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Results 351 - 400 of 1049
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Buerke U - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is reported after long term, severe exposure to welding fumes in poorly ventilated workplaces. METHODS: Fifteen welders with IPF were examined--13 in our outpatient clinic--from 1990 to 1997. Occupational histories and examinations, lung function analyses, symptoms and clinical findings, histological analyses in 13 patients partly ...
Morris Steve - - 2002
To succeed on land rather than in water, crabs require a suite of physiological and morphological changes, and ultimately the ability to reproduce without access open water. Some species have modified gills to assist in gas exchange but accessory gas exchange organs, usually lungs, occur in many species. In accomplished ...
Menna Tara M - - 2002
In birds, during the period from the breaking of the air cell by the beak (internal pipping) to hatching, pulmonary ventilation (VE) begins and gas exchange is jointly provided by the lungs and the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We asked to what extent, during this phase of two concurrent gas exchange ...
Nelin Leif D - - 2002
Pulmonary inflammation increases nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). This study was performed to determine some of the factors that affect the availability of the NOS substrate, L-arginine (L-arg), in the intact lung subjected to silica-induced inflammation. Nitrate production, as an index of NO production, was ...
Serrano Roberto E - - 2002
We describe a fully automatable quantification process for the assessment of unilateral pulmonary function (UPF) by means of EIT and propose a measurement protocol for its clinical implementation. Measurements were performed at the fourth and sixth intercostal levels on a first group of ten healthy subjects (5M, 5F, ages 26-48 ...
Tankson J D - - 2002
AIMS: The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the heart and lungs of young chicks harboured bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of the heart and lungs were aseptically removed from chicks on scheduled sampling days. Experiment 1 showed that of the 360 birds evaluated during the late embryonic ...
Ben-Abraham Ron - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant-like material within the alveolar spaces that causes progressive respiratory failure. Improvement can be achieved with whole lung lavage. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to conduct a study of the feasibility of treating pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a ...
Warren Simon - - 2002
A scintigraphic study was carried out to compare the lung deposition of budesonide delivered via Clickhaler and Turbuhaler dry powder inhalers in healthy volunteers. Validation of Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiolabeling of the budesonide/lactose blend used in the Clickhaler and excipient-free budesonide used in the Turbuhaler was carried out using a multistage ...
Holmen T L - - 2002
Associations between adolescent smoking habits and exercise, particularly participation in sports and lung function were studied. All students aged 13-19 yrs in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, 1995-1997, were invited to join a cross-sectional study. Information on smoking habits and exercise was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Spirometry was performed in accordance with ...
Polosa R - - 2002
The evidence to support the use of nebulized morphine to improve dyspnoea and exercise limitation in terminally ill patients with chronic lung disease is conflicting. To assess the effectiveness of nebulized morphine in reducing dyspnoea in patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease RCTs and good quality CCTs were identified by ...
Kesavachandran C - - 2001
The alteration of lung volumes in swimmers performing different strokes was the theme of the present study. The study was carried out due to lack of knowledge regarding the lung volumes of different strokers. As the energy expenditure, O2 consumption rate, body movements, viz. arm and leg movements differ with ...
Brandes H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Extracellular preservation solutions utilizing high molecular agents can reduce intracellular edema during ischemia/reperfusion in lung transplantation. A solution of 40,000 dalton molecular weight (DMW) has already been clinically established (Perfadex). However, it is unclear whether dextrans of this particular size represent the optimal additive for lung preservation solutions. MATERIALS ...
Blanch L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: During unilateral lung injury, we hypothesized that we can improve global lung function by applying selective tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) to the injured lung. DESIGN: Prospective, interventional animal study. SETTING: Animal laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Adult mixed-breed dogs. INTERVENTIONS: In six anesthetized ...
Joyce B J - - 2001
Epidemiologic studies have shown persistent effects of low birth weight on respiratory function and lung health, but underlying mechanisms are not understood. Our aim was to determine the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a major cause of low birth weight, on postnatal respiratory function. IUGR was induced by umbilico-placental ...
Dietl P - - 2001
Surfactant secretion must be regulated to maintain a low surface tension in the lung during various conditions such as exercise. In vitro studies reveal a slow, unique exocytotic process at the interface of stimulated and constitutive exocytosis. The exocytotic mechanisms and sites of regulation in vivo, however, are still poorly ...
Schoene R B - - 2001
This paper will review the function of the lung at high altitude in humans. As the first interface between the environment and the body, the lung serves a vital role in the transfer of oxygen from the air to the blood. I will describe the limits of response and adaptation ...
Ribas J - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the intraoperative evolution of patients with COPD during lung resection and to test whether exercise testing could be helpful in the prediction of the intraoperative course. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Forty patients (mean [+/- SD] age, 65 +/- 9 years) with COPD ...
Markstaller K - - 2001
We used dynamic CT to identify two different time constants of lung aeration and their individual contribution to the total increase in cross-sectional lung area in healthy and experimentally damaged lungs. In five healthy pigs, inflation and deflation between 0 and 50 cm H2O was imposed during dynamic (250 ms/image) ...
Karita K - - 2001
The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of the potential adverse health effects of air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand. During 1998 and 1999, the authors administered lung function spirometry tests and a Thai version of the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) respiratory questionnaire to 78 male traffic police ...
López y López-Leitón T J - - 2001
Eleven aliphatic hydrocarbons, unresolved over resolved ratio (U/R), carbon preference index (CPI), pristane/C17 ratio, and totals were determined in six classes of tissues (heart, liver, intestine, muscle, lung, and kidney) of 10 buzzards (Buteo buteo), 10 barn owls (Tyto alba), and five tawny owls (Strix aluco) from Galicia (NW Spain). ...
Tsoukias N M - - 2001
Exhaled endogenous nitric oxide (NO) holds promise as a potential biomarker of pulmonary inflammation. Previous experimental and theoretical work has concluded that the alveolar concentration approaches a constant steady state value at end exhalation due to both a constant maximum flux or release of NO (J(max,alv)) and a constant diffusing ...
Schock B C - - 2001
Oxidative stress may increase lung permeability by up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a type-IV collagenase that can disrupt alveolar basement membranes. We have compared a marker of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl residues) with levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from newborn babies. ...
Hadeli K O KO University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, - - 2001
To determine predictors of oxygen desaturation during submaximal exercise in patients with various lung diseases. This retrospective case series used pulmonary function laboratory results from all patients referred to a major tertiary-care center. All patients > or = 35 years old who underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity of the lung for ...
Pellegrino R - - 2001
This paper discusses some major findings published over the last decade in the field of lung mechanics and respiratory physiology that could potentially be included in the next guidelines for spirometry. Special comment is made on vital capacity, bronchomotor effect of full lung inflation, bronchodilator tests, expiratory airflow reserve and ...
Radon K - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To describe the relation between spirometric findings and farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings. Farmers have traditionally been described as having one of the most dangerous occupations, so a large scale study on European farmers was carried out. This is ...
Lee J K - - 2001
Two pheasants maintained in outdoor closed pen died within several days after having a history of depression. On necropsy, the spleens from both pheasants were enlarged about 3 times of their normal size and appeared mottled in color varying white to red. Histopathologically, there were diffuse severe follicular necrosis in ...
Burgess J L - - 2001
Overhaul is the stage in which firefighters search for and extinguish possible sources of reignition. It is common practice not to wear respiratory protection during overhaul. Fifty-one firefighters in two groups, 25 without respiratory protection and 26 wearing cartridge respirators, were monitored for exposure to products of combustion and changes ...
Jugg B - - 2001
Hexafluorocyclobutene (HFCB), a reactive organohalogen gas, causes overwhelming pulmonary oedema. We investigated its effect on the rat lung surfactant system, comparing its action on type II pneumocytes with air-exposed rats. The inflammatory cell population and protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analysed following exposure to air or HFCB (LCt30). ...
Brackenbury A M - - 2001
The efficacy of exogenous surfactant administration is influenced by numerous factors, which has resulted in variable outcomes of clinical trials evaluating this treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated several of these factors in an animal model of acid aspiration including different surfactant preparations, and different delivery ...
Weisman I M - - 2001
Whereas pulmonary function tests (PFTs) initially identify high-risk pulmonary patients being evaluated for lung resection surgery, other diagnostic modalities, including cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and/or split function studies, are then necessary for a more accurate assessment. CPET including VO2max have emerged as integral components of a step approach for the ...
Fowler S J - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the lung delivery of chlorofluorocarbon-free salbutamol via a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) alone, a pMDI with a small-volume plastic spacer, and a pMDI with a cardboard tube. DESIGN: A randomized, single (investigator)-blind, three-way, crossover study. SETTING: The Asthma and Allergy Research Group, Ninewells Hospital, University of ...
Gerbino A J - - 2001
Changes in the spatial distribution of perfusion during acute lung injury and their impact on gas exchange are poorly understood. We tested whether endotoxemia caused topographical differences in perfusion and whether these differences caused meaningful changes in regional ventilation-to-perfusion ratios and gas exchange. Regional ventilation and perfusion were measured in ...
Varela G - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if desaturation, measured by finger oximetry on standardized exercise, accurately predicts cardiopulmonary morbidity after pulmonary resection. METHODS: A prospective observational clinical study was carried out on 81 consecutive lung carcinoma patients scheduled for pulmonary resection from February 1998 to March 1999. Finger oximetry was monitored during an ...
Merz U - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of single, multiple, and continuous application of perfluorocarbon (PFC) FC-77 on gas exchange and lung pathology in a prolonged 24-hr study. DESIGN: Controlled animal trial. SETTING: Research laboratory in a university setting. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one newborn piglets (mean weight 1.94 kg). INTERVENTIONS: After intubation and instrumentation, ...
Cheng G - - 2001
Recent studies have found that severe surfactant dysfunction occurs during an asthma attack, but the changes in surfactant in a guinea-pig model of chronic asthma have not been studied. We therefore analysed the surfactant recovered from guinea-pigs after repeated inhalation of ovalbumin to see if the surfactant recovered from chronic ...
Shrager J B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Improved respiratory muscle function is a major effect of a lung volume reduction surgery. We studied length adaptation in rat diaphragmatic muscle in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which diaphragmatic function improves after this controversial operation. METHODS: We developed a model of elastase-induced emphysema and bilateral volume ...
Hughes J M - - 2001
The carbon monoxide transfer factor (TL,co) is the product of the two primary measurements during breath-holding, the CO transfer coefficient (Kco) and the alveolar volume (VA). Kco is essentially the rate constant for alveolar CO uptake (Krogh's kco), and in healthy subjects, increases when VA is reduced by submaximal inflation, ...
Wencker M - - 2000
Alpha1-protease inhibitor (Pi) deficiency is associated with a protease-anti-protease imbalance leading to premature destruction of lung tissue and early emphysema. Little is known about the blood gases of these patients in the various stages of the disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate blood gases in patients with ...
Kunst P W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a noninvasive system for obtaining information about alveolar recruitment and derecruitment in a model of acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Nine anesthetized pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Electrical impedance tomography measurements were performed. Electrical impedance tomography is an imaging technique that can register ...
Doherty M J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Cough is a common and troublesome symptom in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) but the mechanisms responsible are not known. The cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin is increased in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where lung volumes are increased, but the relationship between cough response and symptom intensity ...
Pinkerton K E - - 2000
We examined the relationship between intrapulmonary particle distribution of carbonaceous and mineral dusts and remodeling of the airways along anatomically distinct airway paths in the lungs of Hispanic males from the central valley of California. Lung autopsy specimens from the Fresno County Coroner's Office were prepared by intratracheal instillation of ...
Rogers R M - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine how the volume and severity of emphysema measured by CT morphometry (CTM) before and after lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) relates to the functional status of patients after LVRS. DESIGN: A histologically validated CT algorithm was used to quantify the volume and severity of emphysema in ...
Birkel D A - - 2000
CONTEXT: The vital capacity of the lungs is a critical component of good health. Vital capacity is an important concern for those with asthma, heart conditions, and lung ailments; those who smoke; and those who have no known lung problems. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of yoga postures and breathing ...
Minamikawa S - - 2000
Time-series data of swimming speed and dive depth were recorded in six female loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the internesting period. The dive profiles of all animals indicated that they stayed at particular depths without swimming and that these depths were correlated with dive duration. These results support the hypothesis ...
Wang J S - - 2000
We conducted a prospective study to evaluate whether lack of an adequate increase in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) during exercise is associated with a greater postoperative complication rate after lung resection. We used the three-equation method (3EQ-DL(CO)), a modification of the single breath DL(CO) technique to determine DL(CO) ...
Yap J C - - 2000
The mechanisms of orthopnea and the role of changes in respiratory mechanics in left ventricular failure (LVF) are poorly understood. We have measured total respiratory airflow resistance (Rrs) using forced oscillation in the sitting and supine positions in 10 patients with chronic LVF (NYHA II-III) shortly after recovery from acute ...
Leyenson V - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate correlations between improvement in quality of life (QOL) in patients with severe COPD before and after they undergo lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) with changes in pulmonary function tests, gas exchange, exercise performance, and alterations in medical management. DESIGN: Case-series analysis. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: Forty-two ...
Welsh D A - - 2000
Mechanical ventilation has been shown to produce lung injury characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor that causes alveolar type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. KGF pretreatment and the resultant pneumocyte hyperplasia reduce fluid flux in models of lung injury. We utilized the isolated perfused ...
Marenzi G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We investigated the lung contribution to circulating noradrenaline (NA) homeostasis. Evaluation of the transpulmonary NA gradient, related to the NA amount entering the lungs, is potentially important, mainly regarding clinical conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), that are associated with excessive circulating NA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 15 moderate ...
Jones K L - - 2000
Nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the exhaled air of some patients with inflammatory lung disorders, but not in others. NO may combine with superoxide to form peroxynitrite, which lowers NO gas concentrations, increases formation of nitrate, and increases nitration of tyrosine residues on proteins. We hypothesized that superoxide released ...
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