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Itoh Tatsuki - - 2011
Exercise is reported to inhibit neuronal apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus and improve learning and memory. However, the effect of exercise on inhibition of neuronal apoptosis surrounding the area of damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the improvement of cerebral dysfunction following TBI are unknown. Here, we investigate ...
Hopps E - - 2011
Endothelial dysfunction and plasma markers of inflammation are significantly increased in type 2 diabetics. Several proinflammatory cytokines, acute-phase proteins, and cell adhesion molecules, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukines (IL), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), seem to play a role in the low-grade systemic inflammation observed in these subjects. ...
Smith Beth A BA Balance Disorders Laboratory, Departments of Neurology and Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University West Campus, 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006, USA. - - 2011
Our goal was to extend our understanding of the neural changes behind motor recovery with treadmill exercise in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse. We determined the extent of dopamine (DA) terminal changes using Western immunoblotting [striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)] and alterations in the mean number of DA ...
Krüger K - - 2011
Intensive endurance exercise is known to induce lymphocyte apoptosis, which might affect immune function. Less is known about the effects of resistance exercise on apoptosis and its underlying mechanisms. In this study, subjects performed an intensive resistance test (IRT) and a moderate resistance test, and lymphocyte apoptosis, apoptosis-related parameters, and ...
Xu Xiaohua - - 2011
A high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with adipose inflammation, which contributes to key components of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance. The increased visceral adipose tissue mass associated with obesity is the result of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. To investigate the effects of exercise on HFD-induced metabolic disorders, ...
White Kate - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and ...
Ivanov Andrejs - - 2011
Cellular senescence is a potent tumour suppressor mechanism that is often accompanied by activation of DNA damage response (DDR) signalling and marked heterochromatinization. Senescence-associated heterochromatin is now shown to limit DDR, thus reducing apoptosis and promoting survival of senescent cells.
Cunniffe Brian - - 2011
: To examine the relationship between upper respiratory illness (URI) incidence with changes in mucosal immunity (saliva immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and saliva lysozyme (s-Lys)) and training load (TL) in a squad of elite rugby union players. : Timed resting morning saliva samples were taken from players (n = 31) at ...
Christoulas K - - 2011
To determine and compare the erythropoietic response and exercise performance of adolescent cross-country skiers, as a result of "living high-training high" (HH) and "living high-training low" (HL). Nine female and six male adolescent cross-country skiers volunteered to participate in separate trials. In the first trial (HH), the skiers lived and ...
Wong Pui-Lam - - 2011
Wong, P-L, Lau, PWC, Mao, DW, Wu, YY, Behm, DG, and Wisløff, U. Three days of static stretching within a warm-up does not affect repeated-sprint ability in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 25(3): 838-845, 2011-This study aimed to examine the repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players after 3 ...
Baek Seung-Soo - - 2011
Early adverse experiences resulting from maternal separation may lead to neuronal cell death and they can eventually cause memory impairment. In this study, we investigated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on the long-term memory capability, spatial learning ability, and depressive state, on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) synthesis and tryptophan ...
Lenk Karsten - - 2011
In clinical trials as well as in several animal experiments it is evident that physical exercise is a powerful tool to positively influence the development and/or progression of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). The main target of physical exercise seems to be the maintenance of an intact endothelial cell ...
Backx Karianne - - 2011
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of either a standard care programme (n = 9) or a 12-week supported exercise programme (n = 10) on glycaemic control, β-cell responsiveness, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients. The standard care programme consisted of advice to exercise ...
Munk Peter Scott - - 2011
Background: Increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and markers of endothelial cell activation have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. Exercise training may lower the risk for coronary heart disease by attenuating inflammation and improving endothelial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of regular ...
Sonnenschein Kristina - - 2011
Background: Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote ...
Beiter Thomas - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Increased plasma concentrations of cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) are considered a hallmark of various clinical conditions. Despite intensive research in this field, limited data are available concerning the time course of release and clearance of cf-DNA in vivo. METHODS: We extracted cf-DNA from plasma samples taken before and immediately after ...
Van Craenenbroeck Emeline M - - 2011
Exercise training improves endothelial function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) through functional enhancement of circulating angiogenic cells and increased numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). In contrast to healthy subjects, an immediate effect of acute exercise on CD34(+)/KDR(+) EPC is absent in CHF. Whether this reflects an ...
De Lisio Michael - - 2011
The hormetic effects of exercise training have previously been shown to enhance cellular protection against oxidative stress. Therefore, adaptations to exercise training may attenuate the harmful effects of radiation induced by oxidative stress. Flow cytometric analysis of genotoxicity (γH2AX foci and micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET)) and cytotoxicity (apoptosis and percentage of ...
Fanchini Maurizio - - 2011
Fanchini, M, Azzalin, A, Castagna, C, Schena, F, McCall, A, and Impellizzeri, FM. Effect of bout duration on exercise intensity and technical performance of small-sided games in soccer J Strength Cond Res 25(2): 453-458, 2011-To examine whether the increase in bout duration would affect the exercise intensity and technical actions, ...
Liu Yu-Qian - - 2011
Some athletes are diagnosed as suffering from sports anemia because of iron deficiency, but the regulatory mechanism remains poorly understood. It is reported that hepcidin may provide a way to illuminate the regulatory mechanism of exercise-associated anemia. Here the authors investigate the hepcidin-involved iron absorption in exercise-associated anemia. Twelve male ...
González-Burgos Ignacio - - 2011
The simple cerebellar lobule is involved in several neuromotor processes and it is activated during guided exercise. Although guided exercises are essential for motor rehabilitation, the plastic events that occur in the simple cerebellar lobule during motor training remain unknown. In this study, normal adult rats were intensely trained on ...
Larsson Johan - - 2011
For several hours after exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, there is diminished responsiveness to repeated challenge. The mechanism causing this refractoriness is unclear. Inhalation of dry powder mannitol is a new bronchial provocation test that has been suggested as a surrogate for an exercise challenge. Refractoriness to repeated mannitol challenge has however not ...
Ritchey J W - - 2011
Alaskan racing sled dogs are a well-established model of exercise-induced gastric disease. The aim of this study was to define the temporal development of microscopical gastric lesions during long distance racing. Two groups of dogs were examined: group I comprised conditioned dogs that were exercising and group II were conditioned ...
Wheatley Courtney M - - 2011
Exercise activates adrenergic and purinergic pathways that regulate activity of ion channels on airway epithelia cells and sweat glands. We hypothesize, therefore, that exercise is not only an important therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by facilitating systemic improvements; but more importantly, exercise can improve the pathophysiological ion dysregulation at ...
Clark P J PJ Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Beckman Institute, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. - - 2011
New neurons are continuously born in the hippocampus of several mammalian species throughout adulthood. Adult neurogenesis represents a natural model for understanding how to grow and incorporate new nerve cells into preexisting circuits in the brain. Finding molecules or biological pathways that increase neurogenesis has broad potential for regenerative medicine. ...
Calegari Vivian - - 2011
Endurance exercise is known to enhance peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin secretion. However, it is unknown if the latter effect is due to the reduction in plasma substrate availability or alterations in β -cells secretory machinery. Here, we tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise reduces insulin secretion by altering ...
Chae Chang-Hun - - 2011
We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise performed regularly for 6 weeks on the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), tyrosine kinase A and p75 receptors, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1,2, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and caspase-3 in the soleus of rats with streptozotocin ...
Clark Peter J - - 2011
New neurons are continuously born in the hippocampus of several mammalian species throughout adulthood. Adult neurogenesis represents a natural model for understanding how to grow and incorporate new nerve cells into pre-existing circuits in the brain. Finding molecules or biological pathways that increase neurogenesis has broad potential for regenerative medicine. ...
Maltseva Diana V - - 2011
Exercise can alter human health in both beneficial (e. g. reduced risk of infection and of atherosclerosis) and adverse (e. g. anaphylaxis, exercise-induced asthma, and exacerbation of chronic illness) ways. Hitherto, the mechanisms linking exercise and health are not fully understood, but may rest on the capability of exercise to ...
Zinner Christoph - - 2011
Lactate (La) and H(+)-ions are unequally distributed in the blood between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). To our knowledge there is no data concerning the effects of an oral ingestion of bicarbonate (HCO(3) (-)) on repeated high intensity sprint exercise and La and H(+) distribution between plasma and RBCs. ...
Crewther Blair T - - 2011
This study examined the effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. Thirty male rugby players performed an upper-body power and lower-body strength (UPLS) and/or a lower-body power and upper-body strength (LPUS) workout using a crossover design (sprint vs. control). A 40-second upper-body or ...
Chaar Vicky - - 2011
Strenuous exercise is associated with an inflammatory response involving the activation of several types of blood cells. In order to document the specific activation of these cell types, we studied the effect of three maximal exercise tests conducted to exhaustion on the quantitative and qualitative pattern of circulating cell-derived microparticles ...
Cortis Cristina - - 2011
This study aimed to verify whether basketball players are able to maintain strength (handgrip), jump (countermovement jump [CMJ]), sprint (10 m and 10 m bouncing the ball [10 mBB]), and interlimb coordination (i.e., synchronized hand and foot flexions and extensions at 80, 120, and 180 bpm) performances at the end ...
Simpson Richard J - - 2011
Overcrowding the immune space with excess clones of viral-specific T cells causes the naïve T-cell repertoire to shrink, which increases infection susceptibility to novel pathogens. Physical exercise preferentially mobilizes senescent T cells from the peripheral tissues into the blood, which might facilitate their subsequent apoptosis and create "vacant space" for ...
Navalta James - - 2011
Exercise is a physiological stimulus capable of inducing apoptosis in immune cells. To date, various limitations have been identified with the measurement of this phenomenon, particularly relating to the amount of time required to isolate and treat a blood sample prior to the assessment of cell death. Because of this, ...
Capomaccio Stefano - - 2011
Horses and humans share a natural proclivity for athletic performance. In this respect, horses can be considered a reference species in studies designed to optimize physical training and disease prevention. In both species, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a major role in regulating the inflammatory process induced during exercise as part of ...
Navalta James Wilfred - - 2011
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of ...
Nickel Thomas - - 2011
Physical inactivity and obesity are independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. We analyzed the immunomodulatory capacity of 10-week intensified exercise training (ET) in obese and lean athletes. Markers of the innate immune response were investigated in obese (ONE: ET≤40 km/week) and lean athletes (LNE: ET≤40 km/week and LE: ET≥55 km/week). Circulating dendritic cells (DC) ...
Walsh Neil P NP School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK. - - 2011
An ever-growing volume of peer-reviewed publications speaks to the recent and rapid growth in both scope and understanding of exercise immunology. Indeed, more than 95% of all peer-reviewed publications in exercise immunology (currently >2, 200 publications using search terms "exercise" and "immune") have been published since the formation of the ...
Amorim Fabiano - - 2010
To test the hypothesis that whole-body heat acclimation (HA) would increase peripheral blood mononuclear cells' (PBMC) tolerance to heat shock (HS) and/or alter the release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we heat acclimated nine subjects by exercising them for 100 min in a hot environment ...
Coffey Vernon G - - 2010
The effect of nutrient availability on the acute molecular responses following repeated sprint exercise is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine skeletal muscle cellular and protein synthetic responses following repeated sprint exercise with nutrient provision. Eight healthy young male subjects undertook two sprint cycling sessions (10 × 6 s, 0.75 N m torque kg(-1), ...
Cuniberti B - - 2010
The effect of dynamic exercise on complete blood cell count, lymphocyte β-adrenergic receptor and plasma catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) levels in horses performing different disciplines were investigated during rest and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from jumping horses (n=6), Arabian Endurance horses (n=6) and Standardbred trotters (n=6) before and ...
Fletcher Deborah K - - 2010
Several studies investigating the effect of caffeine on immune function following exercise have used one large bolus dose of caffeine. However, this does not model typical caffeine consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether small repeated doses of caffeine ingested throughout the day would elicit a ...
Fisher G - - 2011
The purposes of this study were to 1) examine the immune and oxidative stress responses following high-intensity interval training (HIIT); 2) determine changes in antioxidant enzyme gene expression and enzyme activity in lymphocytes following HIIT; and 3) assess pre-HIIT, 3-h post-HIIT, and 24-h post-HIIT lymphocyte cell viability following hydrogen peroxide ...
Gergley Jeffrey C - - 2010
This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of 2 different warm-up treatments over time on driver clubhead speed, distance, accuracy, and consistent ball contact in young male competitive golfers. Two supervised warm-up treatments, an active dynamic warm-up with golf clubs (AD) and a 20-minute total body passive static stretching ...
Fernandez-Fernandez Jaime - - 2010
The aim of the study was to examine how the training surface (i.e., clay or carpet) affects the characteristics (i.e., ball velocity, running pressure, running volume, and physiological responses) of a tennis training session. Ten competitive healthy and nationally ranked male tennis players (mean ± SD: age 24.2 ± 1.7 ...
Dellal Alexandre - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to compare the physiologic impact of intermittent exercise in specific shuttle running (IS), which requires 180° directional changes, and traditional in-line (IL) running. Ten elite male adult soccer players performed different intermittent exercises according to their maximal aerobic velocity (ν&OV0312;O2max): 30-30 seconds at ...
Bobovčák Marián - - 2010
Excessive and exhausting physical loads depress the immune system. Carbohydrate consumption may minimize the postexercise suppression of the innate immune system. β-Glucan is a well-known immunomodulator, with positive effects on the functioning of immunocompetent cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether β-glucan dietary supplementation from the mushroom ...
Berzosa C - - 2011
Optimal levels of membrane fluidity are essential for numerous cell functions including cell growth, solute transport and signal transduction. Since exercise enhances free radical production, our aim was to evaluate in healthy male subjects the effects of an acute bout of maximal and submaximal exercise on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity ...
Snijders Tim - - 2011
Endurance-type exercise training represents a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the effects of prolonged continuous, endurance-type exercise on muscle fiber characteristics remain equivocal. Fifteen obese male type 2 diabetes patients (61 ± 6 years) participated in a 6-month continuous, endurance-type exercise program. Muscle biopsies were collected before, and ...
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