Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1049
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Kumar T C - - 1997
Leukotrienes formed by the action of 5-lipoxygenase on arachidonic acid are a group of endogenous compounds active in hypersensitivity reactions and inflammation. In this report the formation of LTB4 from LTA4 was measured by incubating lung microsomes from normal and exercised rats to determine whether LTB4 may have a role ...
Breil I - - 1997
The effects of bradykinin, histamine and serotonin on vascular resistance and microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated cell-free perfused rabbit lungs. The capillary filtration coefficient was determined from the slope of lung weight changes over periods of venous pressure elevation before application of bradykinin (n = 6), histamine (n = ...
Thompson J S - - 1997
Nitroglycerin (NTG) produces vasodilation by releasing nitric oxide (NO) at the cellular level. Other studies have suggested that NO may directly alter vascular permeability and may alter the development of tissue injury. We therefore examined the effects of NTG on vascular permeability in the buffer-perfused rabbit lung under normal conditions ...
Hoppin F G FG - - 1997
Reduction pneumoplasty may improve flow rates, comfort, and exercise tolerance in severe emphysema. The basis for improvement has not been systematically addressed. The major disability of emphysema stems from impairment of maximal expiratory flow-volume performance of the lung (MEFV). This requires the chest wall to operate at high volumes, which ...
Giordano A - - 1997
Regional distribution of lung ventilation and diaphragmatic movement were evaluated using a non-invasive scintigraphic method in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Twenty-four non-smoking patients aged 20 +/- 9 years (mean +/- S.D.), all with a right convex dorsal curve (mean Cobb's angle of 65.1 +/- 26.4 degrees), underwent lung ventilation scintigraphy ...
Pogliaghi S - - 1997
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) from the lungs (VNO) in nose-clipped subjects increases during exercise. This may be due to endothelial shear stress secondary to changes in pulmonary blood flow. We measured VNO after modifying pulmonary blood flow with head-out water immersion (WI) or increased gravity (2 Gz) at rest and ...
Pellegrino R - - 1997
Airway obstruction in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with lung hyperinflation. In this review, we examine the mechanisms that may cause functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV) and total lung capacity (TLC) to increase during acute and chronic airway obstruction. Normally, FRC at rest ...
Mehrotra P K - - 1997
In this study, the pulmonary functions of young swimmers of K.D. Singh Babu Stadium, Lucknow were studied, 20 swimmers of the age group of 15-20 years were chosen along with 15 students as controls. The parameters taken into account were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) and Peak ...
Lefrak S S - - 1997
Volume reduction surgery is based on the removal of volume-occupying but nonfunctioning emphysematous lung, which is thought to improve pulmonary elastic recoil. The reduction in thoracic volume may also improve thoracic cage and inspiratory muscle function. In addition, dyspnea is lessened, exercise tolerance is increased, and measured pulmonary function is ...
Erbes R - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) varies widely in its course. To evaluate predictive parameters at presentation to the hospital, we investigated 99 patients with IPF (47 women), focusing on extensive lung function tests. METHODS: Standard tests of lung volumes, arterial oxygen tension, and gas exchange at rest and during ...
Grimme J D - - 1997
We evaluated the ability of canine isolated nonperfused lung lobes to absorb fluid from their air spaces by simultaneously measuring alveolar liquid clearance (ALC) in three lobes removed from the same dog. Autologous plasma was instilled in the air spaces of each lobe, and the increase in plasma protein concentration ...
Gibson G J - - 1996
Pulmonary hyperinflation is usually defined as an abnormal increase in functional residual capacity, i.e. lung volume at the end of tidal expiration. As such, it is virtually universal in patients with symptomatic diffuse airway obstruction. Hyperinflation inferred from a standard chest radiograph implies an increase in total lung capacity. The ...
Reinhold P - - 1996
Monofrequency forced oscillometry (MFO) using a sinusoidal test signal of one frequency (10 Hz) was compared with the classical pulmonary function technique (using an oesophageal balloon with airflow measurements) in two breeds of cattle which differ in their respiratory physiology, particularly to assess changes in upper airway resistance. Six healthy ...
Boriek A M - - 1996
We determined the regional area of the diaphragmatic zone of apposition (ZAP) as well as the regional craniocaudal extent of the ZAP (ZAPht) of the passive diaphragm in six paralyzed anesthetized beagle dogs (8-12 kg) at residual lung volume (RV), functional residual capacity (FRC), FRC + 0.25 and FRC + ...
Inadomi J - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to develop a method by which ascitic volume can be calculated using transcorporeal ultrasonography, and to determine the accuracy of this method by comparison with the volume of distribution of a radiolabeled tracer (indicator dilution technique [IDT]). Subjects with ascites confirmed by ultrasonography were ...
Alberti A - - 1996
In patients with idiopathic alveolar proteinosis, the alveoli are filled with materials rich in surfactant components, especially surfactant protein A (SP-A). The anomaly could be caused by either increased secretion, decreased clearance, or both. To clarify this point, we studied five patients who underwent therapeutic lavage and then were ventilated ...
Cahalin L P - - 1996
This article summarizes the importance of preoperative and postoperative conditioning for lung transplantation and volume reduction surgery. Assessment of exercise tolerance and functional status and identification of the primary limitations to exercise conditioning will enhance preoperative and postoperative exercise conditioning. Exercise conditioning can be implemented in a pyramidal manner with ...
Korovessis P - - 1996
STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective study. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the effects of continuous bracing for idiopathic scoliosis on lung function variables at three consecutive time points over a 2-year period. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Only short-term results regarding lung function impairment caused by bracing exist. METHODS: Thirty adolescents ...
Di Lorenzo L - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To verify in vivo whether lung cinescintigraphy confirms the effect of asbestos on the patency of the smallest airways and on the efficiency of mucociliary clearance in asbestos cement workers. METHODS: 39 male subjects were examined: 30 asbestos cement workers and nine workers never exposed to occupational respiratory irritants. ...
Fox R A - - 1996
An expandable metal stent was inserted to relieve bronchial obstruction following lobectomy for localised squamous carcinoma which had not been relieved by bronchoplasty with a Goretex flap. This resulted in substantial improvement in lung function and exercise tolerance for nine months, following which severe inflammation around the stents required residual ...
Pelosi P - - 1996
The changes occurring in total respiratory system, lung and chest wall mechanics, lung volume and gas-exchange during abdominal insufflation with carbon dioxide for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied. Using the technique of rapid airway occlusion during constant flow inflation together with an oesophageal balloon, we computed compliance and maximum resistance of ...
Noppen M - - 1996
Bilateral interruption of the upper dorsal sympathetic chain at the D2 and D3 level represents the only permanent cure for essential hyperhidrosis. Following surgical sympathectomy, significant and symptomatic changes in pulmonary function have been observed. Since functional effects of the surgical intervention cannot be excluded, we wondered whether such alterations ...
O'Donnell D E - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explore mechanisms of relief of exertional breathlessness following surgery to reduce thoracic gas volume in patients with emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 8 patients with emphysema (FEV1 = 39 +/- 3% predicted; residual volume [RV] = 234 +/- 12% predicted; mean +/- SEM) who were severely ...
Ambrosino N - - 1996
Recipients of heart-lung transplantation (HLT) show reduced exercise capacity due to several pre- and postsurgical factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of exercise capacity, and skeletal and respiratory muscle performance in 11 patients (5 females and 6 males; age (mean +/- SD) 38 +/- ...
Hansen J E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relative importance of gas exchange, ventilatory, and circulatory abnormalities in limiting exercise in patients with interstitial lung disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at a referral cardiopulmonary exercise laboratory in a university/county medical center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A database with more than 1,300 patients with incremental ...
Martinez F J - - 1996
Single lung transplantation (SLT) is widely used to treat chronic airflow obstruction (CAO). During exercise the native lung should increase end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and result in a different respiratory sensation compared with double lung transplantation (DLT). Eight SLT recipients and 12 DLT recipients demonstrated a similar maximal work load ...
Barazanji K W - - 1996
To lower the cost and improve accessibility of the rebreathing technique for measuring cardiopulmonary function during exercise, we implemented a fast-response infrared (IR) gas-analyzer system to simultaneously measure lung diffusing capacity, cardiac output lung tissue volume, and lung volume by a rebreathing technique in five healthy subjects at rest and ...
Banks D E - - 1996
We compared retrospective measurements of lung function from 101 steel workers using a commercially available spirometer to prospective lung function measurements performed, on average, 1.3 years later, with a newly developed spirometer. This spirometer was designed and developed to incorporate technology that provides immediate feedback on the quantitative and qualitative ...
Bolliger C T - - 1996
The influence of pulmonary resection on functional capacity can be assessed in different ways. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of lobectomy and pneumonectomy on pulmonary function tests (PFT), exercise capacity and perception of symptoms. Sixty eight patients underwent functional assessment with PFT and exercise testing ...
Newell J C - - 1996
Acute pulmonary edema was assessed quantitatively in 12 experiments on six anesthetized dogs. Thirty-two copper foil electrodes were placed around each animal's thorax at the level of the third intercostal space. A real-time electrical impedance tomograph was used to form images of the electrical admittivity of the thorax in and ...
Sasaki S - - 1996
BACKGROUND: We examined the effects of in vivo administration of a potent inhibitor of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, lazaroid U74389G, on lung preservation. METHODS: Lungs isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 23) were either immediately reperfused after removal (control, n = 8) for 2 hours by means of an isolated, pulsatile ...
Johansen B - - 1996
Unilateral airway occlusion permits measurement of single lung function. Since the results suggest that the occluded lung influences the mobility of the contralateral hemithorax, we wanted to test this hypothesis. In eight healthy subjects, we measured, using computed tomography, lung parenchymal area and inner rib cage parasagittal and transverse diameters ...
Dupuis J - - 1996
The multiple indicator-dilution technique was employed in the exercising dog to evaluate the effect of increasing activity on the pulmonary extraction and kinetics of removal of tracer 3H-labeled serotonin (5-HT) and on the measured central blood volume and tracer-accessible extravascular lung water. 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-labeled albumin, and 14C-labeled ...
Travaline J M - - 1995
Surgical removal of bullous lesions in selected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may significantly improve lung function, gas exchange, and functional status and reduce dyspnea. Proposed mechanisms by which bullectomy may produce these beneficial effects include (1) improving ventilation and perfusion matching by allowing compressed viable lung to re-expand ...
Sundram F X - - 1995
Soluble radioaerosols such as technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacetate (DTPA) permit simple quantitative studies of alveolar-capillary permeability to be performed, since the submicronic aerosols are deposited mainly at the lung periphery and are cleared across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Regional alterations in permeability can also be noted using this radionuclide technique. We ...
Dennie C - - 1995
Most of the patients with emphysema complain of dyspnea and become limited in their activities during the course of the disease. Dyspnea is probably due to the change in the configuration of the thorax which is secondary to hyperinflation. The investigation should include the radiologic quantification of the structural abnormalities ...
Brown J S - - 1995
The dispersion of aerosol boluses in the human lungs has been studied in health and disease, usually as a means of investigating convective mixing. However, there are limited data on the roles of critical factors, such as the volume of inhaled boluses, lung inflation, and gender on dispersion. To examine ...
Joyce C J - - 1995
We have studied 51 patients who were allocated randomly and prospectively to receive either 100% oxygen (n = 16), 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen (n = 18) or 30% oxygen in nitrogen (n = 17) as the inspired gas during anaesthesia for abdominal hysterectomy. Lung volumes were measured before and ...
Rao V - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Spirometry remains a standard method of assessing patient risk prior to lung resection despite its poor sensitivity and specificity. This study compares the relative ability of standardized exercise oximetry and spirometry--forced expiratory volume in the first second--to predict morbidity and mortality after lung resection. METHODS: The study comprised a ...
Kelly F J - - 1995
Support of preterm infants with ventilation and oxygen therapy frequently leads to the development of chronic lung disease. Oxidative stress, through the generation of excess oxygen free radicals, is thought to play a major role in this condition. At present the radical species responsible for oxidative lung injury is not ...
Martin R J - - 1995
Lung resistance may be influenced by chemoreceptor activity and modulated by inspiratory neural output; however, it is unknown whether the contractile elements of lung tissue participate in these changes during early development. In anesthetized paralyzed open-chest piglets, we measured phrenic electroneurogram, lung resistance (RL), and tissue resistance utilizing alveolar capsules ...
Suki B - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to investigate under physiological breathing conditions whether airway and lung tissue properties are different in situ and in open-chest conditions. We measured lung input impedance in dogs from 0.2 to 8 Hz with an optimal ventilator waveform at four tidal volumes (VT; from 75 ...
Chiti A - - 1995
The lung uptake of thallium-201 (201Tl) in planar imaging was evaluated in 384 patients enrolled in the SIRT study (Italian Multicentre Study on Thallium Reinjection). All patients underwent treadmill exercise, and at peak exercise 74 MBq of 201TI were injected. The patients were then evaluated after reinjection of 201Tl under ...
Coalson J J - - 1995
In this study, 12 male baboons were delivered by hysterotomy at 75% of gestation. The development of a nonlethal baboon model permitted a study of lung growth and development in long-term survivors. Control animals were ventilated with clinically appropriate oxygen for the 21 d study period. BPD animals were ventilated ...
Ali J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine optimum posture for pulmonary function in traumatic quadriplegia. DESIGN: Lung function with changes in posture of normal healthy volunteers was compared with that of traumatic quadriplegic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional residual capacity (FRC), Forced vital capacity (FVC), and arterial blood gases in room air were compared ...
Chang S C - - 1995
The effects of ascites and body position on gas exchange were evaluated in 22 male cirrhotics. All underwent spirometry and plethysmography in the sitting (erect) position. Single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco) was measured in the erect and supine positions in a random sequence. A significantly negative correlation was ...
Schmekel B - - 1995
Determination of absolute concentrations of various soluble components of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) may be valuable to estimate inflammatory activities within the underlying lung tissue. Internal standards may then be used as markers of dilution of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The aim of this study was to determine whether different ...
Lakhera S C - - 1995
Lung functions were studied in contemporary healthy boy athletes of Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi origin. As lung function are related to ethnic and environmental factors, the aim of the study was to compare the lung function in boys belonging to these four groups. Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity ...
Svartengren K - - 1995
Mouth and throat, and regional lung deposition was estimated in fifteen asthmatic subjects for 3.6-microns (aerodynamic diameter) radiolabeled polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) particles inhaled at 0.5 L/s with and without added external resistance. Radioactivity was measured by a profile scanner. Behavior of the pharynx and larynx was assessed by fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Mean ...
Salerno F G - - 1995
Parenchymal tissue strips have been used to investigate the mechanical behavior of the lung parenchyma. We questioned whether the relative amounts of alveolar, blood vessel, and bronchial walls would be important when the contractile response of parenchymal strips from Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. One group of strips was cut from ...
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