Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1054
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Prisk G Kim - - 2005
Extravehicular activity (EVA) during spaceflight involves a significant decompression stress. Previous studies have shown an increase in the inhomogeneity of ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) after some underwater dives, presumably through the embolic effects of venous gas microemboli in the lung. Ground-based chamber studies simulating EVA have shown that venous gas microemboli ...
Habre Walid - - 2006
We investigated whether end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) or lung mechanical parameters are more sensitive for the detection of a compromised gas exchange during bronchoconstriction and after surfactant depletion. EELV was determined via SF(6) multiple breath wash-outs in mechanically ventilated rabbits while a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 1, 3 or ...
Gorman Robert B - - 2005
RATIONALE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have shorter inspiratory muscles and higher motor unit firing rates during quiet breathing than do age-matched healthy subjects. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease improves lung function, exercise capacity, and quality of life. OBJECTIVES: We studied the ...
Frappell Peter B - - 2005
The mechanical properties of the respiratory system are paramount in converting neural output into ventilation. The highly compliant chest wall of the newborn results in chest distortion and volume loss during inspiration and, as the chest is also unable to resist the inward recoil of the lung, there is a ...
Caruana Maryanne - - 2005
A case of a 30-year-old man who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening dyspnoea, cough, and reduced exercise tolerance is discussed. A chest x-ray and computerized tomography of the chest suggested interstitial lung disease, which was confirmed on histology of an open lung biopsy. Careful questioning revealed that ...
Javed T - - 2005
Feed amended with autoclaved culture material (CM) of Fusarium proliferatum containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) (61-546 ppm), fumonisin B2 (FB2) (14-98 ppm) and moniliformin (66-367 ppm) was given to 228 male chicks in three separate feeding trials. In a fourth feeding trial, purified FB1 (125 and 274 ppm) and moniliformin (27 ...
Richter Torsten - - 2005
The prone position is used to improve gas exchange in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the regional mechanism by which the prone position improves gas exchange in acutely injured lungs is still incompletely defined. We used positron emission tomography imaging of [(13)N]nitrogen to assess the regional distribution of ...
Liu Fang - - 2005
BACKGROUND: At present, the therapy for patients with lung cancer that achieves a high rate of cure is surgical resection at an early stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for predicting postoperative pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: ...
Linna Olavi - - 2005
AIMS: To ascertain whether the severity of childhood asthma can be reliably assessed by simple clinical features, 94 newly diagnosed, school-aged asthmatic children were investigated. METHODS: The study included parental interviews, physical examination, skin prick tests, lung function studies, including a brief visual interpretation of the flow-volume curve, and a ...
Hui D S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among survivors. METHODS: 110 survivors with confirmed SARS were evaluated at the Prince of Wales Hospital, HK at the end of 3 and 6 months after symptom onset. ...
Mazan Melissa R - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine ventilatory parameters, gas exchange, and exercise tolerance in sheep undergoing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and pulmonary function testing at baseline and after induction of emphysema using nebulized papain, to improve our understanding of the contributions of parenchymal emphysema with minimal airway disease ...
Martinez Fernando J - - 2005
Many patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience incapacitating breathlessness and exercise limitation. Multiple surgical techniques have been utilized to achieve resection of giant, localized bullae with documented short-term benefit in pulmonary function and dyspnea in highly selected patients. The poorest long-term outcome has been noted in those ...
Conrad Steven A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ventilator-associated lung hyperinflation injury can be attenuated by a reduction in respiratory frequency. DESIGN: Prospective comparative laboratory investigation. SETTING: University medical center research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Eight groups of isolated, perfused rat lungs were exposed to cyclic ventilation at different respiratory frequencies and ...
Negri E M - - 2005
RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESIS: Previous studies evaluating the histoarchitecture of distal airspaces have been shown to be limited by the difficulty in adequately differentiating alveoli and alveolar ducts. This limitation has been specially noticed in studies addressing lung recruitment and in situations of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), where generic nominations for ...
D'Angelo Edgardo - - 2005
Lung mechanics, exhaled NO (NOe), and TNF-alpha in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed in eight closed and eight open chest, normal anesthetized rabbits undergoing prolonged (3-4 h) mechanical ventilation (MV) at low volume with physiological tidal volumes (10 ml/kg). Relative to initial MV on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), ...
Dolensek J - - 2005
The equivalent electronic circuit developed to simulate pulmonary ventilation is upgraded to incorporate homeostasis, i.e. a negative feedback loop. The latter can be made either inactive or active. In the former condition, only the immediate consequence of a disturbance shows up. In the latter condition, however, full homeostatic--sometimes very complex--response ...
Newall C - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of lung involvement on respiratory function in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and the relation to impaired health status. METHODS: Thirty patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis in remission (15 with lung involvement at diagnosis as determined by an abnormal chest X-ray) were examined. We measured lung function, ...
Hedenstierna Göran - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased awareness of widespread atelectasis and deoxygenation after cardiac surgery, and in the ventilated lung during one-lung anaesthesia, has prompted many studies on recruitment of collapsed tissue and other methods to treat hypoxia in the perioperative period. It is therefore time to summarize what benefits might come ...
Wang J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The accidental release of chlorine gas is a constant threat in urban areas. The purpose of this randomized, blinded, controlled experiment was to examine the effects of post-injury administration of inhaled or intravenous corticosteroid in chlorine gas-injured pigs followed for 23 h. METHODS: Anaesthetized, ventilated pigs (n = 24) ...
Gómez-Hospital Joan A - - 2005
AIMS: We assessed early and long-term pulmonary function changes after percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (PBMV). METHODS AND RESULTS: Mitral area, lung function, and exercise capacity were evaluated before, immediately after, and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after successful PBMV in 24 patients. PBMV resulted in a significant and ...
Wagner Peter D - - 2005
Exercise training enhances every component of the O(2) transport and metabolic system--except the lungs. Consequently, the lungs can contribute to the limitation of VO(2)max. Only hypoxia early in life and substantial lung resection reproducibly stimulate growth in normal lungs across species. Possible pathways involve genes activated by hypoxia or mechanical ...
Hermon Michael M - - 2005
We investigated whether mechanical ventilation after aspiration is deleterious when started before surfactant therapy. Gas exchange and lung mechanics were measured in rabbits after aspiration either mechanically ventilated before or after lavage with diluted surfactant or Ringer's solution. Lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of 2 mL/kg of a ...
McKeough Z J - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been shown to improve lung function, leg exercise capacity and quality of life in subjects with severe COPD. This is the first study to examine the effect of LVRS on supported and unsupported arm exercise capacity. DESIGN: Eight subjects with COPD (% ...
Mokra D - - 2005
Severe impairment of lung functions in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) often needs the application of combined therapeutic approach. In our recent study, surfactant lung lavage during asymmetric high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) removed more meconium than surfactant lavage during conventional ventilation, however, after the lavage excessive CO2 elimination was observed during ...
Zavorsky Gerald S - - 2005
Study aimed to determine whether short-term graded exercise affects single-breath lung diffusion capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) similarly, and whether the DLNO/DLCO ratios during rest are altered post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. Eleven healthy subjects (age=29+/-6 years; weight=76.6+/-13.2 kg; height=177.9+/-13.2 cm; and maximal oxygen uptake or V(.-)(O(2max) ...
Hopkinson Nicholas S - - 2005
Endobronchial valve placement improves pulmonary function in some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but its effects on exercise physiology have not been investigated. In 19 patients with a mean (SD) FEV(1) of 28.4 (11.9)% predicted, studied before and 4 weeks after unilateral valve insertion, functional residual capacity decreased from ...
He Xiao-lin - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To study endothelial damage by observing changes of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in blood, coagulation and fibrinolysis index in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: CECs were separated by isopycnic centrifugation method in 14 patients with acute lung injury (ALI), 7 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ...
Sinclair Scott E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical overdistension and hyperoxia can independently cause lung injury, yet little is known about their combined effects. We hypothesized that hyperoxia exacerbates lung injury caused by large tidal volume ventilation. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: Anesthetized, paralyzed rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: In experiment 1, 12 rabbits were ventilated with ...
Lee Hyun Ju - - 2005
PURPOSE: To quantify cephalocaudal gradient of lung inflation in acute lung injury in a dog model in prone versus supine position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed in accordance with Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, as approved by National Research Council (National Institutes of Health), and ...
Hillenius Willem J - - 2004
Avian and mammalian endothermy results from elevated rates of resting, or routine, metabolism and enables these animals to maintain high and stable body temperatures in the face of variable ambient temperatures. Endothermy is also associated with enhanced stamina and elevated capacity for aerobic metabolism during periods of prolonged activity. These ...
Lang John D - - 2005
Appreciating that CO2 modifies the chemical reactivity of nitric oxide (NO)-derived inflammatory oxidants, we investigated whether hypercapnia would modulate pulmonary inflammatory responses. Rabbits (n = 72) were ventilated with approximately 7-ml/kg tidal volume for 6 hours. Animals were randomized to one of the following conditions: eucapnia (Pa(CO2) at approximately 35-40 ...
Matsuoka Hidehito - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To predict accurate morbidity after lung resection using treadmill exercise test. METHODS: A total of 130 patients (108 men and 22 women, with mean age 67.1+/-11.4 years (range, 34-78 years)) of 1129 patients underwent standard lobectomy were performed both treadmill exercise test and spirometry preoperatively. We measured maximum oxygen ...
Gatto Louis A - - 2004
With patients who have acute lung injury, respiratory function is routinely evaluated and the treatment may entail choices from various ventilatory strategies. The ventilatory strategies that have been used over the years are being replaced by newer protocols that represent improvements in patient treatment. However, the rationales for the various ...
Baum B - - 2004
A 10-year-old Knabstrupper stallion was euthanatized because of severe dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Postmortem examination revealed diffuse severe alveolar emphysema and chronic fibrosing pleuritis of the caudal lung. Parts of both caudal lung lobes were covered with multiple raised firm gray to yellow plaques. Histologically, these areas consisted of circumscribed ...
Tate Mallory K - - 2004
Invasive bronchoscopy and bronchoaveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collection represents an important tool in studies of the respiratory system of nonhuman primates. Bronchoscopy and BAL fluid collection was performed on groups of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fasicularis) macaques and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), and the resulting comparative lavage ...
Robles Aymarah M - - 2004
Many risk factors for morbidity and mortality with lung resection have been identified. Factors such as age, gender, and cancer stage cannot be altered, but lung function can be optimized by treating COPD or asthma with bronchodilators, corticosteroids, or antibiotics (when indicated) and by inspiratory muscle training. Although smoking cessation ...
Brown Nathan J - - 2004
The measurement of airway stiffness is an important tool for studying airway remodelling in asthma. The relationship between airway calibre and lung volume (airway distensibility) was measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT) and compared with that measured by single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW). In four non-asthmatic healthy subjects and three asthmatics, ...
Johns D P - - 2004
The diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) decreases to below the pre-exercise value in the hours following a bout of intense exercise. Two mechanisms have been proposed: (1) development of pulmonary oedema and (2) redistribution of central blood volume to peripheral muscles causing a reduction in pulmonary ...
Wang Jeng-Shing - - 2004
Pulmonary function testing (PFT) has been used to evaluate the risk for postoperative complications since the 1950s. PFT including spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, oximetry, and arterial blood gases has been used to assess the postoperative risk of lung resection. In selected cases, additional evaluation may include radionuclide lung scanning, ...
Seymour Roger S - - 2004
Quantitative methods have been used to correlate maximal oxygen uptake with lung development in Australian pelicans. These birds produce the largest altricial neonates and become some of the largest birds capable of flight. During post-hatching growth to adults, body mass increases by two orders of magnitude (from 88 g to ...
Meenakshi S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the position of fissures of the lungs is necessary for the appreciation of lobar anatomy and thus locating the bronchopulmonary segments. METHODS: Morphological variations of fissures and lobes of the lungs were studied in 30 pairs of lungs from cadavers. RESULTS: Five right-sided lungs showed absence of ...
Darbee Joan C - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have large amounts of infected mucus in their lungs, which causes irreversible lung tissue damage. Although patient-administered positive expiratory pressure (PEP) breathing has been promoted as an effective therapeutic modality for removing mucus and improving ventilation distribution in these patients, the effects ...
Hecht Stephen S - - 2004
Vegetable consumption, including cruciferous vegetables, is protective against lung cancer, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on the metabolism of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokers. The study was carried out in Singapore Chinese, ...
Maden Malcolm - - 2004
Recent data suggest that exogenous retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active derivative of vitamin A, can induce alveolar regeneration in a rat model of experimental emphysema. Here, we describe a mouse model of disrupted alveolar development using dexamethasone administered postnatally. We show that the effects of dexamethasone are concentration dependent, ...
Chetta Alfredo - - 2004
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are functionally characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect due to a reduced distensibility of the lung parenchyma. ILD patients also show a reduced exercise tolerance, the main factors limiting exercise capacity being ventilatory and gas exchange abnormalities. Functional abnormalities in ILDs are typical, but not specific. ...
Jakob Peter M - - 2004
Indirect qualitative MRI of pulmonary function is feasible using the paramagnetic effects of oxygen physically dissolved in blood. In this study, a more quantitative oxygen-enhanced pulmonary function test based on the slope of a plot of R(1) vs. oxygen concentration-the oxygen transfer function (OTF)-was developed and tested in a pool ...
Halloy David J - - 2004
The aims of this study were (1) to correlate cough and body temperature (BT) with the severity of bronchopneumonia in pigs, (2) to determine whether these clinical signs can be used to early diagnose bronchopneumonia and (3) to assess the predictive values of cough and BT regarding lung lesions. Bronchopneumonia ...
Smulders Sietske A - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Little is known about long-term effects of pneumonectomy on lung function and exercise tolerance. We evaluated the long-term validity of two formulas frequently used to predict postoperative lung function, as well as trends in postoperative lung function and late postoperative exercise capacity. SETTING: Nonuniversity teaching hospital of Eindhoven, ...
Hopkins Susan R - - 2004
Relative to body size, women have a lower diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, smaller airway diameter, and smaller lung volumes than men. The effect that these differences have on gas exchange during exercise is incompletely understood. Women may have a larger alveolar-arterial PO(2) difference that may be compensated for, in ...
Kubke M Fabiana - - 2004
The air sacs of birds are thin-walled chambers connected to the lung that act as bellows in the ventilatory mechanism. Physiological evidence exists to suggest that they may contain receptors that are innervated by the vagus nerve, but no morphological study has examined the vagal innervation of these putative structures. ...
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