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Tran Brian D BD Department of Pediatrics & Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, University of - - 2014
Pediatric obesity typically induces insulin resistance, often later evolving into Type 2 Diabetes. While exercise, enhancing insulin sensitivity, is broadly used to prevent this transition, it is unknown whether alterations in the exercise insulin response pattern occur in obese children. Therefore, we measured exercise insulin responses in 57 healthy-weight (NW), ...
Breton Marc D MD Center for Diabetes Technology, University of Virginia , Charlottesville, - - 2014
Abstract Background: We present a clinical trial establishing the feasibility of a control-to-range (CTR) closed-loop system informed by heart rate (HR) and assess the effect of HR information added to CTR on the risk for hypoglycemia during and after exercise. Subjects and Methods: Twelve subjects with type 1 diabetes (five ...
Wong Alexander A The Discipline of Pharmacology, The University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, 2006, - - 2014
Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses ...
Ortega Juan F JF Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, s/n., 45071, Toledo, - - 2014
Combining metformin and exercise is recommended for the treatment of insulin resistance. However, it has been suggested that metformin blunts the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise. We evaluated in a group of insulin-resistant patients the interactions between exercise and their daily dose of metformin. Ten insulin-resistant patients underwent insulin sensitivity assessment ...
Puype J J Exercise Physiology Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, KU Leuven, - - 2014
We investigated whether dietary nitrate (NO3 (-) ) supplementation enhances the effect of training in hypoxia on endurance performance at sea level. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers performed high-intensity endurance training on a cycle ergometer (6 weeks, 5×30 min/week at 4-6 mmol/L blood lactate) in normobaric hypoxia (12.5% FiO2 ), while ingesting either ...
Turner D D Applied Sports, Technology, Exercise and Medicine Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, UK; Diabetes Research Group, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, - - 2014
To examine glycemic and glucoregulatory responses to resistance exercise (RE) sessions of different volume in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Eight T1DM (seven males: one female; age: 38 ± 6 years, HbA1C : 8.7 ± 1.0%/71 ± 11 mmol/mol) attended the research facility fasted and on four separate occasions, having taken their usual basal insulin, but omitted morning ...
Bo Simona S Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, - - 2014
The benefits of exercise and behavioural recommendations in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are controversial. In a randomized trial with a 2x2 factorial design, we examined the effect of exercise and behavioural recommendations on metabolic variables, and maternal/neonatal outcomes in 200 GDM patients. All women were given the same diet: group ...
Trevellin Elisabetta E Internal Medicine 3, Endocrine-Metabolic Laboratory, Department of Medicine DIMED, University of Padua, 35121 Padua, - - 2014
Insulin resistance and obesity are associated with a reduction of mitochondrial content in various tissues of mammals. Moreover, a reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability impairs several cellular functions including mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, two important mechanisms of body adaptation in response to physical exercise. Although these mechanisms have ...
Byrkjeland Rune - - 2014
Previous studies on type 2 diabetes have shown an association between exercise capacity and insulin resistance. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise capacity is often reduced due to exercise-induced ischemia. We have investigated the association between glucometabolic control, including the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance, and ...
Takimoto Masaki M 1Osaka University of Health and Sport - - 2014
The brain is capable of oxidizing lactate and ketone bodies through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We examined the protein expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and cytochrome c oxidase complex IV (COX IV) in the rat brain within 24 h after a single-exercise session. Brain samples were obtained ...
Boa B C S BC Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Research on Vascular Biology (BioVasc), Biomedical Center, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Fructose is a major diet component directly related to severe damages to the microcirculation and to diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension to which physical activity is pointed out as an important non-pharmacological treatment since its positive effects precedes anthropometric improvements. In this study we have investigated effects of ...
Campbell M D MD Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, - - 2014
To compare the glycemic and metabolic responses to simulated intermittent games activity and continuous running exercise in type 1 diabetes. Nine patients (seven male, two female; 35 ± 4 years; HbA1c 8.1 ± 0.2%/65 ± 2 mmol/mol) treated on a basal-bolus regimen completed two main trials, a continuous treadmill run (CON) or an intermittent running protocol (INT). ...
Marinho Rodolfo R Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Rio Claro, SP, - - 2014
Objective : To investigate the effects of different intensities of acute exercise on insulin sensitivity and protein kinase B/Akt activity in skeletal muscle of obese mice. Methods : Swiss mice were randomly divided into four groups, and fed either a standard diet (control group) or high fat diet (obese sedentary ...
Weiss Edward P EP 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO; 2Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; 3Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO; 4Department of Medicine, Salerno University Medical School, Salerno, Italy; 5CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, Napoli, - - 2014
After food ingestion, the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted by the intestines into circulation where they act on the pancreas to promote insulin secretion. We evaluated the hypothesis that low postprandial plasma insulin levels in lean exercise-trained individuals are associated with low concentrations ...
Kim Il-Young IY The Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, - - 2014
The postprandial elevation of triglycerides in the blood (PPTG) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Although acute exercise typically attenuates PPTG, the effect of exercise intensity on PPTG is less well-established, particularly in well-controlled conditions for physical activities and diet. We sought to determine the efficacy of exercise at ...
Halse Rhiannon E RE 1School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2School of Women's and Infants' Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, - - 2014
Regular maternal exercise may play an important role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); yet specific exercise guidelines to achieve glycaemic control have not been established. Furthermore, many women remain sedentary during pregnancy due to perceived barriers to exercise participation. This study examined the effectiveness of a home-based ...
Youngwanichsetha Sununta S Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90112. Electronic address: - - 2014
This randomized controlled trial was carried out to investigate the effect of mindfulness eating and yoga exercise on blood sugar levels among pregnant Thai women with GDM. Interventions promoting achievement of good glycemic control result in desired pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the health benefits of mindfulness eating and ...
Lefevre S S Department of Biosciences, The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1066, 0316 Oslo, - - 2014
Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in ...
Allen Edward E a Institute of Medical Sciences , University of Aberdeen , Foresterhill, Aberdeen , AB25 2ZD , - - 2014
Abstract It is well established that regular exercise can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, although the most time-efficient exercise protocol to confer benefits has yet to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of short-duration sprint interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol. Fifteen healthy ...
Colberg Sheri R SR Human Movement Sciences Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA. Electronic address: - - 2014
To compare the impact of walking with a recreational activity on postprandial glycemia, heart rate variability, and mood state following the dinner meal. Participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in 3 trials on different days in random order after ingestion of a standardized dinner meal (300 ± 6 kcals). ...
Ebrahim M S E MS Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, K1H 8L1, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children's Hospital Cairo University, Cairo University, 11562 Cairo, - - 2014
To describe the atypical phenotype and genotype of an adolescent girl with symptomatic exercise-induced hyperglycaemia, responsive to sulfonylurea treatment. Chart review, gene sequencing, and blinded continuous glucose monitoring (Medtronic iPro2) were used to characterise the case. A novel heterozygous mutation p.Q219x (c.655C>T) in exon 6 of the glucokinase gene (NM_000162.3) ...
Carter Edward A EA From the *Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; †Shriners Hospitals for Children®, Boston, Massachusetts; Departments of ‡Nuclear Medicine and §Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, - - 2014
Exercise is a component of the clinical management for the burn patients to help reduce muscle wasting associated with prolonged hospitalization. In the present study the authors examined 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in mice subjected to burn injury with and without exercise. Mice had their the dorsums shaven, were placed ...
O'Hara John P JP 1 Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK 2 Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull, Hull, - - 2014
This study evaluated the effects of the pre-exercise (30 minutes) ingestion of galactose (Gal) or glucose (Glu) on endurance capacity as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Ten trained male cyclists completed three randomised high-intensity cycling endurance tests. Thirty minutes prior to each trial cyclists ingested 1 litre of either ...
Chen Hsuan-Ying HY Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Shalu District, Taichung, Taiwan ; Stem Cell Center, Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, - - 2014
Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg) is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose ...
Aguiar Elroy J - - 2014
Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze ...
Pauli Luciana Ss LS School of Applied Science, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo., - - 2014
Insulin plays an important role in the control of hepatic glucose production. Insulin resistant states are commonly associated with excessive hepatic glucose production, which contributes to both fasting hyperglycemia and exaggerated postprandial hyperglycemia. In this regard, increased activity of phosphatases may contribute to the dysregulation of gluconeogenesis. MKP-3 (mitogen-activated protein ...
Keeley R J RJ Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge; Lethbridge, AB, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exercise has a myriad of health benefits, including protection against heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. Cognitive performance improves following chronic exercise, both in animal models and, humans. Studies have examined the effect of exercise on feeding, demonstrating a preference towards, increased food consumption. Further, sex differences exist such that females ...
Mason Shaun - - 2014
Metabolic stresses associated with disease, ageing, and exercise increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These ROS have been linked mechanistically to adaptations in skeletal muscle that can be favourable (i.e. in response to exercise) or detrimental (i.e. in response to disease). The magnitude, duration (acute ...
Silveira Ana Paula S AP a Sport Sciences Departament , Trás os Montes e Alto Douro University , Vila Real , - - 2014
Six men and six women (24.4 ± 6.4 years) who had been diagnosed with T1D for 7.3 ± 6.8 years volunteered for the study. Three RT sessions were repeated with the same experimental approach with randomized load percentages. Blood glucose measurements were performed at rest, after warm-up, immediately after the ...
Kim Young-Je YJ 1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyungpook National University , Daegu, - - 2014
Abstract This study was conducted to examine the effects of omija fruit extract on the endurance and energy metabolism of rats trained under a progressive loaded exercise program. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups according to exercise and experimental diets for 6 weeks: the ...
Moura Bruno P - - 2014
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) are the two monitoring blood glucose tests most frequently used. However, both methods are shown to be insensitive to detect glycemic variations in short duration periods. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of a short-term exercise program on glycemic levels measured ...
Yeh Tzu-Shao TS School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, - - 2014
Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known medicinal herb and food material with antioxidative and multifunctional pharmacological activities. However, we lack evidence of the effect of AS on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of AS on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions after physiological challenge. ...
Yan Huimin H 0000-0002-2340-9875 Exercise and Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801, - - 2014
Background. Exercise training intervention is underused in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in East Africa. Methods. 41 physically-active males with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Mozambique were recruited and randomly assigned to 12 weeks of supervised exercise of low intensity exercise (LEX), vigorous intensity exercise (VEX), or ...
Vettor Roberto R 1University of - - 2013
Endurance exercise training increases cardiac energy metabolism through poorly understood mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cardiomyocytes contributes to cardiac adaptation. Here we demonstrate that the NO donor diethylenetriamine-NO (DETA-NO) activated mitochondrial biogenesis and function, as assessed by up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α ...
Mendham Amy E AE School of Human Movement Studies, Faculty of Education, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, - - 2013
This study compared the acute inflammatory and glucose responses following aerobic exercise in sedentary Indigenous Australian and Caucasian men, matched for fitness and body composition. Sedentary Indigenous (n = 10) and Caucasian (n = 9) Australian men who were free from chronic disease volunteered to participate. Following baseline testing, participants completed a 40 min ...
Dalzill Claudie C Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation Centre (ÉPIC), Montreal Heart Institute and University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada; Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute and University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, - - 2013
The effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were studied in metabolically unhealthy obese (NMHO) and metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects. Fifty-five MHO (51 ± 8 years; waist circumference, 109 ± 13 cm) ...
Holmstrup Michael M Department of Exercise Science, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA; Department of Exercise and Rehabilitative Sciences, Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA, - - 2013
Long, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior are thought to negatively influence postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined the effects of a 1-h bout of morning exercise versus intermittent walking bouts of short duration on glucose excursions and insulin secretion over 12-h. Eleven young, obese individuals (18-35years, BMI>30kg/m(2)) with impaired ...
Herbst Eric Af - - 2013
During recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise, there is a shift from carbohydrate oxidation to glycogen resynthesis. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex therefore may decrease to reduce oxidation of carbohydrates in favour of increasing gluconeogenic recycling of carbohydrate-derived substrates. The mechanism behind this has yet to be elucidated, however ...
Fedewa Michael V - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The prevalence of obesity and diabetes is increasing among children, adolescents, and adults. Although estimates of the efficacy of exercise training on fasting insulin and insulin resistance have been provided, for adults similar estimates have not been provided for youth. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a quantitative ...
Hamilton Kirk L - - 2013
The Na(+)-glucose cotransporter is a key transport protein that is responsible for absorbing Na(+) and glucose from the luminal contents of the small intestine and reabsorption by the proximal straight tubule of the nephron. Robert K. Crane originally described the cellular model of absorption of Na(+) and glucose by a ...
Eshghi Saeed Reza Toghi - - 2013
Despite positive effects of incretins on insulin secretion, little is known about the effect of exercise on these hormones. Metformin can affect incretin concentrations and is prescribed to a large proportion of people with diabetes. We, therefore, examined the effects of aerobic exercise and/or metformin on incretin hormones. Ten participants with ...
Yardley Jane E - - 2013
It is relatively well known that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise increases the risk of hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Conversely, brief high-intensity (anaerobic) activity can cause post-exercise hyperglycemia. Recent evidence has indicated that including small amounts of anaerobic activity, either in the form of short sprints or as resistance ...
Blüher Susann S Leipzig University Medical Center, IFB AdiposityDiseases, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 27, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2013
Regular physical exercise within structured lifestyle programs may improve weight status and minimize metabolic risk factors in childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the one-year combined physical exercise/lifestyle program KLAKS on anthropometric and metabolic parameters and glycemic control in childhood obesity. 142 overweight/obese ...
Galloway Stuart D - - 2013
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of timing of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding (Part A), and carbohydrate concentration (Part B), on short-duration high-intensity exercise capacity. In Part A, seventeen males, and in Part B ten males, performed a peak power output (PPO) test, two familiarisation trials at 90% of ...
da Silva José Roberto JR - - 2013
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and high risk for chronic disease both for the mother and for the child. Physical exercise is feasible for diabetic pregnant women and contributes to better glycemic control and to a decrease in adverse perinatal ...
Rynders Corey A - - 2013
Background:A single bout of exercise improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic patients; however, the impact of exercise intensity is not well understood. The present study compared the effects of acute isocaloric moderate (MIE) and high-intensity (HIE) exercise on glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic adults.Methods:Subjects (n = ...
Li Yuet-Keung - - 2013
Metabolic dysregulation may disrupt the complex neuroprotective mechanisms essential for brain health. Recent studies have pointed out the possible aetiological role of metabolic dysregulation in the onset of schizophrenia and the associated cognitive impairment. In this paper, we aimed to generate a theoretical model of how a combination of physical ...
Suzuki E - - 2013
This study examined the physiological responses to cold stimulus during intermittent high-intensity exercise simulating on-snow alpine ski training. 7 male alpine skiers performed intermittent high-intensity exercises composed of 4 bouts of cycling exercise at 140% V˙O2max intensity for 30 s with 10-min rests on a cycle ergometer in cold (1°C) and ...
Suga Tadashi - - 2013
Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise ...
Bhutani Surabhi - - 2013
Alternate day fasting combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. The aim of this study was to examine the behavioral adaptations that occur when ADF is combined with exercise, and to determine how these changes affect weight loss. Obese subjects (n = 64) were randomized to 1 of 4 ...
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