (lactate dehydrogenase) and GYS1 (glycogen synthase 1) in blood, to confirm the roles of these genes in exercise physiology. LDHA and GYS1 are related to glucose ...
Takada Shingo S Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of - - 2014
We have reported that exercise capacity is reduced in high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, and that this reduction is associated with impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle (SKM). However, it remains to be clarified whether the treatment of diabetes ameliorates the reduced exercise capacity. Therefore, we examined whether an ...
Russell Mark M Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom; †Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, United Kingdom; ‡La Trobe Rural Health School, La Trobe University, Victoria, - - 2014
Context :  The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when ...
Garcia-Hermoso Antonio A A Garcia-Hermoso, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Talca, - - 2014
Objective. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of aerobic exercise interventions on reducing insulin resistance markers in obese children and/or adolescents. A secondary outcome was change in percentage of body fat. Methods. A computerized search was made of seven databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Central ...
Cook Matthew David MD Department of Sport & Exercise Sciences, University of Chichester, Chichester, United - - 2014
Impaired glucose tolerance was shown to be present 48 h following muscle-damaging eccentric exercise. We examined the acute effect of concentric and muscle-damaging eccentric exercise, matched for intensity, on the responses to a 2 hr 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten men (27±9 years, 178±7 cm, 75±11 kg, VO2max: ...
Karstoft Kristian K The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism and The Centre for Physical Activity Research, Department of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of - - 2014
Context: Glycemic control improves with physical activity, but the optimal exercise mode is unknown. Objective: To determine whether interval-based exercise improves postprandial glucose tolerance and free-living glycemia more than oxygen-consumption and time-duration matched continuous exercise. Design: Cross-over, controlled with trials performed in randomized order. Setting: Hospitalized and ambulatory care. Patients: ...
Martin Brian J BJ Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2014
Supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) in animals has been reported to induce numerous metabolic adaptations including increased fat oxidation during exercise and improved performance. However, data regarding the metabolic and physiological effects of GTE during exercise in humans are limited and equivocal. To examine the effects of short-term GTE ...
Borg Melissa L ML Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, - - 2014
Neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are important regulators of energy balance. Recent studies suggest that neurogenesis in the ARC is an important regulator of body mass in response to pharmacological stressors. Regular exercise training improves insulin action and is a primary treatment modality for obesity and type 2 ...
Rubini Alessandro A University of Padova Department of Biomedical Sciences Via Marzolo 3 35100 Padova - - 2014
We measured respiratory ratio (RR), pulmonary ventilation (VE) and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETPCO2) at rest and during cycling aerobic workloads (20%, 40%, 60% of estimated maximal oxygen uptake). Measurements were taken after overnight fasting and after an oral glucose load. RR, VE and ETPCO2 increased with workload. Glucose ...
Kim Kihoon K Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717, - - 2014
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, unfolded protein response (UPR), and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed following varying intensities of exercise training. The animals were randomly assigned to receive either low- (LIT, n=7) or high intensity training (HIT, n=7), or were assigned to a control group (n=7). Over 5 weeks, the animals in ...
Vendelbo Mikkel Holm MH Aarhus University/Aarhus university - - 2014
Background: Phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1 plays an important role for GLUT4 mobilization to the cell surface. The phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1 in humans in response to acute exercise is not fully characterized. Objective: To study AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after aerobic exercise followed by ...
Poole Raewyn M RM Adis, Auckland, New - - 2014
Albiglutide (Eperzan® [EU]; Tanzeum™ [US]), a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, has been developed by GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Albiglutide has received its first global approval in this indication in the EU, for use in combination with other antihyperglycaemic agents, including basal insulin, when ...
Levinger Itamar I Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), College of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; Australian Institute of Musculoskeletal Science, NorthWest Academic Centre, The University of Melbourne, Western - - 2014
Acute exercise improves insulin sensitivity for hours after the exercise is ceased. The skeleton contributes to glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity via osteocalcin (OC) in its undercarboxylated (ucOC) form in mice. We tested the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity over the hours following exercise is associated with circulating levels of ucOC. ...
McDonald Matthew W MW School of Kinesiology; Faculty of Health Sciences; University of Western Ontario; London, ON - - 2014
Regular exercise has been shown to improve many complications of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) including enhanced glucose tolerance and increased cardiac function. While exercise training has been shown to increase insulin content in pancreatic islets of rats with T1DM, experimental models were severely hyperglycemic and not undergoing insulin treatment. ...
Cadeddu Christian - - 2014
Metformin (MET) therapy exerts positive effects improving glucose tolerance and preventing the evolution toward diabetes in insulin resistant patients. It has been shown that adding MET to exercise training does not improve insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of MET and exercise training alone ...
Martins Catia C 1Obesity Research Group, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Center for Obesity, Department of Surgery, St. Olav Hospital - Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 3K.G. Jebsen Center for Exercise in Medicine at Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Trondheim, Norway; 4BioPsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 6Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom; 7Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, - - 2014
The impact of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC), or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125kcal), and a resting control ...
Balakrishnan Naviyn Prabhu NP Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of - - 2014
Personalized mechanistic models involving exercise, meal and insulin interventions for type 1 diabetic children and adolescents are not commonly seen in the literature. Patient specific variations in blood glucose homeostasis and adverse effects of exercise-induced hypoglycemia emphasize the need for personalized models. Hence, a modified mechanistic model for exercise, meal ...
Francois Monique E ME School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, 46 Union St West, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9076, New - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate whether small doses of intense exercise before each main meal ('exercise snacks') would result in better blood glucose control than a single bout of prolonged, continuous, moderate-intensity exercise in individuals with insulin resistance. Nine individuals completed three exercise interventions in randomised order. ...
Terada Tasuku T 1 Faculty of Physical Education & Recreation, University of Alberta , Edmonton, Alberta, Canada - - 2014
Abstract Aims: This study determined the test-retest reliability of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) (iPro™2; Medtronic, Northridge, CA) under standardized conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Subjects and Methods: Fourteen individuals with T2D spent two nonconsecutive days in a calorimetry unit. On both days, meals, medication, and ...
Murphy Alistair A 1School of Human Movement Studies, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, AUST. 2Sports Science and Sports Medicine Unit, Tennis Australia, Melbourne, VIC, AUST. 3Sport and Exercise Discipline Group, UTS:Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
This study described physiological and perceptual responses to Cardio tennis® for 'younger' and 'older' adult populations of both sex's for health-related outcomes. Thirty-one active participants, each with prior recreational tennis experience (∼2 years) (8 younger and 8 older males, and 7 younger and 8 older females) performed preliminary testing and ...
Jeukendrup Asker A Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Barrington, IL, USA, - - 2014
There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice ...
Spriet Lawrence L LL Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Room 354, ANNU Building, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada, - - 2014
Fat and carbohydrate are important fuels for aerobic exercise and there can be reciprocal shifts in the proportions of carbohydrate and fat that are oxidized. The interaction between carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation is dependent on the intracellular and extracellular metabolic environments. The availability of substrate, both from inside and ...
Katz Abram A School of Health Sciences, Ariel University, 40700, Ariel, Israel, - - 2014
Repeated bouts of physical exercise, i.e., training, induce mitochondrial biogenesis and result in improved physical performance and attenuation of glycogen breakdown during submaximal exercise. It has been suggested that as a consequence of the increased mitochondrial volume, a smaller degree of metabolic stress (e.g., smaller increases in ADP and Pi) ...
Ortega Juan Fernando JF Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Toledo, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, s/n. 45071 Toledo, - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to determine which of the available glucose tolerance tests (oral (OGTT) vs. intravenous (IVGTT)) could more readily detect the insulin sensitizing effects of a bout of continuous exercise. Ten healthy moderately fit young men (V̇O2peak of 45.4 ± 1.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); age 27.5 ± ...
Tran Brian D BD Department of Pediatrics & Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, University of - - 2014
Pediatric obesity typically induces insulin resistance, often later evolving into Type 2 Diabetes. While exercise, enhancing insulin sensitivity, is broadly used to prevent this transition, it is unknown whether alterations in the exercise insulin response pattern occur in obese children. Therefore, we measured exercise insulin responses in 57 healthy-weight (NW), ...
Breton Marc D MD Center for Diabetes Technology, University of Virginia , Charlottesville, - - 2014
Abstract Background: We present a clinical trial establishing the feasibility of a control-to-range (CTR) closed-loop system informed by heart rate (HR) and assess the effect of HR information added to CTR on the risk for hypoglycemia during and after exercise. Subjects and Methods: Twelve subjects with type 1 diabetes (five ...
Wong Alexander A The Discipline of Pharmacology, The University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, 2006, - - 2014
Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses ...
da Silva Luiz Augusto LA Midwest State University of Parana, Pharmaceutical Science Postgraduate Program, Guarapuava, PR, - - 2014
The study investigated the effect of supplementation with maltodextrin (CHO) alone or associated to caffeine during exercise in T2DM subjects. Pilot study, using eight subjects with T2DM, aged 55±10 years, received CHO (1 g/kg) or caffeine (1.5 mg/kg) alone or associated before exercise protocol. The exercise was executed at 40% ...
Ortega Juan F JF Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, s/n., 45071, Toledo, - - 2014
Combining metformin and exercise is recommended for the treatment of insulin resistance. However, it has been suggested that metformin blunts the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise. We evaluated in a group of insulin-resistant patients the interactions between exercise and their daily dose of metformin. Ten insulin-resistant patients underwent insulin sensitivity assessment ...
Seo Dae Yun DY Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Bokji-ro 75, Busanjin, Busan 633-165, - - 2014
Irisin, a newly identified hormone, is associated with energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aged garlic extract (AGE) and exercise training intervention could improve body weight, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle fibronectin domain containing protein 5 (FNDC-5) levels, and plasma irisin in high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a ...
Puype J J Exercise Physiology Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, KU Leuven, - - 2014
We investigated whether dietary nitrate (NO3 (-) ) supplementation enhances the effect of training in hypoxia on endurance performance at sea level. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers performed high-intensity endurance training on a cycle ergometer (6 weeks, 5×30 min/week at 4-6 mmol/L blood lactate) in normobaric hypoxia (12.5% FiO2 ), while ingesting either ...
Turner D D Applied Sports, Technology, Exercise and Medicine Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, UK; Diabetes Research Group, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, - - 2014
To examine glycemic and glucoregulatory responses to resistance exercise (RE) sessions of different volume in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Eight T1DM (seven males: one female; age: 38 ± 6 years, HbA1C : 8.7 ± 1.0%/71 ± 11 mmol/mol) attended the research facility fasted and on four separate occasions, having taken their usual basal insulin, but omitted morning ...
Bo Simona S Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, - - 2014
The benefits of exercise and behavioural recommendations in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are controversial. In a randomized trial with a 2x2 factorial design, we examined the effect of exercise and behavioural recommendations on metabolic variables, and maternal/neonatal outcomes in 200 GDM patients. All women were given the same diet: group ...
Trevellin Elisabetta E Internal Medicine 3, Endocrine-Metabolic Laboratory, Department of Medicine DIMED, University of Padua, 35121 Padua, - - 2014
Insulin resistance and obesity are associated with a reduction of mitochondrial content in various tissues of mammals. Moreover, a reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability impairs several cellular functions including mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, two important mechanisms of body adaptation in response to physical exercise. Although these mechanisms have ...
Takimoto Masaki M 1Osaka University of Health and Sport - - 2014
The brain is capable of oxidizing lactate and ketone bodies through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We examined the protein expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and cytochrome c oxidase complex IV (COX IV) in the rat brain within 24 h after a single-exercise session. Brain samples were obtained ...
Boa B C S BC Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Research on Vascular Biology (BioVasc), Biomedical Center, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Fructose is a major diet component directly related to severe damages to the microcirculation and to diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension to which physical activity is pointed out as an important non-pharmacological treatment since its positive effects precedes anthropometric improvements. In this study we have investigated effects of ...
Campbell M D MD Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, - - 2014
To compare the glycemic and metabolic responses to simulated intermittent games activity and continuous running exercise in type 1 diabetes. Nine patients (seven male, two female; 35 ± 4 years; HbA1c 8.1 ± 0.2%/65 ± 2 mmol/mol) treated on a basal-bolus regimen completed two main trials, a continuous treadmill run (CON) or an intermittent running protocol (INT). ...
Marinho Rodolfo R Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Rio Claro, SP, - - 2014
Objective : To investigate the effects of different intensities of acute exercise on insulin sensitivity and protein kinase B/Akt activity in skeletal muscle of obese mice. Methods : Swiss mice were randomly divided into four groups, and fed either a standard diet (control group) or high fat diet (obese sedentary ...
Weiss Edward P EP 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO; 2Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; 3Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO; 4Department of Medicine, Salerno University Medical School, Salerno, Italy; 5CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, Napoli, - - 2014
After food ingestion, the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted by the intestines into circulation where they act on the pancreas to promote insulin secretion. We evaluated the hypothesis that low postprandial plasma insulin levels in lean exercise-trained individuals are associated with low concentrations ...
Kim Il-Young IY The Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, - - 2014
The postprandial elevation of triglycerides in the blood (PPTG) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Although acute exercise typically attenuates PPTG, the effect of exercise intensity on PPTG is less well-established, particularly in well-controlled conditions for physical activities and diet. We sought to determine the efficacy of exercise at ...
Little Jonathan P JP a School of Health and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Development, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m(2)) performed an acute bout ...
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