Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1055
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Kubke M Fabiana - - 2004
The air sacs of birds are thin-walled chambers connected to the lung that act as bellows in the ventilatory mechanism. Physiological evidence exists to suggest that they may contain receptors that are innervated by the vagus nerve, but no morphological study has examined the vagal innervation of these putative structures. ...
Zavorsky Gerald S - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between single-breath diffusion capacity of the lung for nitric oxide (DLNO) and single-breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and to determine the single-breath DLNO/DLCO ratios during rest and at several exercise intensities using a commercial lung diffusion system that uses ...
Schmidt Reinhold - - 2004
Bleomycin is a widely accepted cancer drug but may induce life-threatening interstitial lung disease in a subset of patients. We evaluated the effect of bleomycin administration on pulmonary surfactant function and composition in rabbit lungs. In order to obtain a uniform response to bleomycin, aerosol technology was employed for bronchoalveolar ...
Rylander Christian - - 2004
Increased functional residual capacity (FRC) and compliance are two desirable, but seldom measured, effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in mechanically ventilated patients. To assess how these variables reflect the morphological lung perturbations during the evolution of acute lung injury and the morphological changes from altered PEEP, we correlated measurements ...
Degano Bruno - - 2004
In severe emphysema, lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can improve lung function and exercise tolerance. The maximal changes of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) and lung volume occur early after surgery, whereas maximal improvement of exercise tolerance occurs later. We tested the hypothesis that secondary adaptation of inspiratory muscles ...
Phansalkar Anagha R - - 2004
We measured diffusing capacities for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide, lung volume, and cardiac output by a rebreathing technique at two alveolar O2 tensions (PAO2) at rest and exercise. Membrane diffusing capacity for CO (DMCO) and VC were estimated from DLCO by the Roughton-Forster (RF) method and also from ...
Chiang Ling-Ling - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The study objective was to investigate the efficacy of 6 months of nocturnal nasal positive pressure ventilation (NNPPV) on arterial blood gas, exercise capacity, respiratory muscle function, and the frequency of hospital admission in hypercapnic patients with severe obstructive lung diseases. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled study. ...
Maxfield Roger A - - 2004
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been shown to improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity, quality of life, and survival in selected patients with heterogeneous emphysema. However, LVRS is a major surgical procedure with potential morbidity and mortality. Minimally invasive techniques are emerging to achieve lung volume reduction without open thoracotomy. ...
Stark-Leyva Kristy N - - 2004
Patients with obstructive lung disease are exposed to expiratory loads (ELs) and dynamic hyperinflation as a consequence of expiratory flow limitation. To understand how these alterations in lung mechanics might affect cardiac function, we examined the influence of a 10-cm H2O EL, alone and in combination with voluntary hyperinflation (ELH), ...
Vidal Melo M F - - 2004
A method to estimate pulmonary diffusing capacity for O(2) (D(LO2)) during exercise based on routine O(2) and CO(2) transport variables is presented. It is based on the fitting of a mathematical model to gas exchange data. The model includes heterogeneity (described as two exchanging compartments), diffusion limitation and right-to-left shunt. ...
Eichler Wolfgang - - 2004
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of the Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor cariporide to protect the lung from injury after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In a randomized placebo-controlled study, 16 pigs were subjected to CPB for 75 min. Administration of vehicle or cariporide (bolus 180 mg, 40 ...
Antonini James M - - 2004
Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a particulate pollutant comprised of soluble and insoluble metals and is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. The objective was to examine the pulmonary responses to chemically distinct ROFA samples collected from either a precipitator or air heater within the same power plant. ...
Nagamatsu Yoshinori - - 2004
PURPOSE: As cardiopulmonary load increases with the amount of lung resected, to perform surgery safely it is important to be able to predict cardiopulmonary insufficiency. However, lung function testing with spirometry and blood gas analysis does not accurately measure cardiopulmonary reserve. We conducted this study to evaluate expired gas analysis ...
Hsia Connie C W - - 2004
For over a century, canines have been used to study adaptation to surgical lung resection or pneumonectomy (PNX) that results in a quantifiable and reproducible loss of lung units. As reviewed by Schilling (1965), the first successful experimental pneumonectomies were performed in dogs and rabbits in 1881. By the early ...
Kalhoff H - - 2003
Several expert committees recommend a high fluid intake in patients with chronic bronchitis and asthma. Is there a relationship between fluid intake or hydration status and broncho-pulmonary disorders like bronchitis and asthma? First, basic physiologic mechanisms like regulation of lung fluid balance and water transport at pulmonary surfaces were analyzed, ...
Ben-Dov Issahar - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Primary IGF-I deficiency (Laron syndrome, LS) may decrease exercise capacity as a result of a lack of an IGF-I effect on heart, peripheral muscle or lung structure and/or function. METHODS: Eight patients (six females) who had never received treatment with IGF-I, with mean age of 36 +/- 10 (SD) ...
Lam Chiu-Wing - - 2004
Nanomaterials are part of an industrial revolution to develop lightweight but strong materials for a variety of purposes. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important member of this class of materials. They structurally resemble rolled-up graphite sheets, usually with one end capped; individually they are about 1 nm in diameter and ...
Taveira-DaSilva Angelo M - - 2003
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a disease that occurs primarily in women, is characterized by cystic lung lesions causing respiratory failure, which may require lung transplantation. Lung diffusion (DLCO) and/or FEV1 are decreased, but frequently not in parallel with each other. Because cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides information that is not obtainable from ...
Mascolo Maria C - - 2003
Restrictive lung disease is often first detected when patients complain of dyspnea on exertion. Many forms of exercise testing are available, from simple hallway oximetry to the more formal and more complex cardiopulmonary exercise test. Although the use of exercise for diagnosis, treatment, and predicting outcomes is largely understudied in ...
Brewer Kelly K - - 2003
We investigated the relationship between the microscopic elastic and hysteretic behavior of the alveolar walls and the macroscopic mechanical properties of the whole lung in an in vivo elastase-treated rat model of emphysema. We measured the input impedance of isolated lungs at three levels of transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) and used ...
Natarajan Sujata - - 2003
The presence of high concentration of metals (Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, etc.) in the work place environments of various types of industries including electroplating units are well known to influence respiratory system. Pulmonary function tests including forced expiratory capacity (FVC), volumes, mechanics and slow vital capacity (SVC) were studied ...
Hsia Connie C W - - 2003
After pneumonectomy (Pnx), mechanical strain on the remaining lung is an important signal for adaptation. To examine how mechanical lung strain alters gas exchange adaptation after Pnx, we replaced the right lung of adult dogs with a custom-shaped inflatable silicone prosthesis. The prosthesis was kept 1) inflated (Inf) to reduce ...
Winmill Rachel E - - 2003
This study tested the hypothesis that voltage-dependent, respiratory-related activity in vitro, inferred from changes in [K(+)](o), changes during development in the amphibian brainstem. Respiratory-related neural activity was recorded from cranial nerve roots in isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations from 7 premetamorphic tadpoles and 10 adults. Changes in fictive gill/lung activity in ...
Coxson H O - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that patients respond better to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) if their emphysema is confluent and predominantly located in the upper lobes. METHODS: A density mask analysis was used to identify voxels inflated beyond 10.2 ml gas/g tissue (-910 HU) on ...
Pellegrino Riccardo - - 2003
Lung mechanics and airway responsiveness to methacholine (MCh) were studied in seven volunteers before and after a 20-min intravenous infusion of saline. Data were compared with those of a time point-matched control study. The following parameters were measured: 1-s forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, flows at 40% of control ...
Mohsenifar Zab - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) is a randomized, multicenter, clinical trial comparing two different methods of lung volume reduction surgery plus medical therapy to medical treatment alone in patients with advanced emphysema. The purpose of this article was to use the data obtained from the NETT to assess ...
Ooi G C - - 2003
PURPOSE: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5+/-13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also ...
Hanel Birgitte - - 2003
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of maximal exercise on the integrity of the alveolar epithelial membrane using the clearance rate of aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid as an index for the permeability of the lung blood-gas barrier. Ten elite rowers (24.3 +/- 4.6 yr of age) ...
Betsuyaku Tomoko - - 2003
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), also called basigin, is present in the lung during development, but its expression in normal adult lung is minimal. Increases of EMMPRIN have been found in various forms of experimental lung injury. To determine whether EMMPRIN might be involved in alveolar injury/repair associated with smoking, ...
Birks Eric K - - 2003
EIPH is a condition affecting virtually all horses during intense exercise worldwide. The hemorrhage originates from the pulmonary vasculature and is distributed predominantly bilaterally in the dorsocaudal lung lobes. As the condition progresses, the lung abnormalities extend cranially along the dorsal portions of the lung. An inflammatory response occurs in ...
Fernández-Mondéjar E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We observed dramatic changes in exhaled nitric oxide concentration (DeltaNOE) during wedge measurements, and hypothesised that occlusion and redistribution of pulmonary blood flow affects NOE. METHODS: We inflated the balloon of the pulmonary artery catheter and measured NOE and central hemodynamics in closed chest anesthetised pigs (n = 11) ...
Lee Y C G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Exercise impairment is common in subjects with asbestosis. Arterial oxygen desaturation during exercise is an important contributor to exercise limitation. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification of plain chest radiographs correlates with resting pulmonary function, but its value in predicting abnormal ventilatory responses to exercise, including desaturation, has not ...
Miyashita Misao - - 2003
The effect of postural changes on respiration was investigated in ten anesthetized cats by applying body tilting during the inspiration phase while recording respiratory patterns, as given by the diaphragmatic EMG, together with either the lung volume or the air flow temperature. The results show that the head-up tilting during ...
Beckles Michael A - - 2003
The preoperative physiologic assessment of a patient being considered for surgical resection of lung cancer must consider the immediate perioperative risks from comorbid cardiopulmonary disease, the long-term risks of pulmonary disability, and the threat to survival due to inadequately treated lung cancer. As with any planned major operation, especially in ...
Spiropoulos K - - 2003
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a useful method for quantifying the extent of emphysema. Few reports have mentioned the relationships between HRCT scans and pulmonary function tests in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For diagnosis, COPD requires chronic airflow limitation and emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis. We examined 20 who were ...
Larsson Eva Strömvall - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The haemodynamic situation for patients with Fontan circulation is characterized by a reduced, non-pulsatile pulmonary blood flow. To evaluate if this has any impact on lung function and exercise capacity, we studied the surviving 20 patients operated upon at our institution between 1980 and 1991. The median age was ...
Southern K W - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Airway surface liquid (ASL) is difficult to sample. Lavage with an immiscible perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid to recover ASL was evaluated in cats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six wild-type cats underwent bronchoscopic lavage with a PFC (perfluorohexane), with the bronchoscope wedged in the feline equivalent of the right lower lobe. Two ...
Suzuki Yasunosuke Y Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. - - 2002
To elucidate the features of the asbestos fibers contributing to the induction of human malignant mesothelioma, we used high-resolution analytical electron microscopy to determine the type, number, and dimensions of asbestos fibers in lung and mesothelial tissues in 168 cases of mesothelioma. 1. Asbestos fibers were present in almost all ...
Hinz J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of lung volume changes on end-expiratory lung impedance change (ELIC) in mechanically ventilated patients, since we hypothesized that ELIC may be a suitable parameter to monitor lung volume change at the bedside. DESIGN: Clinical trial on patients requiring mechanical ...
Hsia Connie C W - - 2002
Lung diffusing capacity (DL) for carbon monoxide (DLCO), nitric oxide (DLNO) or oxygen (DLO2) increases from rest to peak exercise without reaching an upper limit; this recruitment results from interactions among alveolar volume (VA), and cardiac output (q), as well as changing physical properties and spatial distribution of capillary erythrocytes, ...
Janssen Daphne J M T - - 2002
Because minimal information is available about surfactant metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we measured half-lives and pool sizes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in very preterm baboons recovering from respiratory distress syndrome and developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, using stable isotopes, radioactive isotopes, and direct pool size measurements. Eight ventilated premature baboons received (2)H-DPPC (dipalmitoyl ...
Zhao Weiying - - 2002
The afferent pathways mediating respiratory load perception are still largely unknown. To assess the role of lung vagal afferents in respiratory sensation, detection of inspiratory resistive loads was compared between 10 double-lung transplant (DLT) recipients with normal lung function and 12 healthy control (Nor) subjects. Despite a similar unloaded and ...
Tashiro Katsumi - - 2003
Surfactant protein (SP)-C is characterized by alpha-helix structure and palmitoyl groups attached to two cysteine residues. We examined the function of palmitoylation and dimerization in promotion of tidal volume in immature newborn rabbits. Reconstituted surfactants were made from a mixture of synthetic phospholipids and porcine SP-B (basic mixture) by adding ...
Jansons H - - 2002
In 16 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) we investigated the relation between unequal ventilation and diffusion by means of lung volumes and Krogh factors (K(CO)) using the single breath (SB) and the rebreathing (RB) methods. We used both methods because the SB measurement is sensitive to unequal ventilation ...
Dutrieue Brigitte - - 2003
We performed tidal volume single-breath washins (SBW) by using tracers of different diffusivity and varied the time spent in microgravity (microG) before the start of the tests to look for time-dependent effects. SF(6) and CH(4) phase III slopes decreased by 35 and 26%, respectively, in microG compared with 1 G ...
Delpierre Stephane - - 2002
In this retrospective study of 97 male workers exposed to asbestos for 2-50 yr, data were collected on chest x-ray findings and lung function, including lung volumes, forced expiratory flow rates (i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1.0], forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of forced vital ...
Skogstad Marit - - 2002
AIMS: To analyse longitudinal changes in pulmonary function in professional divers and their relation with cumulative diving exposure. METHODS: The study included 87 men at the start of their education as professional divers. At follow up one, three, and six years later, 83, 81, and 77 divers were reexamined. The ...
Chenuel B - - 2002
The aim of this study was to determine whether perfusion-scintillation scanning, used as a predictive pre-operative index of lung functionality in patients with lung cancer, is affected by the level of pulmonary blood flow (PBF). Twenty patients with primary lung cancer underwent spirometry and a radionuclide-perfusion scan (macroaggregated albumin particles ...
Sapoval Bernard - - 2002
The transfer of oxygen from air to blood in the lung involves three processes: ventilation through the airways, diffusion of oxygen in the air phase to the alveolar surface, and finally diffusion through tissue into the capillary blood. The latter two steps occur in the acinus, where the alveolar gas-exchange ...
Huang Yuh-Chin T - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Traditional approaches to measuring the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) treat the lung as a single, well-mixed compartment and produce a single value for DLCO to represent an average diffusing capacity of the lung (DL). Because DL distribution in the lung is inhomogeneous, and changes ...
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