Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1051
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Marenzi G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We investigated the lung contribution to circulating noradrenaline (NA) homeostasis. Evaluation of the transpulmonary NA gradient, related to the NA amount entering the lungs, is potentially important, mainly regarding clinical conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), that are associated with excessive circulating NA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 15 moderate ...
Jones K L - - 2000
Nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the exhaled air of some patients with inflammatory lung disorders, but not in others. NO may combine with superoxide to form peroxynitrite, which lowers NO gas concentrations, increases formation of nitrate, and increases nitration of tyrosine residues on proteins. We hypothesized that superoxide released ...
Waugh J B - - 2000
The effectiveness of surfactant (SURF) treatment in acute lung injury in the adult is controversial. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of early surfactant treatment in a commonly used animal model of acute lung injury, phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA), to see if it would attenuate the progression of lung injury. ...
Weber K - - 2000
Positive airway pressure (Paw) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) increases lung volume and can lead to lung overdistention with potentially serious adverse effects. To date, no method is available to monitor changes in lung volume (DeltaVL) in HFOV-treated infants to avoid overdistention. In five newborn piglets (6-15 days old, 2.2-4.2 ...
Guazzi M - - 2000
Chronic heart failure (CHF) disturbs the alveolar-capillary interface and increases the resistance to gas transfer. Alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (D(M)) and capillary blood volume (V(c)) are subcomponents of the lung diffusion capacity. Elevation of the capillary pressure causes alveolar-capillary membrane stress failure (i.e. increase in capillary permeability to water and ions, ...
Behr J - - 2000
Acute episodes of farmer's lung (FL) are associated with activation and migration of neutrophils into the lungs, causing oxidative stress. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of episodes of FL on antioxidant defense of the lung by glutathione (GSH). A total of 15 patients with symptomatic FL (one ...
Shamberger R C - - 2000
Many studies have been conducted that evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of pectus excavatum because of the general clinical impression that post-repair patients have better exercise tolerance and vigor. The results of these studies have been variable during the last three decades, and although restrictive lung volumes are often present in ...
Kosuda S - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of gravity and lung volume on regional pulmonary perfusion using technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (99mTc MAA) single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Twenty-five subjects were classified into three groups according to their position during the injection of the tracer [11 subjects sitting, six ...
Pincivero D M - - 2000
It has been hypothesized that the ability of the neuromuscular system to co-contract muscles for joint stabilization may be impaired during the development of fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle activation of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles during a prolonged closed kinetic chain exercise, the forward ...
Arnold J H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of single-breath CO2 analysis as a measure of lung volume change in a model of acute lung injury. SETTING: Animal laboratory in a university-affiliated medical center. DESIGN: Prospective, animal cohort study comparing 21 variables derived from single-breath CO2 analysis with lung volume measurements determined by ...
Appelberg J - - 2000
The cross-sectional area of the upper airway is known to be lung volume dependent. If, and to what extent, lung volume variables correlate to nocturnal obstructive apnoeas and oxygen desaturations independently of other factors known to affect lung volumes and sleep disordered breathing is still unclear. A total of 92 ...
Collery P - - 2000
The effects of two gallium (Ga) compounds, Ga chloride (GaCl3) and tris(8-quinolinolato)Ga (III) on the viability of A549 human malignant lung adenocarcinoma cells were investigated. The results demonstrated that both drugs reduced the viability of A549 cells but to different extents. The inhibitory effects of tris(8-quinolinolato)Ga (III) were 10 times ...
Itoh E - - 2000
Staple-line reinforcement buttresses made of bovine pericardium (BP), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), and so on have been shown to be effective in preventing air leaks after stapled lung volume reduction operations, and some of them have been clinically utilized. However, each buttress suffers at least one disadvantage such as risk of ...
O'Kroy J A - - 2000
To test the hypothesis that the presence of airflow limitation (AFL) influences the control of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) during exercise, 11 subjects with normal lung function, performed submaximal exercise (SM) on a cycle ergometer, with and without AFL. AFL was achieved during exercise by increasing the density of the ...
Wark P A - - 2000
The lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by impaired mucociliary clearance, recurrent bronchial infection and airway inflammation. Hypertonic saline has been shown to enhance mucociliary clearance in-vitro and this may act to lessen the destructive inflammatory process in the airways. To determine if nebulised hypertonic saline treatment improved lung ...
Wittwer T - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Optimal preservation of post-ischemic organ function is a continuing challenge in clinical lung transplantation. METHODS: Using an established extracorporeal rat lung screening model, the results after preservation of 8 lungs, each with the extracellular-type preservation solutions Celsior and Perfadex using ischemic periods of 2 and 4 hours were compared ...
Bergström P - - 1999
Left ventricular (LV) heart failure increases pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and interstitial fluid volume. Continuous measurements of lung density may be a simple non-invasive method for monitoring of the LV function as the lung density should reflect the changes in the PBV and extravascular lung water. The purpose of the ...
Shupak A - - 1999
Acoustic models suggest that high-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound (US) at 21-31 kHz, could cause damage to divers' lungs. The purpose of the study was to investigate lung tissue changes secondary to water-borne low-frequency US produced by commonly used underwater acoustic beacons (pingers). Explanted pig lungs were immersed and exposed to four ...
Kabiraj M M - - 1999
Phrenic nerve conduction study and measurements of static lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volumes (RV) using body plethysmography were carried out in 31 normal healthy male subjects (31 +/- 8 years). The objective was to correlate changes in latency, amplitude, duration ...
Lim C M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: In partial liquid ventilation (PLV), the nondependent lung was observed to be inflated first and the dependent lung later. The inflational time difference between the lung regions can lead to maldistribution of tidal gas and inefficient gas bubbling in the slow-inflating region during PLV. In this situation, increasing the ...
Tucker B - - 1999
We investigated the effect of a unilateral thoracic expansion exercise (TEE), a breathing manoeuvre used by physiotherapists, on regional lung ventilation. Nine trained physiotherapists aged 22-37 years completed the study. Technegas lung ventilation scans were used to determine the effect of a right unilateral TEE performed when sitting. This was ...
Max M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) and prone position can improve arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) in acute lung injury (ALI). The authors evaluated additive effects of these techniques in a saline lung lavage model of ALI. METHODS: ALI was induced in 20 medium-sized pigs (29.2+/-2.5 kg body weight). Gas exchange and ...
Davey-Quinn A - - 1999
We studied eleven consecutive patients to assess the influence of extravascular lung water on clinical outcome. All patients were mechanically ventilated using a standardized protocol. Inspired oxygen concentration was adjusted to an initial target PaO2 of greater than 8.0 kPa (60.8 mmHg). All patients received inhaled nitric oxide (NO) at ...
St─ânescu D - - 1999
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To clarify the significance of a functional lung pattern characterized by a decreased vital capacity (VC) and an increased residual volume (RV), but with a normal FEV1/VC ratio. SETTING: A university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients with bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema, and small airways disease, and older subjects. MEASUREMENTS: ...
Taylor P C - - 1999
The therapeutic effects of a monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were evaluated objectively in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis by 111In-labelled granulocyte imaging before and after treatment, and compared with changes in granulocyte kinetics with respect to the liver, spleen and lungs. Anti-TNFalpha resulted in a decrease ...
Manier G - - 1999
The postexercise alteration in pulmonary gas exchange in high-aerobically trained subjects depends on both the intensity and the duration of exercise (G. Manier, J. Moinard, and H. Stoïcheff. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2580-2585, 1993; G. Manier, J. Moinard, P. Techoueyres, N. Varène, and H. Guénard. Respir. Physiol. 83: 143-154, 1991). ...
Cannon M L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the protective effects of two different perflubron doses on hemodynamics and lung function in a neonatal animal model of cardiopulmonary bypass-induced lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Animal laboratory of the Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one neonatal swine. INTERVENTIONS: ...
Erickson H H - - 1999
We determined the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with 15-micron fluorescent-labeled microspheres during rest and exercise in five Thoroughbred horses before and 4 h after furosemide administration (0.5 mg/kg iv). The primary finding of this study was that PBF redistribution occurred from rest to exercise, both with and ...
Wenzel U - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if bronchoalveolar lavage leads to increased alveolar and physiologic deadspace or a deadspace/ tidal volume ratio and if surfactant replacement restores the lung to its prelavage condition. DESIGN: Prospective, animal cohort study. SETTING: An animal laboratory in a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Seven adult rabbits receiving artificial ...
Mandryk J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Four sawmills, a wood chipping mill, and five joineries in New South Wales, Australia, were studied for the effects of personal exposure to wood dust, endotoxins. (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi on lung function among woodworkers. METHODS: Personal inhalable and respirable dust sampling was carried out. The lung function ...
Gotshall R W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The single-breath technique for determination of the diffusion capacity of the lung for CO (DlCO) requires a 10-s breathhold at total lung capacity. The assumption has been that this breathhold does not alter the components of DlCO, i.e., the diffusion capacity of the membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary ...
Manning F - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Body positioning exerts a strong effect on pulmonary function, but its effect on other components of the oxygen transport pathway are less well understood, especially the effects of side-lying positions. This study investigated the interrelationships between side-lying positions and indexes of lung function such as spirometry, alveolar ...
Kinsella J P - - 1999
Acute lung injury caused by tidal volume ventilation in the premature lamb with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by progessive deterioration in gas exchange and lung inflammation. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) improves gas exchange and decreases lung neutrophil accumulation in premature lambs with RDS. Mechanical lung recruitment techniques such ...
Droste J H - - 1999
Abnormal pulmonary function in childhood is a well-known risk factor for lung function impairment in adult life. It is therefore of clinical interest to recognize lower pulmonary function in childhood. We investigated the association between asthma-like respiratory symptoms and the lung function parameters FVC, FEV1, and FEF(25-75) in a population-based ...
Nugent A M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Resection is the treatment of choice for lung cancer, but may cause impaired cardiopulmonary function with an adverse effect on quality of life. Few studies have considered the effects of thoracotomy alone on lung function, and whether the operation itself can impair subsequent exercise capacity. METHODS: Patients being considered ...
Schwaiblmair M - - 1999
Heart-lung (HLT) and lung transplantation (LT) have been shown to be effective procedures for patients with end-stage cardiopulmonary disorders. As yet, few data exist on the exercise performance of patients before and after thoracic transplantation except with regard to 6-min walk tests. In this article we report cardiopulmonary exercise test ...
Takeda S - - 1999
To determine the extent and sources of adaptive response in gas-exchange to major lung resection during somatic maturation, immature male foxhounds underwent right pneumonectomy (R-Pnx, n = 5) or right thoracotomy without pneumonectomy (Sham, n = 6) at 2 mo of age. One year after surgery, exercise capacity and pulmonary ...
Chua B A - - 1999
The neuroendocrine system of the lungs is maximally developed and activated at birth, but has no clear function. Here, one of its products, serotonin, was tested for an ability to stop lung fluid production or activate reabsorption. Lungs from fetal guinea pigs (61 +/- 2 days of gestation) were supported ...
Lando Y - - 1999
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been suggested as improving respiratory mechanics in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that LVRS might lengthen the diaphragm, increase its area of apposition with the chest wall, and thereby improve its mechanical function. To determine the effect of bilateral ...
Mouratidis B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterized by inflammation within the alveolar walls and interstitium of the lungs. This causes increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. The diagnosis is made by clinical features, chest roentgenography, lung function tests, and high-resolution CT, and it is confirmed by lung biopsy. Radionuclide aerosol tracers such ...
Lands L C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: There have been many suggestions that diminished exercise capacity in patients that have undergone lung transplantation is due, in part, to peripheral muscle dysfunction, brought on by either detraining or immunosuppressive therapy. There is limited data quantifying skeletal muscle function in this population, especially in those more than 18 ...
Ruben JA - - 1999
Ultraviolet light analysis of a fossil of the theropod dinosaur Scipionyx samniticus revealed that the liver subdivided the visceral cavity into distinct anterior pleuropericardial and posterior abdominal regions. In addition, Scipionyx apparently had diaphragmatic musculature and a dorsally attached posterior colon. These features provide evidence that diaphragm-assisted lung ventilation was ...
Sakuma T - - 1999
To study the mechanisms responsible for ischemia-reperfusion lung injury, we developed an anesthetized rabbit model in which the effects of lung deflation, lung inflation, alveolar gas composition, hypothermia, and neutrophils on reperfusion pulmonary edema could be studied. Rabbits were anesthetized and ventilated, and the left pulmonary hilum was clamped for ...
Hsia C C - - 1999
Cardiopulmonary limitations to exercise in restrictive lung disease. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 31, No. 1 (Suppl.), pp. S28-S32, 1999. Restrictive lung disease encompasses a large and diverse group of disorders characterized by a diminished lung volume. These disorders exhibit common pathophysiologic features including abnormal gas exchange caused by loss ...
Isaji S - - 1999
IS-741, a new synthetic anti-inflammatory agent, is known to have some inhibitory effect on cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme which hydrolyzes cellular phospholipids, liberating fatty acids and lysophospholipids and providing the precursor substrates for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor. cPLA2 is therefore an attractive target for the ...
Hartmann M - - 1999
Microaspiration enabled by high-volume-low-pressure cuffed endotracheal tubes is the most likely explanation for ventilator-associated pneumonia. To decontaminate the secretion at the proximal end of the cuff we developed a silver-coated endotracheal tube (SCET). In an in vitro model we investigated the efficacy of SCET to lower the bacterial load of ...
Fehrenbach A - - 1999
The aim of this study was to characterise pulmonary reimplantation injury in isolated, perfused rat lungs following 2 h of cold ischaemia, and 50 min. of in vitro reperfusion. The effects of 2 differently composed lung preservation solutions (low potassium Euro-Collins and Celsior; each n = 5) were examined in ...
Burgess J L - - 1999
Seattle firefighters participate in a voluntary annual medical surveillance program including measurements of ventilatory capacity (FVC and FEV1) and single-breath diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO). From 1989 to 1996, average % predicted DLCO (Crapo) for all participating firefighters declined from 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93.4% to 95.5%) to ...
Iversen E T - - 1999
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a single dose of a beta2-agonist, terbutaline (Bricanyl Turbuhaler), on resting lung function and exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study and outpatients from a department of pulmonary medicine at ...
Kaiwa Y - - 1999
This study was conducted to investigate the correlation of thoracoscopic lung volume reduction to changes in pulmonary function and exercise performance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Unilateral thoracoscopic lung volume reduction treatment was performed in 30 patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. If large bullae were present, they were excised using ...
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