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Results 251 - 300 of 1399
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Hwang In Koo - - 2010
In the present study, we investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes and treadmill exercise in chronic diabetic stages on neuroblast differentiation using doublecortin (DCX) in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SZDG) in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Four-, 12-, 20- and 30-week-old Zucker lean control (ZLC) and ...
Fujimoto Eri - - 2010
We previously reported that 14 bouts of exhaustive high-intensity intermittent training [20 s periods of swimming while carrying a weight (14% of body weight), separated by pauses of 10 s] is the highest stimuli in terms of exercise training-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) expression in rat epitrochlearis (EPI) muscles. In ...
Leasure J Leigh - - 2010
Excessive alcohol intake produces structural and functional deficits in corticolimbic pathways that are thought to underlie cognitive deficits in the alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Animal models of binge alcohol administration support the direct link of high levels of alcohol consumption and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and surrounding cortex. In contrast, ...
Shokri Saeed - - 2010
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used at high doses by athletes for improving athletic ability, physical appearance and muscle mass. Unfortunately, the abuse of these agents has significantly increased. It has been established that exercise and high doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which can in turn affect testicular ...
Siqueira Ionara Rodrigues - - 2010
Regular and moderate exercise has been considered as an interesting neuroprotective strategy. However, the molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise alters brain function are unclear. Purinergic signaling seems to modulate the pathophysiology of ischemic neuronal damage, since it has been described a neuroprotective activity of adenosine and a dual role ...
Piloto Nuno - - 2009
Athletes who abuse recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) consider only the benefit to performance and usually ignore the potential short and long-term liabilities. Elevated haematocrit and dehydratation associated with intense exercise may reveal undetected cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying it remain to be fully explained. This study aimed to evaluate ...
Chen Ying-Ju - - 2009
Repeated blood sampling in rodents is often necessary and difficult. Magnesium has been touted as an agent for enhancing physical activity. An auto-blood-sampling device coupled with a microdialysis analyzer was developed to determine blood glucose and lactate concentrations in rats subjected to treadmill exercise. The effects of magnesium on exercise ...
Huang Chi-Chang - - 2009
Even though exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of tissue damage, regular endurance training is widely assumed to improve cardiac function and protects against heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that an endurance training program prevents exhaustive exercise-induced increases in cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis in left ventricle (LV). Thirty-two ...
Batista M L ML - - 2010
Heart failure (HF) is associated with changes in the skeletal muscle (SM) which might be a consequence of the unbalanced local expression of pro- (TNF-alpha) and anti- (IL-10) inflammatory cytokines, leading to inflammation-induced myopathy, and SM wasting. This local effect of HF on SM may, on the other hand, contribute ...
Tajiri Naoki - - 2010
Recent studies demonstrate that rehabilitation ameliorates physical and cognitive impairments of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and other neurological diseases and that rehabilitation also has potencies to modulate brain plasticity. Here we examined the effects of compulsive exercise on Parkinson's disease model of rats. Before 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 microg) ...
Huang Chi-Chang - - 2010
Exhaustive exercise and endurance exercise training modify the physiological status of the body differently. The present study aimed to evaluate the alteration in biochemical composition with exhaustive and endurance exercises in rats using metabolomics strategy. The metabolite profile of liver tissue was investigated on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data further ...
Wang You-Hua - - 2010
The role of exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, blood lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, cholinesterase-positive nerves and muscarinic cholinergic (M(2)) receptors expression in the heart was investigated in Sprague-Dawley male rats with hyperlipidemia (HL). The rats were subjected to a high-fat diet and exercise training for 8 weeks, and then the ...
Paschoal M - - 2009
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key compound for induction of angiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) administration on VEGF mRNA expression in the rat soleus muscle after jumping training. Wistar rats were grouped ...
Jiang Lei - - 2009
In this study, we used M35, a galanin antagonist to explore the effect of an increase in galanin release induced by exercise on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content and function. The rats tested were divided into four groups: rats from sedentary and trained drug groups were injected by M35, 5 ...
Hescham Sarah S Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South - - 2009
Stress affects the brain differently depending on the timing, duration and intensity of the stressor. Separation from the dam for 3 h per day is a potent stressor for rat pups which causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, evidenced by increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and glucocorticoids. Behaviourally, ...
Grace Laurian L Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, South - - 2009
Adverse life events occurring in early development can result in long-term effects on behavioural, physiological and cognitive processes. In particular, perinatal stressors impair neurogenesis in the hippocampus which consequently impairs memory formation. Exercise has previously been shown to have antidepressant effects and to increase cognitive functioning by increasing neurogenesis and ...
Chae C H - - 2009
This study aimed to investigate the effects of regular treadmill exercise on nerve growth factor (NGF) expression, the improvement of cognitive function in the hippocampus of diabetic rats, and to understand the molecular mechanisms through which the relevant signaling factors act. We investigated the effects of regular treadmill exercise for ...
O'Callaghan Rachel M - - 2009
The potential of exercise or environmental enrichment to prevent or reverse age-related cognitive decline in rats has been widely investigated. The data suggest that the efficacy of these interventions as neuroprotectants may depend upon the duration and nature of the protocols and age of onset. Investigations of the mechanisms underlying ...
Ghanbari-Niaki Abbass - - 2009
Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is an orexigenic peptide secreted from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. AGRP increases food intake and plays a role in energy balance, adiposity, weight gain, and growth-hormone release. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of running exercise on resting hepatic, ...
Leasure J Leigh - - 2009
Social isolation negatively affects the behavior and health of laboratory rats. Recently, it has been found that social isolation retards exercise-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of male rats (Stranahan et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:526-533). Since male and female rats react differently to housing changes and exercise ...
Sanches I C - - 2009
The effects of exercise training on cardiovascular and autonomic functions were investigated in female rats. After an aerobic exercise training period (treadmill: 5 days/week for 8 weeks), conscious female Wistar (2 to 3 months) sedentary (S, N = 7) or trained rats (T, N = 7) were cannulated for direct ...
Korb Arthiese - - 2010
The serotoninergic system modulates nociceptive and locomotor spinal cord circuits. Exercise improves motor function and changes dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic central systems. However, the direct relationship between serotonin, peripheral nerve lesion and aerobic treadmill exercise has not been studied. Using immunohistochemistry and optic densitometry, this study showed that the sciatic ...
George Liza - - 2009
We have previously reported that age-associated oxidative stress via protein kinase C (PKC) increases D1 receptor (D1R) phosphorylation and causes D1R-G protein uncoupling in renal proximal tubules (RPTs) of old Fischer 344 rats. This results in reduced ability of D1R agonist SKF-38393 to inhibit Na+-K+-ATPase in RPTs of old rats. ...
Ben Juliana - - 2009
Hormone deficiency following ovariectomy causes activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that has been related to cognitive deficits in experimental animals. Considering that physical exercise presents neuroprotector effects, we decide to investigate whether exercise training would affect enzyme activation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as adenosine nucleotide hydrolysis ...
Saadipour K - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term forced exercise protocol on passive avoidance retention in morphine-exposed rats. Effects of morphine on acquisition and retrieval of retention have been proven in the avoidance paradigms. Twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used in this ...
Qiu S - - 2009
Hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia are major clinical features in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that serum insulin levels reduced by exercise could relieve hyperandrogenism and ameliorate polycystic ovarian morphology. Wistar female rats with 21-day-old were randomly divided into three groups: PCOS exercise (P-Ex), PCOS sedentary (P-Sed), and control ...
Martin-Cordero L - - 2009
Regular physical activity is recognized as a non-pharmacological treatment of genetic obesity and type-II diabetes, and based on the "anti-inflammatory" effects of exercise, it has been also proposed for improving the "chronic low-grade inflammation" in metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of ...
Curry Alecia - - 2010
We sought to determine whether cerebral inflammation in ischemic rats was reduced by a neuroprotective action of pre-ischemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha up-regulation, which down-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 minutes of exercise on a treadmill for 3 weeks. ...
Bupha-Intr Tepmanas - - 2009
The impact of regular exercise in protecting cardiac deteriorating results of female sex hormone deprivation was evaluated by measuring changes in intracellular Ca2+ removal activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in ovariectomized rats following 9-wk treadmill running exercise at moderate intensity. Despite induction of cardiac hypertrophy in exercised groups of both ...
Ni Hong - - 2009
For the purpose of investigating the role of physical exercise in developmental seizure-induced cognitive deficit, hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and related gene expression, a seizure was induced by penicillin every other day in Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day 24 (P24). The authors assigned ten rats each randomly into the control ...
Leite Laura H R - - 2009
To investigate the influence of central angiotensin AT1-receptors blockade on metabolic adjustments during graded exercise, Losartan (Los) was intracerebroventricularly injected in rats before running until fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured (n=6) and blood samples collected (n=7) to determine variations of glucose, lactate and free fatty acids (FFA). Los-rats exhibited ...
Viboolvorakul Sheepsumon - - 2009
During aging, bone loss occurs in association with alteration of blood perfusion in the tissue. A number of studies have shown that repaired blood perfusion in various organs was improved by regular exercise, but the effect of exercise on bone microcirculation has not been studied fully yet. This study aimed ...
Higa-Taniguchi Keila T - - 2009
Oxytocinergic brainstem projections participate in the autonomic control of the circulation. We investigated the effects of hypertension and training on cardiovascular parameters after oxytocin (OT) receptor blockade within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and NTS OT and OT receptor expression. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were ...
Baltaci Abdulkerim Kasim - - 2010
The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise and zinc deficiency on some elements in rats. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley species male rats were allocated to four groups as follows: Group 1: control, Group 2: zinc-deficient, Group 3: exercise in which exercise group fed with ...
Veneroso C - - 2009
Cardiac muscle tissue, when stimulated by acute exercise, presents increased signs of cell damage. This study was designed to investigate whether overexpression of inflammatory mediators induced in the heart by acute exercise could be prevented by melatonin and whether the protective effect of melatonin was related with inhibition of nuclear ...
Lee Shi-Uk - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on recovery from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. METHODS: First, we administered a 120-minute left MCAO to male Sprague-Dawley rats and randomly assigned them to one of four groups: no exercise (Group 1), mild exercise (Group 2), moderate exercise ...
Balthazar Cláudio H - - 2009
To assess the role of central dopamine on metabolic rate, heat balance and running performance, 2.0 microL of 5 x 10(-3)M dopamine solution (DA) or 0.15M NaCl (SAL) was intracerebroventricularly injected in Wistar rats 1 min before running on a motor-driven treadmill, according to a graded exercise protocol, until fatigue. ...
Wanner S P - - 2010
The effects of blocking ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) muscarinic cholinoceptors on cardiovascular responses were investigated in running rats. Animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and fitted with bilateral cannulae into the VMH. After recovering from surgery, the rats were familiarized to running on a treadmill. The animals then had a ...
Chies Agnaldo Bruno - - 2009
Physical exercise evokes an extensive circulatory redistribution. However, the influence of exercise upon the effects of sympathomimetic agonists in veins was not well studied. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether a single bout of exercise modifies the effects of sympathomimetic agonists in veins and whether this exercise-induced modification ...
Argandoña Enrike G - - 2009
After birth, exposure to visual inputs modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the visual cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during what is called the critical period. Astrocytes play an important role in the development, maintenance and plasticity of the cortex ...
Kuru Oktay - - 2009
Regular exercise has blood pressure-lowering effects, as shown in different types of experimental hypertension models in rats, including the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition model. We aimed to investigate possible mechanisms implicated in the exercise effect by evaluating the vasoreactivity of resistance arteries. Exercise effects on agonist-induced vasodilatory responses and ...
Hopkins Michael E - - 2009
The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats ...
Droste Susanne K - - 2009
Previous work has shown that allowing rats to voluntarily exercise in a running wheel for 4 wk modifies the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral coping responses to stress. To investigate whether long-term voluntary exercise would also affect the free, biologically active fraction of corticosterone in the brain, we conducted an in ...
Aguiar Aderbal S AS - - 2009
Previous studies have shown that cognitive deficits precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and that physical exercise may exert beneficial effects on PD. We have recently verified that the monoamine-depleting drug reserpine - at doses that do not modify motor function - impairs memory processes in ...
Stones Rachel - - 2009
Regular exercise can lead to electrical remodelling of the heart. The cellular mechanisms associated with these changes are not well understood, and are difficult to study in human tissue but are important given that exercise is recommended to the general population. We have investigated the role played by the transient ...
Cavalcanti Renato Albuquerque de Oliveira - - 2009
Stellate ganglion (SG) represents the main sympathetic input to the heart. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in the quantitative aspects of SG neurons in treadmill-exercised Wistar rats. By applying state-of-the-art design-based stereology, the SG volume, total number of SG neurons, mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons, and ...
Habouzit Estelle - - 2009
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic ANG I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition could improve the training-induced improvement in endurance exercise performance and that this could be related to enhanced skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. Female Wistar rats were assigned to four groups comprising animals either maintained sedentary or ...
Davis III, Robert T.
Skeletal muscle fatigue has a complex multifaceted etiology in which the ability to regulate intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the myofibrillar response to elevated [Ca2+]i are key components. Pertinent to this issue, a drug developed by Cytokinetics, Inc. (CK7357), has been shown to increase contractile function via altered myofibrillar Ca2+ ...
Lee Sang Ki - - 2009
We investigated the role that endothelial nitric oxide synthase plays in post-exercise hypotension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. To accomplish this, rats were subjected to a single bout of dynamic exercise on a treadmill at 15 m/min for 20 min. L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited post-exercise hypotension ...
Lujan Heidi L - - 2009
Cholera toxin B subunit conjugated to saporin (SAP, a ribosomal inactivating protein that binds to and inactivates ribosomes) was injected in both stellate ganglia to evaluate the physiological response to targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neurons. Resting cardiac sympathetic activity (cardiac sympathetic tonus), exercise-induced sympathetic activity (heart rate responses to ...
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