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Heden Timothy D TD 1Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; 2Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; and 3Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, - - 2013
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) help regulate postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin concentrations, but the effects of acute aerobic exercise on GLP-1 or GIP responses are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reductions in postprandial TAG and insulin with exercise ...
Aoi Wataru - - 2013
Skeletal muscle is a major tissue that utilizes blood glucose. A single bout of exercise improves glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through insulin-dependent and insulin-independent signal transduction mechanisms. However, glucose utilization is decreased in muscle damage induced by acute, unaccustomed, or eccentric exercise. The decrease in glucose utilization is caused ...
Rundqvist Håkan C HC Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, - - 2013
Nutrient provision after sprint exercise enhances mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. One suggested that nutrient sensor is the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34), not previously studied in human skeletal muscle. It is hypothesized that oral ingestion of essential amino acids (EAA) and carbohydrates (Carb) increases ...
Rosenkilde Mads - - 2013
Weight loss induced by endurance exercise is often disappointing, possibly due to a increase in energy intake mediated through greater appetite. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting, postprandial and post-exercise appetite regulation after an intervention prescribing two amounts of endurance exercise. Sixty-four sedentary, overweight, healthy young men ...
Ito Kazuo - - 2013
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide involved in energy metabolism. The interactive effect of GALP and exercise on energy metabolism has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine if energy metabolism in spontaneously exercising mice could be promoted by intracerebroventricular (ICV) GALP administration. Changes in respiratory ...
van Dijk Jan-Willem - - 2013
OBJECTIVETo investigate the impact of activities of daily living (ADL) versus moderate-intensity endurance-type exercise on 24-h glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSTwenty males with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized crossover study consisting of three experimental periods of 3 days each. Subjects were studied ...
Leftin Avigdor - - 2013
The metabolic status of muscle changes according to the energetic demands of the organism. Two key regulators of these changes include exercise and insulin; exercise eliciting catabolic expenditure within seconds, and insulin enabling anabolic energy investment over minutes to hours. This study explores the potential of time-resolved hyperpolarized dynamic (13)C ...
Váczi Márk - - 2013
We hypothesized that stair-jump exercise would induce less muscle damage and greater acute metabolic responses than level-jumps.
Hopper Mari K - - 2013
Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal physiology course select to participate ...
Duckworth Lauren C - - 2013
The beneficial effects of acute carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on exercise performance have been well described. Also reported is the attenuation of perceived exertion and enhancement of affect during prolonged exercise following CHO ingestion. However, no studies to date have assessed the impact of the type of CHO ingested on affective ...
Macleod S F - - 2013
Exercise has repeatedly been shown to improve glycemic control as assessed by glycated hemoglobin. However, changes in glycated hemoglobin do not provide information regarding which aspects of glycemic control have been altered. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effect of exercise as assessed by continuous glucose ...
Besse-Patin A - - 2013
IntroductionIt has been suggested that metabolic benefits of physical exercise could be mediated by myokines. We examined here the effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle expression of a panel of myokines in humans. Pathways regulating myokine expression were investigated in human myotubes.MethodsEleven obese non diabetic male subjects were enrolled ...
Reidy Paul T - - 2013
We previously reported an increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis during fasted and fed recovery from non-exhaustive aerobic exercise (Harber, Konopka, Jemiolo, Trappe, Trappe, & Reidy, 2010). The current study examined skeletal muscle intracellular signaling in the same subjects to further investigate mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein metabolism with and ...
Prior Steven J - - 2013
Objective: People with type 2 diabetes have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic impairments that are linked to obesity and often occur prior to the development of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that obese, older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have lower ability to shift from fat to carbohydrate oxidation ...
Boulé Normand G - - 2013
Some previous studies suggested that metformin might attenuate the effects of exercise on glycaemia or fitness. We therefore examined whether metformin use influenced changes in glycaemic control, fitness, body weight or waist circumference resulting from aerobic and/or resistance training in people with type 2 diabetes participating in an exercise intervention ...
Matos Mariana Aguiar de - - 2013
This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single session of exercise on the expression of Hsp70, of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and insulin receptor substrate 1 serine 612 (IRS(ser612)) phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of obese and obese insulin-resistant patients. Twenty-seven volunteers were divided into three experimental groups ...
Solomon Thomas P J TP PhD, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Panum Institute 4.5.13, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. - - 2013
Understanding intersubject variability in glycemic control following exercise training will help individualize treatment. Our aim was to determine whether this variability is related to training-induced changes in insulin sensitivity or pancreatic β-cell function. We conducted an observational clinical study of 105 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. ...
Jamart Cécile - - 2013
Activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle has been reported in response to endurance exercise and food deprivation, independently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether autophagy was more activated when both stimuli were combined, namely when endurance exercise was performed in a fasted rather than a fed state. ...
Boyda H N - - 2013
Second generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs are effective treatments for psychosis. Common side-effects of SGAs include metabolic dysregulation and risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Metabolic side-effects, including glucose intolerance, can be accurately modelled in rodents. The benefits of interventions used for treating metabolic side-effects of SGAs are mostly unknown. In a 9 wk ...
Stellingwerff Trent T a Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Lausanne CH-1000, - - 2014
Consumption of cocoa-enriched dark chocolate (DC) has been shown to alter glucose and insulin concentration during rest and exercise compared with cocoa-depleted control (CON). However, the impact of DC consumption on exercise metabolism and performance is uncertain. Therefore, we investigated carbohydrate metabolism via stable isotope tracer techniques during exercise after ...
Wong Alexander - - 2013
The major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) accumulates in fat tissue from where it slowly diffuses back into blood. THC pre-treated rats can show elevated plasma cannabinoid levels when subjected to conditions that promote fat utilization, such as fasting. Here we examine whether fasting and exercise increase plasma THC ...
Malin Steven K - - 2013
Fetuin-A is synthesized in the liver and may be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle induced weight loss reduces fetuin-A, but the effect of exercise alone is unknown. We determined the effect of short-term exercise training on plasma fetuin-A in 13 (50.5±3.4yr) obese adults ...
Groover Anna L - - 2013
Recent research suggests that exercise can be effective in reducing pain in animals and humans with neuropathic pain. To investigate mechanisms in which exercise may improve hyperalgesia associated with prediabetes, C57Bl/6 mice were fed either standard chow or a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and were provided access to running ...
Melançon A - - 2013
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of acute exercise and fasting on glucagon receptor (GluR) binding characteristics, GluR-mRNA, and protein content in rat liver. Liver homogenates were prepared and plasma membranes were purified by aqueous 2-phase affinity partitioning in rats fed at rest (control) and after ...
Howlett Kirsten F KF School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University Geelong, Victoria, - - 2013
To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30-60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5-10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of ...
Uriel Nir N Division of Cardiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New - - 2013
This study sought to investigate plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) and their relationship with adrenergic activation and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF). Adrenergic activation and IR are hallmarks of advanced heart failure. The resulting changes in fuel substrate availability and ...
Iwase Satoshi - - 2013
To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while ...
Bourlier Virginie - - 2013
Context:It was suggested that human cultured primary myotubes retain the metabolic characteristics of their donor in vitro.Objectives:The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the metabolic responses to endurance training are also conserved in culture.Design and Volunteers:Middle-aged obese subjects completed an 8-week supervised aerobic exercise training program in ...
Oberlin Douglas J - - 2013
Elevated postprandial glycemic excursions (PPG) are significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients. Here we tested if and for how many meals a single bout of exercise would reduce PPG responses to subsequent meals in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients using continuous glucose monitors (CGMS). We ...
Malin Steven K SK Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, - - 2013
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced ...
Iellamo Ferdinando - - 2013
In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) blood pressure (BP) control, represents a relevant target of management. This study evaluated the effect of different intensities exercise training on 24-h ambulatory BP profile and insulin resistance in patients with CHF. Thirty-six CHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40 %, were randomized ...
Imayama Ikuyo - - 2013
Antidepressants may attenuate the effects of diet and exercise programs. We compared adherence and changes in body measures and biomarkers of glucose metabolism and inflammation between antidepressant users and non-users in a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight or obese, postmenopausal women were assigned to: diet (10% weight loss goal, N=118); ...
Cermak Naomi M - - 2013
Carbohydrate and fat are the two primary fuel sources oxidized by skeletal muscle tissue during prolonged (endurance-type) exercise. The relative contribution of these fuel sources largely depends on the exercise intensity and duration, with a greater contribution from carbohydrate as exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, endurance performance and endurance capacity ...
Cooper Robert - - 2013
Abstract We investigated the effects of ingesting carbohydrate gels with and without caffeine on a ~90-minute, four blocks intermittent sprint test (IST), in 12 recreationally trained male athletes. Using a cross-over design, one 70 ml dose of gel containing either 25 g of carbohydrate with (CHOCAF) or without (CHO) 100 ...
He Wei - - 2013
To investigate the effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), the activity of red and white muscle enzymes [pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ...
Bouchonville M - - 2013
Background:Obesity exacerbates the age-related decline in insulin sensitivity and is associated with risk for cardiometabolic syndrome in older adults; however, the appropriate treatment for obese older adults is controversial.Objective:To determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese older adults.Design:One-hundred-seven obese (BMI30 kg/m(2)) ...
Schiavon Michele M Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo College of Medicine, Rochester, - - 2013
Quantifying the effect size of acute exercise on insulin sensitivity (SI(exercise)) and simultaneous measurement of glucose disappearance (R(d)), endogenous glucose production (EGP), and meal glucose appearance in the postprandial state has not been developed in humans. To do so, we studied 12 healthy subjects [5 men, age 37.1 ± 3.1 ...
Galassetti Pietro - - 2013
Physical exercise is firmly incorporated in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1DM), due to multiple recognized beneficial health effects (cardiovascular disease prevention being preeminent). When glycemic values are not excessively low or high at the time of exercise, few absolute contraindications exist; practical guidelines regarding amount, type, and duration ...
Gibson Bryan S - - 2013
Our purpose was to develop and test a predictive model of the acute glucose response to exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Design and Methods: Data from three previous exercise studies (56 subjects, 488 exercise sessions) were combined and used as a development dataset. A mixed-effects Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection ...
Pellinger Thomas K TK Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon, - - 2013
Following a bout of dynamic exercise, humans experience sustained postexercise vasodilatation in the previously exercised skeletal muscle which is mediated by activation of histamine (H1 and H2) receptors. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake is also enhanced following dynamic exercise. Our aim was to determine if blunting the vasodilatation during recovery from ...
Mottola Michelle F - - 2013
We examined the physiological and metabolic responses of 24 active late pregnant women to 40 minutes of vigorous (95% ventilatory threshold) steady-state treadmill exercise followed by a metabolic perturbation (oral glucose tolerance test-OGTT; 75 g) after exercise. Heart rate and respiratory measures were taken throughout exercise and blood samples were ...
Skleryk Julia R - - 2013
To investigate the effects of short-term, reduced-volume sprint interval training (SIT) compared to traditional exercise recommendations (TER) in sedentary obese men. Sixteen subjects (37.8 ± 5.8 yr; BMI 32.8 ± 4.7 kg · m(-2) ) were randomly allocated to 2 weeks of either SIT (6 sessions of 8-12 x 10 s sprints) or TER (10 sessions ...
Consitt Leslie A - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to determine if site-specific phosphorylation at the level of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is altered in skeletal muscle from sedentary humans across a wide range of the adult lifespan (18 to 84 years) and if endurance- and/or strength-oriented exercise training could rescue ...
Reichkendler Michala Holm - - 2013
Physical exercise increases peripheral insulin sensitivity, but regional differences are poorly elucidated in humans. We investigated the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in five individual femoral muscle groups and four different adipose tissue regions using dynamic (femoral region) and static (abdominal region) 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT methodology ...
Nguyen Thanh - - 2013
Exercise is a viable form of therapy for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Understanding the energy sources used during exercise would aid CF patients in obtaining proper nutrition in order to sustain an active lifestyle. Six boys with CF (mean age±SD: 14.8±2.3yrs, FEV1: 99±18% predicted) and six matched controls (14.0±2.2yrs) ...
Davey Raymond J - - 2013
Context:Exercise increases the risk of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.Objective:Recently we reported a biphasic increase in glucose requirements to maintain euglycemia after late-afternoon exercise, suggesting a unique pattern of delayed risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia. This study examined whether this pattern of glucose requirements occurs if exercise is performed earlier in ...
Preisler Nicolai - - 2013
Context:Phosphoglucomutase type 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare metabolic myopathy in which symptoms are provoked by exercise.Objective:Because the metabolic block is proximal to the entry of glucose into the glycolytic pathway, we hypothesized that iv glucose could improve the exercise intolerance experienced by the patient.Design:This was an experimental intervention study.Setting:The ...
Park Sunmin - - 2013
AIMS: Preventing hyperglycemia after acute stroke attenuates complications of cerebral ischemia and reduces the risk of mortality. We investigated whether regular exercise prevents neuronal cell death and post-stroke hyperglycemia in gerbils after cerebral ischemia. MAIN METHODS: Cerebral ischemia was induced by carotid artery occlusion for 8 mins. The gerbils that ...
Kraemer Robert R - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Prolonged exercise requires increased utilization of blood glucose and adjustment of glucoregulatory hormones. Estrogen can reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis which could affect insulin concentrations. Amylin is co-secreted with insulin and controls influx of glucose into the blood. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of menstrual cycle stage on glucose, leptin, and ...
Newsom Sean A - - 2013
OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a relatively modest session of exercise on insulin sensitivity and fatty acid uptake the next day in obese adults.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSEleven sedentary obese adults (male/female: 3/8; BMI 37 ± 1 kg/m(2); peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] 20 ± 1 ...
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