Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1055
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Ali J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine optimum posture for pulmonary function in traumatic quadriplegia. DESIGN: Lung function with changes in posture of normal healthy volunteers was compared with that of traumatic quadriplegic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional residual capacity (FRC), Forced vital capacity (FVC), and arterial blood gases in room air were compared ...
Chang S C - - 1995
The effects of ascites and body position on gas exchange were evaluated in 22 male cirrhotics. All underwent spirometry and plethysmography in the sitting (erect) position. Single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco) was measured in the erect and supine positions in a random sequence. A significantly negative correlation was ...
Schmekel B - - 1995
Determination of absolute concentrations of various soluble components of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) may be valuable to estimate inflammatory activities within the underlying lung tissue. Internal standards may then be used as markers of dilution of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The aim of this study was to determine whether different ...
Lakhera S C - - 1995
Lung functions were studied in contemporary healthy boy athletes of Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi origin. As lung function are related to ethnic and environmental factors, the aim of the study was to compare the lung function in boys belonging to these four groups. Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity ...
Svartengren K - - 1995
Mouth and throat, and regional lung deposition was estimated in fifteen asthmatic subjects for 3.6-microns (aerodynamic diameter) radiolabeled polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) particles inhaled at 0.5 L/s with and without added external resistance. Radioactivity was measured by a profile scanner. Behavior of the pharynx and larynx was assessed by fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Mean ...
Salerno F G - - 1995
Parenchymal tissue strips have been used to investigate the mechanical behavior of the lung parenchyma. We questioned whether the relative amounts of alveolar, blood vessel, and bronchial walls would be important when the contractile response of parenchymal strips from Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. One group of strips was cut from ...
Wagner F M - - 1995
We developed a dextran-glucose-based extracellular perfusion solution (DGX) that supports limited aerobic metabolism to maintain cellular integrity of an inflated donor lung during long-term ischemia and a storage temperature of 10 degrees C. In a dog model, we compared respiratory and hemodynamic function of orthotopically transplanted left lungs preserved using ...
Singh P - - 1995
The differences in phonation between men and women are thought to occur from anatomical differences in the larynx. However, it is not known if there are any differences in cough dynamics between the sexes. We investigated this by asking 100 healthy, non-smoking adults (50 male) to perform a voluntary cough ...
Bellmann B - - 1995
The biodurability is one of the essential factors for a carcinogenic potential of mineral fibres. The in vivo solubility of commercial fibre products can be influenced by modifications of the chemical composition. Two types of experimental stone wool samples with new chemical composition were compared to a commercial stone wool ...
McClaran S R - - 1995
We retested 18 healthy, active, and highly fit [maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) 201 +/- 12% of predicted] older adults over a 6-yr period (mean age 67-->73 yr) to determine the longitudinal effects of aging on lung function at rest and during exercise. In the 6-yr period, total lung capacity (TLC), ...
Tasaka S - - 1995
Hyperoxic lung injury is attributable to oxygen radicals produced under hyperoxic conditions. The 21-aminosteroid (AS), U-74389G, is a potent antioxidant. We examined the effect of U-74389G on lung injury in guinea pigs during exposure to 90% O2 for 48 h. We injected either vehicle or 10 mg/kg of U-74389G 30 ...
Jenney M E - - 1995
The survival from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood is now approximately 60-70%, and from acute myeloid leukaemia, up to 50%. However, there is little information on the effects of intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in the treatment of these conditions on lung function and exercise capacity in the long term. ...
Johns D P - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVE: A disposable barrier filter (Pall Biomedical, United Kingdom) was developed to prevent the contamination of lung function equipment in clinical use. The aims of this study were to examine its resistance characteristics and to determine the effect of the filter on clinical measurements of lung function. MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-one ...
Sekhon H - - 1995
We used scanning electron microscopic morphometry of microvascular corrosion casts to compare the capillary structure in the centre and periphery of the lung lobule in the guinea-pig. Capillaries in the centre of the lobule had a lesser diameter than in the periphery (8.6 +/- 1.6 vs 10.4 +/- 1.9 microns ...
Taskar V - - 1995
The possible occurrence of lung damage if alveolar units are allowed to collapse and reopen breath by breath during mechanical ventilation with normal tidal volumes was investigated. Anaesthetised, paralysed, open chest rabbits were subjected to either intrathoracic negative (NEEP; n = 6) or positive (PEEP; n = 6) end-expiratory pressure ...
Rosenthal F S - - 1995
The deposition and dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses were investigated as markers of lung injury in three dogs before and after emphysema was induced by papain exposure. After the experiments, lung damage was assessed histologically. Four unexposed dogs were used as controls. Effective air space diameter (EAD) was determined from ...
Lehnert B E - - 1995
Exercise performed after exposure to various pneumoedematogenic gases can increase the severity of pulmonary edema beyond that which occurs when exposure is followed by rest. The present study was performed to investigate the potential relationship between a preexisting breach in the lung's permeability status following exposure to an edematogenic gas ...
Evans S A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of dyspnoea in patients with chronic heart failure is poorly understood. Static lung compliance is reduced in chronic heart failure. The relation between static lung compliance and exercise capacity and dyspnoea in chronic heart failure has been investigated. METHODS: Static lung compliance was calculated from expiratory pressure-volume ...
Yeh S H - - 1995
The clearance rate of an inhaled aerosol of a lipophilic complex, 99Tcm-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcm-HMPAO), was compared with that of a hydrophilic complex, 99Tcm-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99Tcm-DTPA), in nine normal subjects and in eight patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Data were acquired as follows. The subjects were placed supine with their ...
Johnson A T - - 1995
The lung volumes from which inhalation and exhalation proceed change during exercise. There have been previous attempts to predict these lung volumes but none have been completely successful. Prediction of initial lung volume is important in the accurate calculation of respiratory power during exercise, especially when the subject is encumbered ...
Unruh H W - - 1995
Lung preservation and its attendant ischemia-reperfusion injury is a complex phenomenon that begins with lung injury that may be present in the donor before any preservation intervention. Acute preservation interventions in common use include single-flush perfusion and donor core-cooling on cardiopulmonary bypass. From this moment forward the ischemia injury begins, ...
Edwards R D - - 1995
We report a case of a benign bronchial stenosis that presented clinically with recurrent respiratory infections and increasing dyspnoea. This was associated with transradiancy and oligaemia of the ipsilateral lung. Treatment with balloon bronchoplasty and self-expanding metal stents prevented recurrent pneumonia and led to a sustained improvement in exercise tolerance.
Orens J B - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To assess the exercise response to single lung transplantation in chronic airflow obstruction (CAO), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) vs double lung transplantation at well-defined time points after transplantation, and to define the change in exercise response in SLT and DLT over the first year ...
Demedts M - - 1995
Few data are available on the relative sensitivity of different lung function tests in upper airway obstruction (UAO) and on the correlation of these tests with radiological estimations of tracheal stenosis. This paper is based on patients with a goiter or tracheal tumor and in healthy subjects breathing through rigid ...
Cooper J D - - 1995
We undertook surgical bilateral lung volume reduction in 20 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to relieve thoracic distention and improve respiratory mechanics. The operation, done through median sternotomy, involves excision of 20% to 30% of the volume of each lung. The most affected portions are excised with the ...
Ueda T - - 1995
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a major surfactant protein with multiple biophysical, metabolic, and host defense functions. To further characterize its metabolism in vivo, we measured clearance of SP-A from adult rabbit lungs. Trace amounts of [125I]SP-A radiolabeled by the Bolton-Hunter method and mixed with [3H]dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were given intratracheally ...
Pierce R A - - 1995
Elastic fibres are present in lung structures including alveoli, alveolar ducts, airways, vasculature and pleura. The rate of lung elastin synthesis is greatest during fetal and neonatal development, and is minimal in the healthy adult. We have determined that glucocorticoids up-regulate fetal lung tropoelastin expression while concomitantly accelerating terminal airspace ...
Salerno F G - - 1995
Challenges with high concentrations of constrictor agonist delivered by intravenous vs. aerosol result in different modifications of the mechanical properties of lung tissues. We questioned whether low doses of a smooth muscle agonist administered via different routes (aerosol, i.v. bolus, i.v. continuous infusion) or an increase in positive end-expiratory pressure ...
Malmros C - - 1994
Activation and accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, neutrophils) in the lungs is considered an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of pulmonary dysfunction in association with sepsis. It probably constitutes only part of a general cellular response; and a corresponding reaction has been implicated in other organs during sepsis (e.g., the ...
Bellmann B - - 1994
The in vivo durability of wollastonite materials, coated and uncoated, and of xonotlite was tested. Wollastonite is an anhydrous natural silicate and xonotlite is a hydrated synthetic calcium silicate. UICC crocidolite was used as a positive control with high durability. Using a dry-sizing technique, fractions from the stock materials were ...
Pryor J A - - 1994
The Flutter VRP1 (Flutter) is claimed to increase the clearance of excess bronchial secretions and to improve lung function and oxygenation, but these claims were based on computer models, laboratory assisted experiments and uncontrolled clinical trials. A prospective randomized clinical trial was undertaken, in subjects with cystic fibrosis, using the ...
Wollmer P - - 1994
We measured the pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA) for 3 h in 17 non-smokers and in 16 healthy smokers. We found the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA to be well described by a mono-exponential equation in 14 non-smokers, the half-life being 66 +/- 17 min (mean +/- SD). In ...
Levine S M - - 1994
Controversy has surrounded the use of single-lung transplantation (SLT) for the treatment of endstage obstructive lung disease. In recent years, several transplant centers have performed SLT for such indications. In this report, we describe functional results in patients undergoing SLT for obstructive lung disease, twenty-two followed over one year and ...
Hsia C C - - 1994
Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) and its components, membrane diffusing capacity (Dmco) and capillary blood volume (Vc), as well as pulmonary blood flow (Qc), were measured at rest at several lung volumes and during treadmill exercise by a rebreathing technique in four adult dogs after right pneumonectomy (R-PNX) ...
Marciniuk D D - - 1994
Lung volumes were measured at rest and during exercise by an open-circuit N2-washout technique in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Exercise tidal flow-volume (F-V) curves were also compared with maximal F-V curves to investigate whether these patients demonstrated flow limitation. Seven patients underwent 4 min of constant work rate ...
Schreur H J - - 1994
Even in patients with clinically stable asthma with normal lung function, the airways are characterized by inflammatory changes, including mucosal swelling. In order to investigate whether lung sounds can distinguish these subjects from normal subjects, we compared lung sound characteristics between eight normal and nine symptom-free subjects with mild asthma. ...
Donnelly P M - - 1994
In order to obtain further insight into the adaptive mechanisms relating to gas exchange in anatomically small lungs, tests of mechanical lung function and gas exchange were made in an active young man, whose lung growth had been severely impaired due to pectus excavatum developed in childhood. We found our ...
Lalonde C - - 1994
The inhalation of smoke can produce severe lung injury, particularly to airways. We assessed the role of the toxic compounds in the particle phase vs. those in the gas phase of smoke in the injury process by filtering out all particles > 0.3 micron diam before exposure. Adult sheep (n ...
Gilbreth E M - - 1994
Patients with diagnosed or suspected lung cancer first require appropriate staging and proven anatomic resectability. Excellent pre-operative spirometric data (FEV1 > 2.0 L, > 60% predicted) should recommend the patient for surgery immediately without further testing. Those whose preoperative FEV1 is less than 60% predicted or whose DLCO is less ...
Howard D K - - 1994
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in recipients of lung and heart-lung transplants demonstrates significant restoration of exercise tolerance to individuals severely disabled by their underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Recipients can perform moderate levels of activity compatible with a normal lifestyle. Considerable exercise limitation, however, remains in most recipients as measured by maximum oxygen ...
Schützer K M - - 1994
Products of the arachidonic acid cascade have been found to play an important role in the pathophysiology in experimental shock and in ARDS. The effect of cysteinyl-leukotriene (cLT) blockade on the development of respiratory failure during septic shock was examined. Ventilated cats received an infusion of Escherichia coli bacteria. Pretreatment ...
Barnas G M - - 1994
To test an approach for measuring respiratory system resistance (R) and elastance (E) during non-sinusoidal forcing, we measured airway and esophageal pressures and flow at the trachea of 9 anesthetized-paralyzed dogs during sinusoidal forcing (SF) and 4 types of non-sinusoidal forcings at 0.15 and 0.6 Hz and 300 ml tidal ...
Ueki J - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Patients with arteriovenous malformations are routinely monitored with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) estimations (breathing air) from which an oxygen shunt fraction can be calculated. This simple estimation has been compared with an anatomically defined estimate of the right to left shunt using a radioisotopic method. The fall in SaO2 ...
Lakhera S C - - 1994
Lung functions (FVC, FEV1, ERV, IC AND MVV) were evaluated in 14 boys and 11 girls practising for middle distance running events in the age range of 13 to 17 years before and after one year training. The findings suggest that during adolescence, development of lung under proper nutritional and ...
Brudin L H - - 1994
With the use of positron emission tomography, alveolar ventilation (VA), lung density, and pulmonary blood volume (VB) were measured regionally in eight nonsmokers in the supine posture and one nonsmoker in the prone posture during quiet breathing in a transaxial thoracic section at midheart level. Regional values of alveolar volume ...
Brudin L H - - 1994
Positron emission tomography was used to measure alveolar gas volume, pulmonary blood volume (VB), regional alveolar ventilation (VA), and the regional ventilation-to-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) in a transaxial slice at midheart level in eight supine subjects and one prone normal subject during quiet breathing. These relationships allow regional blood flow (Q) ...
Tang G J - - 1994
Pulmonary congestion leads to an increase in airway resistance. It is still unknown whether this is due to vascular engorgement or to submucosal oedema. The present study was designed to determine the relative contribution of these two potential mechanisms. We examined the effect of intravenous volume loading on canine peripheral ...
Matsuoka T - - 1994
Granulocytes were collected from the lung lavage fluid of surfactant-depleted rabbits to assess the relationship between granulocyte-related lung injury and ventilatory mode. The number of lavaged granulocytes was determined after 2 and 4 h of conventional mechanical ventilation (2CMV and 4CMV, respectively) or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (2HFO and 4HFO, respectively). ...
Chao Y - - 1994
The effect of large-volume paracentesis on lung function was evaluated in 12 male patients with cirrhosis. All underwent pulmonary function tests including spirometry, plethysmography and single-breath carbon-monoxide diffusing capacity 1 day before and after paracentesis. The amount of ascitic fluid removed ranged from 3.6 to 131 (mean +/- SD, 7.4 ...
Baldwin D R - - 1994
Promotion of sputum expectoration by chest physiotherapy is an essential part of cystic fibrosis management. The role of exercise in improving sputum expectoration and lung function in these patients is more contentious. We therefore investigated the effect of adding an exercise programme to conventional chest physiotherapy in eight adult subjects ...
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