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Results 201 - 250 of 1108
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Lane Stephen C - - 2013
PURPOSE: Commencing selected workouts with low muscle glycogen availability augments several markers of training adaptation compared to undertaking the same sessions with normal glycogen content. However, low glycogen availability reduces the capacity to perform high intensity (>85% of peak aerobic power [V˙O2peak]) endurance exercise. We determined whether a low dose ...
Slivka Dustin - - 2013
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of post-exercise environmental cold exposure on muscle glycogen, PGC-1α, and downstream transcription factors. METHODS: Eight males cycled for 1 h and recovered in either 7° C (cold) or 20° C (room temp) environment for 4 h. Muscle biopsies were ...
Preisler Nicolai - - 2013
Myopathic symptoms in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa (GSD IIIa) are generally ascribed to the muscle wasting that these patients suffer in adult life, but an inability to debranch glycogen likely also has an impact on muscle energy metabolism. We hypothesized that patients with GSD IIIa can experience exercise intolerance ...
Wylie Lee J - - 2013
Recent studies have suggested that dietary inorganic nitrate (NO(3) (-)) supplementation may improve muscle efficiency and endurance exercise tolerance but possible effects during team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise have not been examined. We hypothesized that NO(3) (-) supplementation would enhance high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Fourteen male recreational team-sport players were ...
Ebersbach-Silva Patricia - - 2013
To evaluate the effect of exposure to cigarette smoke and running training on a treadmill on the expression of glucose transporter GLUT4 in oxidative soleus muscle of rats. Wistar rats were divided into: (C) control, (E) exercise control, (SS), sedentary smoker, and (ES) exercise smoker. Insulin Tolerance Test, Western blotting, ...
Trombold Justin R - - 2013
Acute exercise has been shown to attenuate postprandial plasma triglyceride elevation (PPTG). However, the direct contribution of exercise intensity is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity on PPTG and postprandial fat oxidation. One of three experimental treatments was performed in ...
Geat Mario - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Fuel oxidation during exercise was studied in type 1 insulin-dependent (T1DM) patients mainly under quite constant insulin and glycemia; these protocols, however, likely do not reflect patients' usual metabolic conditions. The glucose oxidation rate (GLUox) in T1DM patients under usual life conditions was thus investigated during prolonged exercise (3-h) ...
Wax Benjamin - - 2013
ABSTRACT Glycine-arginine-α-ketoisocaproic acid (GAKIC) has been proposed to increase anaerobic high-intensity exercise performance in male subjects. However, the effects of GAKIC ingestion in female subjects have not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GAKIC supplementation on total load volume (i.e., mass lifted) ...
Atan T T Yaşar Doğu Physical Education and Sports High School-19 Mayıs University, Samsun, - - 2013
For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, ...
Halse Rhiannon E - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of an acute 30-min bout of self-paced stationary cycling (SC) with treadmill walking (TW) or a resting control (CON) on maternal blood glucose, insulin and metabolic responses during pregnancy. METHODS: Twelve healthy women at 29.9±2.4 (mean±SD) weeks gestation consumed a 75g carbohydrate drink as part ...
Manabe Yasuko Y Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2013
Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism leading to increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for ...
Malin Steven K - - 2013
Metformin attenuates the higher insulin sensitivity that occurs with exercise training. Sixteen people with prediabetes trained for 10 weeks while taking metformin (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8). Substrate utilization was assessed using glucose kinetics and indirect calorimetry. After training, exercise whole-body fat oxidation was higher and glycogen ...
Morato Priscila Neder - - 2013
Whey protein (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have the recognized capacity to increase glycogen stores. The objective of this study was to verify if consuming WP and WPH could also increase the concentration of the glucose transporters GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in the plasma membrane (PM) of the muscle cells ...
Krüger Karsten - - 2013
Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise ...
Heinonen Ilkka - - 2013
The role of nitric oxide in controlling substrate metabolism in humans is incompletely understood. The present study examined the effect of nitric oxide blockade on glucose uptake, and free fatty acid and lactate exchange in skeletal muscle of eight healthy young males. Exchange was determined by measurements of muscle perfusion ...
Yen Chia Hung - - 2013
Sweet cassava tubers have abundant carbohydrates consisting of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In addition, polysaccharides extracted from plants improve sports performance, according to recent studies. We therefore examined whether the administration of sweet cassava polysaccharides (SCPs) benefited endurance performance in rats Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30, 7 weeks old) were ...
Kato Morimasa - - 2013
This study investigates the anti-fatigue effects of Acanthopanax sieboldianus (A. sieboldianus) at various exercise intensities. Two experiments were conducted in 18 Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, a three-stage increment test (15 m/min for 5 min, and 20 m/min for 5 min and 25 m/min for 10 min) was performed using ...
Jeukendrup Asker - - 2013
Carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise has been shown to increase endurance capacity and improve performance. Until recently, the advice was to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrate per hour. The upper limit was based on studies that demonstrated that intakes greater than 60-70 g/h would not result in greater exogenous carbohydrate ...
Yuan Hairui - - 2013
Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on both weight control and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through a number of specific signaling proteins. To investigate the targets by which exercise exerts its effects on insulin resistance, an approach of proteomic screen was applied to detect the potential different protein expressions from skeletal ...
Adeniyi A F - - 2013
Gender is a major determinant of the outcomes of many health interventions. This study documents the order of significant improvements in metabolic parameters of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) having metabolic syndrome within 12 weeks of physical exercise programmes. Twenty-nine patients, mean age 49.6 ± 3.7 years, presenting ...
Terada Tasuku - - 2013
Aim. To explore the factors associated with exercise-induced acute capillary glucose (CapBG) changes in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Fifteen individuals with T2D were randomly assigned to energy-matched high intensity interval exercise (HI-IE) and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MI-CE) interventions and performed a designated exercise protocol 5 days ...
Figueiredo Vandré Casagrande VC The Liggins Institute, Faculty of Medical and Science Health, University of Auckland, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1023, New Zealand. - - 2013
It is now well established that protein supplementation after resistance exercise promotes increased muscle protein synthesis, which ultimately results in greater net muscle accretion, relative to exercise alone or exercise with supplementary carbohydrate ingestion. However, it is not known whether combining carbohydrate with protein produces a greater anabolic response than ...
Johannsen Neil M - - 2013
To assess the determinants of exercise training-induced improvements in glucose control (HbA1C) including changes in serum total adiponectin and FFA concentrations, and skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein content. A sub-cohort (n = 35; 48% men; 74% Caucasian) from the HART-D study undertaking muscle biopsies before and after 9 months ...
Deldicque Louise - - 2013
Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced ...
Reyna Sara M - - 2013
Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen ...
Bhutani Surabhi - - 2013
Alternate day fasting combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. The aim of this study was to examine the behavioral adaptations that occur when ADF is combined with exercise, and to determine how these changes affect weight loss. Obese subjects (n = 64) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: 1) ...
Adams O Peter - - 2013
Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. ...
Kim Kook Hwan - - 2013
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has an excellent therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in rodents and monkeys. Acute exercise affects glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing glucose uptake and lipolysis. However, it is ...
Hecksteden Anne - - 2013
The interindividual variability in the health-related efficacy of regular endurance training is high. This impedes on the individual optimization of preventive training prescriptions when optimal efficacy is intended. As a consequence, health-gains remain below what could be achieved. Practicable predictors of an individual's responsiveness to physical exercise would offer a ...
Chorna Nataliya E - - 2013
Voluntary running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Given that fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, is critically involved in proliferation of embryonic and adult neural stem cells, we hypothesized that FASN could mediate both exercise-induced cell proliferation in the subgranular ...
Del Coso Juan J Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Sports Science Institute, Camilo José Cela University, Madrid, Spain. - - 2013
Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s) of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men ...
Dumke Charles L CL Department of Health and Human Performance, Montana Center for Work Physiology and Exercise Metabolism, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, MT 59812, USA. - - 2013
Heat stress down-regulates mitochondrial function, while carbohydrate supplementation attenuates the exercise induced stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in humans. The effects of exogenous carbohydrate during exercise in the heat on metabolic mRNA have not been investigated in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of exercise with ...
Lainis Fredolin - - 2013
A 68-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department with a history of central chest pain associated with exertion. He was admitted for assessment and when an acute coronary syndrome was excluded, he underwent exercise stress testing. His exercise stress testing was discontinued due to lightheadedness. His capillary glucose ...
Rao Xiaoquan X College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of - - 2013
Physical exercise is an important and effective therapy for diabetes. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance, but the role of PKCβ in exercise-induced improvements in insulin resistance is completely unknown. ...
Moore Laura - - 2013
This study examined the effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate preexercise meals (2.5 g CHO/kg body mass) on cycle performance in untrained females. Ten females, cycled at 60% VO(2 max) to exhaustion, on two occasions. After fasting, subjects ate an isocaloric, high glycemic index (HGI)/low glycemic index ...
Baek Soon Gi SG Department of Sports Health Medicine, College of Health Science, Jungwon University, Chungcheongbuk-do, - - 2013
High temperature environment causes detrimental effects on health. In the present study, the effects of intake of several kinds of beverage on blood components during exercise under the high temperature environment were evaluated. The 10 subjects were student of the H University. Exercise intensity was 50-60% O2maxx and treadmill exercise ...
Kim Yoonmyung Y University College, Center for Heath and Wellness, Yonsei University International Campus, Incheon 406-840, Republic of - - 2013
Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise ...
O'Hagan Ciara - - 2013
Exercise is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in stabilization of plasma glucose in the acute phase and improvements in body composition, insulin resistance and glycosylated haemoglobin with chronic exercise training. However, the most appropriate exercise prescription for type 2 diabetes has not yet been established, resulting ...
de Moura Leandro Pereira - - 2013
Obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation, by triggering insulin resistance, may contribute to the accumulation of hepatic fat, and this accumulation by lipotoxicity can lead the organ to fail. Because obesity is growing at an alarming rate and, worryingly, in a precocious way, the present study aimed to investigate the effects ...
Wu Ruei-Er - - 2013
Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known phytocompound and food component which has antioxidative and multifunctional bioactivities. However, there is limited evidence for the effects of RES on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of trans-RES on fatigue and ergogenic functions ...
Gregson Warren - - 2012
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI, via its associated reductions in skeletal muscle blood flow) attenuates muscle glycogen re-synthesis during short-term recovery from exhaustive exercise. METHODS: In a repeated measures design, nine recreationally active males performed an exhaustive glycogen depleting cycling protocol (consisting of intermittent exercise ...
Gordon Brett A - - 2012
Resistance exercise is recommended as part of the exercise guidelines to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes, however the frequency of exercise required to improve glycemic control and insulin sensitivity is not clear. We recruited and tested 10 individuals with type 2 diabetes by collecting a fasting blood sample immediately ...
Frank Per - - 2012
Within 2-3 days of starvation pronounced insulin resistance develops, possibly mediated by increased lipid load. Here we show that one exercise bout increases mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) oxidation and reverses starvation induced insulin resistance. Nine healthy subjects underwent 75 h starvation on two occasions: with no exercise (NE) or with ...
Bergouignan Audrey - - 2012
The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviours and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical ...
Emhoff Chi-An W - - 2012
We examined the effects of endurance training, exercise intensity, and plasma lactate concentration on gluconeogenesis (GNG) and hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) in fasted men exercising at and just below the lactate threshold (LT), where GNG precursor lactate availability is high. Twelve healthy men (6 untrained, 6 trained) completed 60 min of ...
Dudzinska W - - 2013
Uridine is postulated to participate in the development of insulin resistance. Since exercise is an effective tool in the treatment of insulin resistance it appeared justified to assess the impact of maximal exercise on plasma uridine and insulin sensitivity indices (e.g. insulin and HOMA-IR) in healthy subjects. The study included ...
Fisher James P JP School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK. - - 2013
We evaluated cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism in 11 young (22 ± 1 years) and nine older (66 ± 2 years) individuals at rest and during cycling exercise at low (25% W(max)), moderate (50% Wmax), high (75% W(max)) and exhaustive (100% W(max)) workloads. Mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCA ...
Yardley Jane E - - 2012
Abstract Background: Aerobic exercise typically decreases blood glucose levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes. It is currently unknown if glucose responses to exercise and recovery differ between patients on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Subjects and Methods: Nineteen (16 male, three female) physically ...
Lai Aiping - - 2013
Visfatin is a recently discovered adipokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. This study investigates Visfatin RS4730153 polymorphism from the perspectives of its relations with glucose/lipid metabolism and its influence on the effects of exercise-induced weight loss. Eighty-eight obese Han Chinese children and adolescents were randomly selected from a ...
Grieco Carmine R - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Previous research demonstrates that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves insulin effectiveness. Whether higher exercise intensities improve insulin action more so is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various levels of aerobic intensity on insulin action in young adult males and females. 45 healthy subjects ...
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