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Feng Qiushi - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of physical activity trends in older adults is limited in developing nations. This study examined 10-year leisure-time physical activity trends of elderly residents of Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the nation's highest proportion of senior citizens. METHODS: The study used panel data from the Shanghai Longitudinal Survey ...
Jessen Niels - - 2011
Exercise and weight loss are cornerstones in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes, and both interventions function to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Studies in rodents demonstrate that the underlying mechanism for glucose uptake in muscle involves site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 ...
De Mey K - - 2011
Background Recent guidelines emphasise the importance of functional kinetic chain exercises during injury prevention training. Knowledge of muscle activation levels during various unilateral rowing exercises is lacking. Objective To describe and compare the activation levels of scapulothoracic and lumbopelvic muscle parts during eight variations of the high rowing exercise. Design ...
Skarpanska-Stejnborn Anna - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant superoxide dismutase extract (GliSODin) supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. The double-blinded study included 19 members of the Polish rowing team who were participating in a preparatory camp. ...
Noakes Timothy D - - 2011
Recent publications by Emeritus Professor Roy Shephard propose that a "small group of investigators who have argued repeatedly (over the past 13 years) for a 'Central Governor'," should now either "Put up or shut up." Failing this, their 'hypothesis' should be 'consigned to the bottom draw for future reference'; but ...
Titterness Andrea K - - 2011
The hippocampus is a dynamic brain structure involved with learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a neuronal model of learning and memory and, in adult rodents, is enhanced by voluntary exercise (VEx). The current study sought to elucidate whether synaptic plasticity in the male and female adolescent hippocampus is ...
Speck Ana Elisa - - 2011
Physical exercise and smoking are environmental factors that generally cause opposite health-promoting adaptations. Both physical exercise and smoking converge on mitochondrial adaptations in various tissues, including the pro-oxidant nervous system. Here, we analyzed the impact of cigarette smoking on exercise-induced brain mitochondrial adaptations in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex of ...
Funk Jason A - - 2011
In the periphery, exercise induces interleukin (IL)-6 to downregulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF), elevate interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), decreasing inflammation. Exercise also offers neuroprotection and facilitates brain repair. IL-6 production in the hippocampus following exercise suggests the potential of a similar protective role as in the periphery to down-regulate TNFα ...
Jacqueline Van Hoomissen - - 2011
Despite the evidence that exercise improves cognitive behavior in animal models, little is known about these beneficial effects in animal models of pathology. We examined the effects of activity wheel (AW) running on contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and locomotor/exploratory behavior in the olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model of depression, which is ...
Lau Yuen-Sum YS Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA. - - 2011
The protective impact of exercise on neurodegenerative processes has not been confirmed, and the mechanisms underlying the benefit of exercise have not been determined in human Parkinson's disease or in chronic animal disease models. This research examined the long-term neurological, behavioral, and mechanistic consequences of endurance exercise in experimental chronic ...
Maaike Goekint - - 2011
PURPOSE: Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to increase with exercise. This increase is believed to originate from the brain and it is suggested that monoamines are involved in BDNF regulation. Heat exposure could influence the supposed BDNF output from the brain. Therefore, we hypothesized that administration of a ...
Ene Heather - - 2011
: Exercise intervention studies for people with Parkinson disease (PD) have been shown to result in improvement in a variety of outcome measures. However, after the supervised exercise period, these measures tend to return toward baseline values. This regression may reflect the progressive nature of PD but may also reflect ...
Painter Patricia - - 2011
Patients served by ESRD Network 11 were surveyed on participation in regular physical activity (physical activity). National recommendations (3 days/week, 30 minutes/session, and intensity of "moderate level") were used to categorize respondents into three physical activity categories: no physical activity, some physical activity, and recommended levels of physical activity. Analysis ...
Graff-Radford Neill R - - 2011
ABSTRACT: There are more than 36 million people in the US over the age of 65, and all of them are impacted by the cognitive decline and brain atrophy associated with normal aging and dementia-causing conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular dementia. Recently, moderate exercise and improved ...
Sartori Cesar Renato - - 2011
Clinical studies show an evident antidepressive effect of physical exercise and animal research corroborate such evidence. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the antidepressive effect of exercise are not completely understood. Notwithstanding, it is known that exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus similarly to antidepressant drugs. BDNF ...
Brümmer Vera - - 2011
INTRODUCTION:: Previous research suggests that different exercise modes and intensities lead to variations in brain cortical activity. However, due to variability and limitations in previous study designs, the mechanisms behind this link remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on brain cortical activity that are ...
O'Leary Kevin C - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The effects of single bouts of aerobic exercise, exergaming, and action videogame play on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and task performance indices of cognitive control were investigated using a modified flanker task that manipulated demands of attentional inhibition. METHODS: Participants completed four counterbalanced sessions of 20min of activity intervention ...
Mestre-Alfaro Antonia - - 2011
Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage ...
Leem Yea-Hyun - - 2011
The objective of the present study was to investigate whether chronic endurance exercise attenuates the neuroinflammation in the brain of mice with NSE/htau23. In this study, the tau-transgenic (Tg) mouse, Tg-NSE/htau23, which overexpresses human Tau23 in its brain, was subjected to chronic exercise for 3 months, from 16 months of ...
Brümmer Vera - - 2011
While the effects of exercise on brain cortical activity from pre- to post-exercise have been thoroughly evaluated, few studies have investigated the change in activity during exercise. As such, it is not clear to what extent changes in exercise intensity influence brain cortical activity. Furthermore, due to the difficulty in ...
Dietrich Arne - - 2011
We present here a comprehensive, neurocognitive model to account for the psychological consequences of acute exercise. There is a substantial amount of disparate research and the proposed mechanistic explanation meaningfully integrates this body of brain and behavioral data into a single, unified model. The model's central feature is a cascading, ...
García Yoelvis - - 2011
Physical exercise is considered to exert a positive neurophysiological effect that helps to maintain normal brain activity in the elderly. Expectations that it could help to fight Alzheimer's disease (AD) were recently raised. This study analyzed the effects of different patterns of physical exercise on the 3xTg-AD mouse. Male and ...
Erickson Kirk I KI Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, - - 2011
The hippocampus shrinks in late adulthood, leading to impaired memory and increased risk for dementia. Hippocampal and medial temporal lobe volumes are larger in higher-fit adults, and physical activity training increases hippocampal perfusion, but the extent to which aerobic exercise training can modify hippocampal volume in late adulthood remains unknown. ...
Ikemoto Takaaki - - 2011
Skeletal-type neuroendocrine-specific protein like 1 (sk-NSPL1) has been demonstrated to be physiologically important in regulating the membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles. We investigated the levels of phosphorylation in proteins that are thought to be involved in exercise in wild-type and sk-NSPL1-deficient muscles with specific antibodies ...
Zhang F - - 2011
It is well established that physical exercise can exert neuroprotection both in clinical settings and animal experiments. A series of studies have demonstrated that physical exercise may be a promising preconditioning method to induce brain ischemic tolerance through the promotion of angiogenesis, mediation of the inflammatory response, inhibition of glutamate ...
Stranahan Alexis M AM Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. - - 2011
The efficiency of somatic energy metabolism is correlated with cognitive change over the lifespan. This relationship is bidirectional, with improved overall fitness associated with enhanced synaptic function and neuroprotection, and synaptic endangerment occurring in the context of impaired energy metabolism. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in the fields ...
Heneweer Hans - - 2011
The objective of the study is to systematically evaluate the available evidence on the association between physical activity (i.e. occupational load and non-occupational physical activities) and low back pain (LBP). A systematic approach was used to explore the literature between 1999 and 2009. Studies were selected for inclusion following a ...
Habedank Dirk - - 2011
Habedank D, Ewert R, Hummel M, Dandel M, Habedank F, Knosalla C, Lehmkuhl HB, Anker SD, Hetzer R. The effects of bilateral lung transplantation on ventilatory efficiency, oxygen uptake and the right heart: a two-yr follow-up. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E38-E45. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:  Background:  ...
Gallagher Kristel M - - 2011
A unique aspect of exercise is that people may choose to engage in it to achieve a variety of outcomes, ranging from extrinsic (appearance, health) to intrinsic (satisfaction, enjoyment). We examined how the impact of gain- vs. loss-framed messages depends on the type of outcome emphasised. Drawing from regulatory focus ...
Comfort Paul - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to compare rectus abdominis and erector spinae muscle activity during isometric (prone bridge [PB] and superman [SM]) and dynamic strengthening exercises (back squat, front squat [FS], and military press). Participants (n = 10, age 21.8 ± 2.6 years; body mass 82.65 ± 10.80 kg, ...
Morris Linzette D - - 2011
Albeit exercise is currently advocated as one of the most effective management strategies for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS); the implementation of exercise as a FMS treatment in reality is significantly hampered by patients' poor compliance. The inference that pain catastrophizing is a key predictor of poor compliance in FMS patients, justifies ...
Ke Zheng - - 2011
Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES) have ...
Schlenk Elizabeth A EA University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, PA, USA. - - 2011
Osteoarthritis of the knee, a prevalent condition in older adults, can impact physical function and ability to perform physical activity. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of a 6-month self-efficacy-based, individually delivered, lower-extremity exercise and fitness walking intervention with 6-month follow-up on physical activity and function. The 26 subjects ...
Davis Catherine L CL Georgia Prevention Institute, Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. - - 2011
This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% girls, 61% Black, M ± SD age = 9.3 ± 1.0 years, body mass index [BMI] = 26 ± 4.6 kg/m², BMI z-score = 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized ...
Pietrosimone Brian G - - 2011
Blinded, randomized controlled trial. To determine if the combination of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) set to a sensory level and therapeutic exercise would be more effective than the combination of placebo TENS and therapeutic exercises or therapeutic exercises only to increase quadriceps activation in individuals with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Quadriceps ...
Gomez-Pinilla F F Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. - - 2011
We have evaluated the possibility that the action of voluntary exercise on the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecule important for rat hippocampal learning, could involve mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. We focused the studies on the Bdnf promoter IV, as this region is highly responsive to neuronal activity. ...
Liu Hui-Li - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by learning and memory function deterioration. While it is well established that exercise can improve cognitive performance in AD, there have been few basic cellular and molecular mechanisms research performed to test the interaction between exercise and AD. In this ...
Mayhan William G WG Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-5850, USA. - - 2011
Our goal was to examine whether exercise training (ExT) could normalize impaired nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent dilation of cerebral (pial) arterioles during type 1 diabetes (T1D). We measured the in vivo diameter of pial arterioles in sedentary and exercised nondiabetic and diabetic rats in response to an endothelial NOS (eNOS)-dependent ...
Petchey William G - - 2011
Vitamin D is an established important contributor to muscle function and aerobic metabolism. Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in CKD patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality via unknown mechanisms. Because aerobic-exercise capacity strongly predicts future CV events, we hypothesized that vitamin D status could be linked to ...
Basnayake Shanika D - - 2011
Groups III and IV afferents carry sensory information regarding the muscle exercise pressor reflex, although the central integrating circuits of the reflex in humans are still poorly defined. Emerging evidence reports that the periaqueductal gray (PAG) could be a major site for integrating the "central command" component that initiates the ...
Hajisoltani Razieh - - 2010
Although it is well established that voluntary exercise can improve cognitive functions, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Glucocorticoids play an important role in learning and memory functions. This study addressed whether the glucocorticoid system would play a role in the exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory. Intact rats or ...
Hilty Lea - - 2010
In this study, we investigated central/supraspinal processes mediating cessation of a muscle fatiguing exercise. Fifteen male subjects performed 39 intermittent, isometric handgrip contractions (13 s on, 5-6 s off) with the dominant right hand while brain activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An adaptive, partly ...
Rasmussen P - - 2011
Aim:  Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) increases during exercise by release from active muscles and during prolonged exercise also from the brain. The IL-6 release from muscles continues into recovery and we tested whether the brain also releases IL-6 in recovery from prolonged exercise in humans. Additionally, it was evaluated in mice ...
Arlotta Melissa - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to determine the effectiveness of five isometric exercises at maximally activating the lower trapezius muscle in healthy subjects. METHODS: Surface electromyography data were recorded from the upper, middle, and lower fibers of the trapezius muscle bilaterally while 18 healthy subjects performed five different exercises: Latissimus Pull-down, Prone ...
Gomes da Silva Sérgio - - 2012
There is a great deal of evidence showing the capacity of physical exercise to enhance cognitive function, reduce anxiety and depression, and protect the brain against neurodegenerative disorders. Although the effects of exercise are well documented in the mature brain, the influence of exercise in the developing brain has been ...
Fujita Hideaki - - 2010
We found that the active tension of C2C12 myotubes that had been subjected to artificial exercise for ~10 days decreased rapidly after termination of the artificial exercise. When differentiated C2C12 myotubes were subjected to continuous 1 Hz artificial exercise for ~10 days, the active tension increased to ~4× compared to that before application ...
Critchley Duncan J - - 2010
Pilates training is said to increase Transversus abdominis (TrA) and Obliquus internus (OI) activation during exercise and functional activities. 34 Pain-free health club members with no Pilates experience, mean (SD) age 30(7) years, were randomised to Pilates mat exercises or strength training. Participants exercised unsupervised twice-weekly for eight weeks. TrA ...
Font-Ribera Laia - - 2010
Swimming in chlorinated pools involves exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and has been associated with impaired respiratory health. We evaluated short-term changes in several respiratory biomarkers to explore mechanisms of potential lung damage related to swimming pool exposure. We measured lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation [fractional exhaled nitric ...
Burtscher M - - 2011
Aerobic exercise performance may be limited by the respiratory system in fit elderly adults whose lungs undergo the normal ageing process or who develop lung diseases but can maintain high pulmonary blood flows and ventilatory requirements. Here we describe a 59-year-old athlete demonstrating high aerobic exercise performance limited by his ...
Wheatley Courtney M - - 2011
Lung diffusing capacity (DLCO) is influenced by alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (D (M)) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (V (C)), both of which can be impaired in sedentary type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) subjects due to hyperglycemia. We sought to determine if T1DM, and glycemic control, affected DLNO, DLCO, D (M), ...
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