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Tetzlaff Kay - - 2008
Competitive breath-hold divers (BHD) employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) to increase intrapulmonary oxygen stores and prevent the lungs from dangerous compressions at great depths. Glossopharyngeal insufflation is associated with inflation of the lungs beyond total lung capacity (TLC). It is currently unknown whether GI transiently over-distends the lungs or adversely affects ...
Götschi Thomas - - 2008
The association of long-term air pollution and lung function has not been studied across adult European multi-national populations before. The aim of this study was to determine the association between long-term urban background air pollution and lung function levels, as well as change in lung function among European adults. Forced ...
Iglesias Manuela - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We compared conventional treatment with pumpless extracorporeal lung membrane (Interventional Lung Assist [iLA] Novalung; Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) support in a pig model of postpneumonectomy severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Adult pigs underwent a left thoracotomy without (group I) or with a left extrapericardial pneumonectomy and radical lymphadenectomy ...
Fujita Motoki - - 2008
A case of severe Legionella pneumonia was successfully treated by independent lung ventilation (ILV) with intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV). A 57-year-old man with lobar pneumonia was intubated and mechanically ventilated because of his deteriorating respiratory status. The diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia was made on the fourth day after admission and ...
DeCamp Malcolm M MM - - 2008
Potential candidates for lung volume reduction surgery should undergo extensive evaluation and preparation to minimize perioperative risks and optimize surgical outcomes. Initial screening includes spirometry, diffusion capacity, lung volumes by body plethysmography, and high-resolution computerized tomography scanning. Patients who have been successfully screened must complete a preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program ...
Tewes Frédéric - - 2008
Lung administration of antibiotics by nebulization is promising for improving treatment efficiency for pulmonary infections, as it increases drug concentration at sites of infection while minimizing systemic side effects. For poorly soluble molecules like rifampicin, cyclodextrins (CD) may improve lung delivery by permitting higher dosing. For this purpose, we investigated ...
Farrokhi Shawn - - 2008
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study. OBJECTIVES: To examine how a change in trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise. BACKGROUND: Altering the position of the trunk during the forward lunge exercise is thought to affect the muscular actions ...
Johnsen H Laier - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In the smelting industry airborne pollutants are emitted into the workplace atmosphere during the production process. Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship between production and lung function among employees at Norwegian smelters. METHODS: Spirometry was performed on 3,924 employees, who also completed a standardized questionnaire. ...
Diaz Sandra - - 2008
PURPOSE: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He gas using diffusion weighted MRI in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema and examine the reproducibility and volume dependency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of eight healthy volunteers and 16 patients with emphysema were examined after inhalation of ...
Brown Cynthia D - - 2008
Six-minute walk testing (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) are used to evaluate impairment in emphysema. However, the extent of impairment in these tests as well as the correlation of these tests with each other and lung function in advanced emphysema is not well characterized. During screening for the National ...
Via Laura E - - 2008
Understanding the physical characteristics of the local microenvironment in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides is an important goal that may allow the targeting of metabolic processes to shorten drug regimens. Pimonidazole hydrochloride (Hypoxyprobe) is an imaging agent that is bioreductively activated only under hypoxic conditions in mammalian tissue. We employed this ...
Maritz Gert S - - 2008
Nicotine is found in tobacco smoke. It is a habit forming substance and is prescribed by health professionals to assist smokers to quit smoking. It is rapidly absorbed from the lungs of smokers. It crosses the placenta and accumulates in the developing fetus. Nicotine induces formation of oxygen radicals and ...
Panakis Niki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of ABC has been traditionally measured as the reduction in internal margin (IM) within the planning target volume (PTV). Not to overestimate the benefit of ABC, the effect of patient movement during treatment also needs to be taken into account. We determined the IM and set-up error ...
Hsia Connie C W - - 2008
We previously found that, following surgical resection of approximately 58% of lung units by right pneumonectomy (PNX) in adult canines, oxygen-diffusing capacity (Dl(O(2))) fell sufficiently to become a major factor limiting exercise capacity, although the decline was mitigated by recruitment, remodeling, and growth of the remaining lung units. To determine ...
Shrewsbury Stephen B - - 2008
A novel breath-synchronized, plume-control inhaler (Tempo inhaler) was developed to overcome limitations of a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. This report compared the Tempo inhaler and a commercial inhaler for fine particle distribution and lung deposition of fluticasone propionate. In vitro fine particle distribution was determined using the Andersen Cascade Impactor at ...
S. Niknazar
In the present study, the effects of three months exercise training in the expression of ET-1 gene in lungs tissue were investigated. Twenty male Wistar rats (235±27 g) were maintained on a 12:12 h light-dark cycleand received food and water. Animals were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). ...
McClintock Dana - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure with high mortality despite lung-protective ventilation. Prior work has shown disordered inflammation and coagulation in ALI, with strong correlations between biomarker abnormalities and worse clinical outcomes. We measured plasma markers of inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis simultaneously to ...
Scichilone Nicola - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that the beneficial effects of deep inspiration are dependent on the magnitude of airway distension by virtue of airway to parenchyma interdependence. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to examine whether the changes that occur in pulmonary fibrosis affect the beneficial effect of deep inspiration. METHODS: ...
Courtney J M - - 2008
Patients with bronchiectasis often have impaired quality of life (QoL), which deteriorates with exacerbations. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in QoL and how these were influenced by changes in airway physiology and inflammation in patients with bronchiectasis before and after resolution of an exacerbation. Sputum induction ...
Stadler Alfred - - 2008
The T(1) values of lung parenchyma of 25 patients with fibrosis and emphysema were measured in the entire lung, and the effect of inspiration and expiration was investigated. T(1) map acquisition was based on a snapshot-fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence. Lung function and blood gas tests were measured. The study ...
Lee Jongwon J Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. - - 2008
In this study, we present a quantitative approach to the analysis of the HFCC effect on heart rate changes in the respiratory stage according to different pulsation conditions with HFCC pulsation and without HFCC pulsation. We have shown that the heart rate increases with higher pressure settings revealing different patterns ...
Torres-Jimenez A A Master student of the Biomedical Engineering Program, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico City 09340, Mexico. - - 2008
RATHI was introduced as an attempt to further improve the association between anatomical zones and specific breathing activity, both spatially and temporally. This work compares RATHI with clinical pulmonary auscultation (PA) to assess the concordance between both procedures to detect asymmetries in lung sound (LS) intensities. Twelve healthy young males ...
Moosavi Seyyed-Ali J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary volumes during and after Islamic fasting. METHODS: It is a cohort study conducted on 117 healthy subjects selected on a random basis from employees, professors and students of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 1999 and January 2000. All of ...
DoboszyƄska A - - 2007
A case of a 73-year obese female with arterial hypertension, periodical metrorrhagia, polydipsia, and polyuria is presented. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of increasing dyspnea, cough, subfebrile body temperature, and decreasing exercise tolerance. Physical examination and laboratory tests were suggestive for massive lung embolism. Low molecular heparin ...
Azezli A D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Numerous clinical manifestations have been described in association with Cushing's syndrome. There are no eligible data on pulmonary function tests in Cushing's disease (CD). We aimed to asses pulmonary function tests including spirometry in a series of patients with active CD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 10 ...
Vandevoorde J - - 2008
The present study aims to derive guidelines that identify patients for whom spirometry can reliably predict a reduced total lung capacity (TLC). A total of 12,693 lung function tests were analysed on Caucasian subjects, aged 18-70 yrs. Restriction was defined as a reduced TLC. Lower limits of normal (LLN) for ...
von Bismarck Philipp - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In acute respiratory distress syndrome of term newborn infants, surfactant replacement may be effective because endogenous surfactant is decreased and structurally changed. Inflammation is central to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and hence, attenuation of proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-[kappa]B activation in the lung might prevent secondary loss of ...
de Jesús Valle María José - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the distribution of linezolid in lung when it accesses this organ from the systemic circulation and when administered through the pulmonary route and to evaluate the influence of the 'respiratory mode' in the pulmonary distribution for both routes. METHODS: The study was conducted with 24 Wistar rats ...
Guenette Jordan A - - 2007
Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used to assess pulmonary edema following exercise but results remain equivocal. Most studies examining this phenomenon have used male subjects while the female response has received little attention. Some suggest that women, by virtue of their smaller lungs, airways, and diffusion surface areas may be ...
Lemmer Julia - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Diaphragmatic palsy (DP) is a rare but severe complication after surgery for congenital heart disease. Transthoracic diaphragmatic plication is an effective means of treatment for those with respiratory impairment due to DP, but little is known about the mid-term effects of diaphragmatic plication. DESIGN: We performed a study in ...
Toker A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the role of a modified stair climbing test in predicting postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. METHODS: A consecutive series of 150 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection for lung carcinoma formed the prospective database of this study. All patients performed a preoperative modified ...
Win Thida - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Prospectively to evaluate the effects of lung resection on lung function (as measured via spirometry) and exercise capacity (as measured via shuttle-walk test) in lung cancer patients. METHODS: We conducted pulmonary function tests and the shuttle-walk test with 110 consecutive patients, before and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 ...
Aronson Daniel C - - 2007
The Nuss procedure was introduced at our center in 1999. The operation was mainly performed for cosmesis. Little information is available regarding the influence of this operation on lung function. The aim of this study, a prospective analysis, was to analyze the effect of the Nuss procedure on lung function ...
Faggian Jessica - - 2007
We have examined whether changes in versican levels, or in the sulfation pattern of its chondroitin sulfate (CS) side chains, are associated with the reduction in perialveolar tissue volumes that characterize lung maturation in late-gestation fetal sheep. Lung tissue was collected from fetuses [90-142 days gestational age (GA)] and lambs ...
Copnell Beverley - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of open and closed endotracheal suction in recovering thin and thick secretions in normal and injured lungs during conventional and high frequency ventilation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised study in a paediatric intensive care model in the animal research laboratory of a tertiary paediatric hospital. SUBJECTS: ...
Stickland Michael K - - 2007
RATIONALE: We have previously shown, using contrast echocardiography, that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are inducible in healthy humans during exercise; however, this technique does not allow for determination of arteriovenous vessel size or shunt magnitude. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether large-diameter (more than 25 microm) intrapulmonary ...
Matheson Melanie C - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this analysis was to determine if abnormal diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco) identified a group of subjects with significantly different characteristics than those with normal lung function or airflow obstruction alone. METHODS: Participants were a random sample of adults aged 45-70 years. ...
Guenette Jordan A - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanics of breathing including the measurement of expiratory flow limitation, end-expiratory lung volume, end-inspiratory lung volume, and the work of breathing in endurance-trained men (n=8) and women (n=10) during cycle exercise. Expiratory flow limitation was assessed by applying a negative expiratory ...
Choong Cliff K CK Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, 6 Silverstein, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, - - 2007
The hypothesis that ventilation of emphysematous lungs would be enhanced by communication with the parenchyma through holes in the pleural surface was tested. Fresh human lungs were obtained from patients with emphysema undergoing lung transplantation. Control human lungs were obtained from organ donors whose lungs, for technical reasons, were not ...
Benzo Roberto - - 2007
While exercise capacity, expressed as maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), has been proposed to be the best predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications after surgical resection in lung cancer patients, the literature remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to determine if VO2max, expressed as either ...
Lanini B - - 2007
AIM: The study of kinematics of the chest wall (CW) could allow us to define the relative deflationary contribution of its compartments during fits of coughing. We hypothesized that if forces applied to the lung apposed rib cage are not commensurate with those applied to the abdomen-apposed rib cage, cough ...
Mao Jingfang - - 2007
PURPOSE: To assess the utility of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as a predictor of symptomatic radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). METHODS: As part of a prospective trial to study radiation-induced lung injury, 53 patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy (RT) underwent a pre-RT 6MWT, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and had >or=3-month follow-up for ...
Camiciottoli Gianna - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To ascertain if analysis of lung density histograms in thin-section CT was more reproducible than visual assessment of lung changes in systemic sclerosis (SSc), and if such density histogram parameters as mean lung attenuation (MLA), skewness, and kurtosis could more closely reflect pulmonary function as well as exercise and ...
Semmler-Behnke Manuela - - 2007
There is ongoing discussion that inhaled nanoparticles (NPs, < 100 nm) may translocate from epithelial deposition sites of the lungs to systemic circulation. We studied the disappearance of NPs from the epithelium by sequential lung retention and clearance and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) measurements in healthy adult Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats ...
McCabe Robert A - - 2007
The lower trapezius is an important muscle for normal arthrokinematics of the scapula. In the early stages of rehabilitation, it is generally accepted to perform exercises with the shoulder kept below 90° of elevation in order to minimize risk for shoulder impingement. Few exercises for the lower trapezius have been ...
MacNutt M J - - 2007
We tested the hypothesis that intense short duration hypoxic exercise would result in an increase in extravascular lung water (EVLW), as evidenced by an increase in lung density. Using computed tomography (CT), baseline lung density was obtained in eight highly trained male cyclists (mean +/- SD: age = 28 +/- ...
Anstey Nicholas M - - 2007
The mechanisms underlying lung injury in vivax malaria are not well understood. Inflammatory responses to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, to our knowledge, have not previously been compared at an organ level. Respiratory symptoms and physiological aspects were measured longitudinally in Indonesian adults with uncomplicated vivax (n=50) and falciparum (n=50) ...
Nold Joan L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Treatment with surfactant (S) decreases lung injury in paralyzed, mechanically ventilated animals. The use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as an alternative to mechanical ventilation may further improve acute pulmonary outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of surfactant (+S, -S) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) on ...
Stoller James K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The role of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is unclear. METHODS: To assess the role of LVRS in individuals with severe deficiency of AAT, outcomes within the National Emphysema Treatment Trial were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 1218 randomized subjects, 16 (1.3%) had severe ...
Strange Charlie - - 2007
Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT) posits that ...
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