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Ebrahim M S E MS Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, K1H 8L1, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children's Hospital Cairo University, Cairo University, 11562 Cairo, - - 2014
To describe the atypical phenotype and genotype of an adolescent girl with symptomatic exercise-induced hyperglycaemia, responsive to sulfonylurea treatment. Chart review, gene sequencing, and blinded continuous glucose monitoring (Medtronic iPro2) were used to characterise the case. A novel heterozygous mutation p.Q219x (c.655C>T) in exon 6 of the glucokinase gene (NM_000162.3) ...
Carter Edward A EA From the *Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; †Shriners Hospitals for Children®, Boston, Massachusetts; Departments of ‡Nuclear Medicine and §Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, - - 2014
Exercise is a component of the clinical management for the burn patients to help reduce muscle wasting associated with prolonged hospitalization. In the present study the authors examined 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in mice subjected to burn injury with and without exercise. Mice had their the dorsums shaven, were placed ...
O'Hara John P JP 1 Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK 2 Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull, Hull, - - 2014
This study evaluated the effects of the pre-exercise (30 minutes) ingestion of galactose (Gal) or glucose (Glu) on endurance capacity as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Ten trained male cyclists completed three randomised high-intensity cycling endurance tests. Thirty minutes prior to each trial cyclists ingested 1 litre of either ...
Chen Hsuan-Ying HY Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Shalu District, Taichung, Taiwan ; Stem Cell Center, Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, - - 2014
Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg) is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose ...
Aguiar Elroy J - - 2014
Current recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes advise modification of diet and exercise behaviors including both aerobic and resistance training. However, the efficacy of multi-component interventions involving a combination of these three components has not been established. The aims of this review were to systematically review and meta-analyze ...
Kozey Keadle Sarah S a Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, - - 2014
This pilot study examined if the combination of exercise training and reducing sedentary time (ST) results in greater changes to health markers than either intervention alone. Fifty-seven overweight/obese participants (19 males/39 females) (mean ± SD; age, 43.6 ± 9.9 years; body mass index (BMI), 35.1 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)) completed the ...
Pauli Luciana Ss LS School of Applied Science, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, São Paulo., - - 2014
Insulin plays an important role in the control of hepatic glucose production. Insulin resistant states are commonly associated with excessive hepatic glucose production, which contributes to both fasting hyperglycemia and exaggerated postprandial hyperglycemia. In this regard, increased activity of phosphatases may contribute to the dysregulation of gluconeogenesis. MKP-3 (mitogen-activated protein ...
Keeley R J RJ Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge; Lethbridge, AB, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exercise has a myriad of health benefits, including protection against heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. Cognitive performance improves following chronic exercise, both in animal models and, humans. Studies have examined the effect of exercise on feeding, demonstrating a preference towards, increased food consumption. Further, sex differences exist such that females ...
Mason Shaun - - 2014
Metabolic stresses associated with disease, ageing, and exercise increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These ROS have been linked mechanistically to adaptations in skeletal muscle that can be favourable (i.e. in response to exercise) or detrimental (i.e. in response to disease). The magnitude, duration (acute ...
Silveira Ana Paula S AP a Sport Sciences Departament , Trás os Montes e Alto Douro University , Vila Real , - - 2014
Six men and six women (24.4 ± 6.4 years) who had been diagnosed with T1D for 7.3 ± 6.8 years volunteered for the study. Three RT sessions were repeated with the same experimental approach with randomized load percentages. Blood glucose measurements were performed at rest, after warm-up, immediately after the ...
Kim Young-Je YJ 1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyungpook National University , Daegu, - - 2014
Abstract This study was conducted to examine the effects of omija fruit extract on the endurance and energy metabolism of rats trained under a progressive loaded exercise program. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups according to exercise and experimental diets for 6 weeks: the ...
Moura Bruno P - - 2014
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) are the two monitoring blood glucose tests most frequently used. However, both methods are shown to be insensitive to detect glycemic variations in short duration periods. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of a short-term exercise program on glycemic levels measured ...
Yeh Tzu-Shao TS School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, - - 2014
Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known medicinal herb and food material with antioxidative and multifunctional pharmacological activities. However, we lack evidence of the effect of AS on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of AS on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions after physiological challenge. ...
Byrkjeland Rune R Center for Clinical Heart Research, Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ulleval, PO box 4956, Nydalen N-0424, Oslo, Norway. - - 2014
Previous studies on type 2 diabetes have shown an association between exercise capacity and insulin resistance. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise capacity is often reduced due to exercise-induced ischemia. We have investigated the association between glucometabolic control, including the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance, and ...
Yan Huimin H 0000-0002-2340-9875 Exercise and Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801, - - 2014
Background. Exercise training intervention is underused in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in East Africa. Methods. 41 physically-active males with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Mozambique were recruited and randomly assigned to 12 weeks of supervised exercise of low intensity exercise (LEX), vigorous intensity exercise (VEX), or ...
Sasaki Shota S Home Economics and Science Department, Obihiro Otani Junior - - 2014
Although the intake of carbohydrates is important for the supplementation of energy substrate utilized during exercise, fat oxidation is possibly prevented by an elevation of insulin, and whether or not the timing of the intake of meals affects energy metabolism during exercise has not been clarified. The purpose of this ...
Kitaoka Yu Y Department of Sports Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan. - - 2014
McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease Type V; MD) is a metabolic myopathy caused by a deficiency in muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Since muscle glycogen is an important fuel for muscle during exercise, this inborn error of metabolism provides a model for understanding the role of glycogen in muscle function and the ...
Lee Chia-Lun CL Physical Education Section of General Education, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, - - 2014
Caffeine (CAF) has been shown to improve performance during early phase of repeated sprint exercise; however some studies show that CAF also increases the magnitude of physical stress represented by augmented blood lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations during latter phase of repeated sprint exercise. No studies have investigated the efficacy ...
Stenerson Matthew M Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA - - 2014
Aerobic exercise can lower blood glucose levels and alter insulin sensitivity both during and several hours after exercise, creating challenges for a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) algorithms are a first step toward an artificial pancreas, but few of these have been successfully applied to exercise. This ...
Ormsbee Michael J MJ Human Performance and Sports Nutrition Lab, Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA. - - 2014
Endurance athletes rarely compete in the fasted state, as this may compromise fuel stores. Thus, the timing and composition of the pre-exercise meal is a significant consideration for optimizing metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Carbohydrate feedings prior to endurance exercise are common and have generally been shown to enhance performance, ...
Rinaldi Wilson W Department of Physical Education, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, - - 2014
Postnatal early overfeeding and physical inactivity are serious risk factors for obesity. Physical activity enhances energy expenditure and consumes fat stocks, thereby decreasing body weight (bw). This study aimed to examine whether low-intensity and moderate exercise training in different post-weaning stages of life is capable of modulating the autonomic nervous ...
Seo Yongsuk Y Exercise and Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Kent State University, Kent, OH, - - 2014
Dehydration limits the appropriate delivery of oxygen and substrates to the working muscle. Further, the brain's ability to function may also be compromised whereby thermal sensation and mood state may be altered. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the thermoregulatory, perceptual, and negative mood state profile in ...
Malin S K SK John P. Kirwan, PhD, Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave (NE40), Cleveland, OH 44195, Phone: (216) 444-3412, Fax: (216) 636-1496 , Email: - - 2014
Objective: To determine the effect of exercise on chemerin in relation to changes in fat loss, insulin action, and dyslipidemia in older adults. Participants: Thirty older (65.9±0.9yr) obese adults (BMI:34.5±0.7kg/m2). Setting: Single-center, Cleveland Clinic. Design: Prospective clinical trial. Intervention: Twelve-weeks of exercise training (60minutes/day, 5day/week at ~85% HRmax). Subjects were ...
Wasinski Frederick F Department of Biophysics, Federal University of São Paulo, 04023-062 São Paulo, SP, Brazil ; Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, 04023-900 São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional ...
Gentle Hannah Lonika HL Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, 9054 Dunedin, New - - 2014
Attenuating muscle damage is important to subsequent sports performance. It is possible that pre-exercise protein intake could influence markers of muscle damage and benefit performance, however, published research provides conflicting results. At present no study has investigated protein and carbohydrate (PRO/CHO) co-ingestion solely pre-exercise, nor prior to basketball-specific exercise. The ...
Vettor Roberto R 1University of - - 2013
Endurance exercise training increases cardiac energy metabolism through poorly understood mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cardiomyocytes contributes to cardiac adaptation. Here we demonstrate that the NO donor diethylenetriamine-NO (DETA-NO) activated mitochondrial biogenesis and function, as assessed by up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α ...
Mendham Amy E AE School of Human Movement Studies, Faculty of Education, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, - - 2013
This study compared the acute inflammatory and glucose responses following aerobic exercise in sedentary Indigenous Australian and Caucasian men, matched for fitness and body composition. Sedentary Indigenous (n = 10) and Caucasian (n = 9) Australian men who were free from chronic disease volunteered to participate. Following baseline testing, participants completed a 40 min ...
Dalzill Claudie C Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation Centre (ÉPIC), Montreal Heart Institute and University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada; Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute and University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, - - 2013
The effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were studied in metabolically unhealthy obese (NMHO) and metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects. Fifty-five MHO (51 ± 8 years; waist circumference, 109 ± 13 cm) ...
Holmstrup Michael M Department of Exercise Science, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA; Department of Exercise and Rehabilitative Sciences, Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA, - - 2013
Long, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior are thought to negatively influence postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined the effects of a 1-h bout of morning exercise versus intermittent walking bouts of short duration on glucose excursions and insulin secretion over 12-h. Eleven young, obese individuals (18-35years, BMI>30kg/m(2)) with impaired ...
Herbst Eric Af - - 2013
During recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise, there is a shift from carbohydrate oxidation to glycogen resynthesis. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex therefore may decrease to reduce oxidation of carbohydrates in favour of increasing gluconeogenic recycling of carbohydrate-derived substrates. The mechanism behind this has yet to be elucidated, however ...
Fedewa Michael V - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The prevalence of obesity and diabetes is increasing among children, adolescents, and adults. Although estimates of the efficacy of exercise training on fasting insulin and insulin resistance have been provided, for adults similar estimates have not been provided for youth. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a quantitative ...
Hamilton Kirk L - - 2013
The Na(+)-glucose cotransporter is a key transport protein that is responsible for absorbing Na(+) and glucose from the luminal contents of the small intestine and reabsorption by the proximal straight tubule of the nephron. Robert K. Crane originally described the cellular model of absorption of Na(+) and glucose by a ...
Eshghi Saeed Reza Toghi - - 2013
Despite positive effects of incretins on insulin secretion, little is known about the effect of exercise on these hormones. Metformin can affect incretin concentrations and is prescribed to a large proportion of people with diabetes. We, therefore, examined the effects of aerobic exercise and/or metformin on incretin hormones. Ten participants with ...
Yardley Jane E - - 2013
It is relatively well known that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise increases the risk of hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Conversely, brief high-intensity (anaerobic) activity can cause post-exercise hyperglycemia. Recent evidence has indicated that including small amounts of anaerobic activity, either in the form of short sprints or as resistance ...
Blüher Susann S Leipzig University Medical Center, IFB AdiposityDiseases, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 27, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2013
Regular physical exercise within structured lifestyle programs may improve weight status and minimize metabolic risk factors in childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the one-year combined physical exercise/lifestyle program KLAKS on anthropometric and metabolic parameters and glycemic control in childhood obesity. 142 overweight/obese ...
Galloway Stuart D - - 2013
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of timing of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding (Part A), and carbohydrate concentration (Part B), on short-duration high-intensity exercise capacity. In Part A, seventeen males, and in Part B ten males, performed a peak power output (PPO) test, two familiarisation trials at 90% of ...
da Silva José Roberto JR - - 2013
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and high risk for chronic disease both for the mother and for the child. Physical exercise is feasible for diabetic pregnant women and contributes to better glycemic control and to a decrease in adverse perinatal ...
Kolka Cm C Department of Biomedical Sciences, Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, CA, - - 2013
The rising incidence of diabetes and the associated metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and hypertension have led to investigation of a number of drugs to treat these diseases. However, lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise remain the first line of defense. The benefits of exercise are typically presented in ...
Rynders Corey A - - 2013
Background:A single bout of exercise improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic patients; however, the impact of exercise intensity is not well understood. The present study compared the effects of acute isocaloric moderate (MIE) and high-intensity (HIE) exercise on glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic adults.Methods:Subjects (n = ...
Li Yuet-Keung - - 2013
Metabolic dysregulation may disrupt the complex neuroprotective mechanisms essential for brain health. Recent studies have pointed out the possible aetiological role of metabolic dysregulation in the onset of schizophrenia and the associated cognitive impairment. In this paper, we aimed to generate a theoretical model of how a combination of physical ...
Suzuki E - - 2013
This study examined the physiological responses to cold stimulus during intermittent high-intensity exercise simulating on-snow alpine ski training. 7 male alpine skiers performed intermittent high-intensity exercises composed of 4 bouts of cycling exercise at 140% V˙O2max intensity for 30 s with 10-min rests on a cycle ergometer in cold (1°C) and ...
Suga Tadashi - - 2013
Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise ...
Dumke Charles L - - 2013
Introduction: Elevated patient blood glucose and exogenous insulin administration may affect substrate oxidation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM); however, this has not been demonstrated with conviction. We examined substrate oxidation during incremental exercise in a group of subjects with T1DM and compared the results to those of ...
Manning Sean - - 2013
Although the role of peptide YY (PYY) as a regulator of energy homeostasis was first highlighted only in 2002, our understanding of the physiological role of PYY has since rapidly advanced. In recent years, insights from mechanistic studies in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, from pancreatic islet research, from functional neuroimaging ...
Randell Rebecca K - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate if duration of decaffeinated green tea extract (dGTE) ingestion plays a role in augmenting fat oxidation rates during moderate-intensity exercise. In a cross-over, placebo controlled design, 19 healthy males [x± SD age: 21 ± 2 y; weight 75.0 ± 7.0 kg; body ...
Arazi Hamid H Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of - - 2014
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of resistance exercise with three different methods on integrated electromyography (IEMG) and metabolic responses in recreational athletes. Twenty four males (mean 23.59±0.87 years) were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Participants performed knee extension exercises: Slow (SL: 3-3, 3s for ...
Walhin Jean-Philippe - - 2013
Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men (age 25 ± 7 years) were randomly-assigned either to consume 50 % more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst ...
Davey Raymond J - - 2013
OBJECTIVETo determine whether performing a 10-s sprint after moderate-intensity exercise increases the amount of carbohydrate required to maintain euglycemia and prevent late-onset postexercise hypoglycemia relative to moderate-intensity exercise alone.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSSeven individuals with type 1 diabetes underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and performed 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise on two ...
Ikeda Shin-Ichi - - 2013
Exercise enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Recent data suggest that alternatively activated M2 macrophages enhance insulin sensitivity in insulin target organs such as adipose tissue and liver. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in ...
Nguyen Thanh - - 2013
Children with Crohn's disease (CD) suffer from malnutrition. Understanding substrate utilization during exercise may help patients with CD sustain a healthy active lifestyle without compromising nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine whether substrate utilization and bioavailability during exercise are altered in children with CD compared with controls. ...
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