Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1053
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Iversen E T - - 1999
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a single dose of a beta2-agonist, terbutaline (Bricanyl Turbuhaler), on resting lung function and exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study and outpatients from a department of pulmonary medicine at ...
Kaiwa Y - - 1999
This study was conducted to investigate the correlation of thoracoscopic lung volume reduction to changes in pulmonary function and exercise performance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Unilateral thoracoscopic lung volume reduction treatment was performed in 30 patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. If large bullae were present, they were excised using ...
Bennett W D - - 1999
The regional deposition of particles in boluses delivered to shallow lung depths and their subsequent retention in the airways may depend on the lung volume at which the boluses are delivered. To evaluate the effect of end-inspiratory lung volume on aerosol bolus delivery, we had healthy subjects inhale radiolabeled, monodisperse ...
Bayat S - - 1998
We used an original saturation bronchoalveolar lavage (SBAL) technique (Eur. Respir. J. 1995;8[Suppl. 19]398S) to quantitate lung epithelial lining fluid volume (VELF) in dogs in two separate experiments: control and after oleic-acid-induced injury. We confirmed the hypothesis that 99mTc-DTPA, infused at constant plasma activity, reaches equilibrium with epithelial lining fluid ...
Systrom D M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease relieves a ventilatory limit to incremental exercise, but maximum oxygen uptake remains abnormal. The purpose of this study was to define the relative contributions of Fick principle variables to abnormal aerobic capacity after lung transplantation. METHODS: Twelve paired incremental cardiopulmonary exercise ...
Tannuri U - - 1998
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A new noninvasive therapeutic strategy, which consisted of prenatal intraamniotic administration of porcine surfactant or dexamethasone, was previously used to prevent the functional and structural immaturity of lungs associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and its effects on lung development were comparable with the changes induced by tracheal ligation ...
Ribas J - - 1998
The aim of this study was to investigate whether invasive exercise testing with gas exchange and pulmonary haemodynamic measurements could contribute to the preoperative assessment of patients with lung cancer at a high-risk for lung resection. Sixty-five patients scheduled for thoracotomy (aged 66+/-8 yrs (mean+/-SD), 64 males, forced expiratory volume ...
Schwaiblmair M - - 1998
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) can be used to diagnose and quantify emphysema noninvasively, as significant correlations have been found between the histological grade on resected lung specimens and quantified (q) computed tomography (CT). In this study, we performed thin section qHRCT in patients with severe hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. AAT ...
Oelberg D A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation improves pulmonary function and quality of life for patients with end-stage cystic fibrosis; however, a systematic evaluation of exercise performance in lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis has not been reported. METHODS: Ten patients with end-stage cystic fibrosis performed incremental exercise testing before and after bilateral lung ...
B'chir A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Intravenous almitrine, which augments hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, is used for short-term improvement of arterial oxygenation. However, recent research has suggested a potentially harmful effect on lactate metabolism and hepatic function. METHODS: Arterial oxygenation, hemodynamic parameters, plasma lactate, and hepatic function were monitored prospectively in 25 patients with acute lung ...
Stammberger U - - 1998
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnoea and pulmonary function in selected patients with severe emphysema. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of LVRS on exercise performance and gas exchange in relation to changes in pulmonary function. In 40 patients (63.2+/-1.4 yrs, mean+/-SE) with severe emphysema ...
Heiba S I - - 1998
Evaluation of lung uptake during routine 99Tcm-tetrofosmin myocardial SPET (single photon emission tomography) studies may be hindered by substantial chest muscle uptake, particularly post-exercise. This study investigated this proposal and analysed the various components of chest activity that may add to the real lung uptake. Exercise SPET studies were performed ...
Tönz M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: To maintain good exposure during major video-assisted thoracic surgery it is necessary to deflate completely the ipsilateral lung. However, little is known about the effects of one-lung ventilation (OLV) on pulmonary function in newborn patients. METHODS: Ten neonatal domestic pigs with a mean age of 6+/-0.6 days were intubated ...
Coast J R - - 1998
PURPOSE: During and following exercise there are a number of changes in pulmonary function, among which is a decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC). Several potential mechanisms may explain this decreased FVC, including an exercise-induced increase in thoracic blood volume. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that altered thoracic blood volume ...
de Cléty S C - - 1998
Previous studies have shown that the attenuated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) of young newborn lamb lungs was enhanced by cyclooxygenase inhibition. We sought to determine whether this reflected greater synthesis of and (or) responsiveness to dilator prostaglandins (PG). Protocol 1 measured responses to graded hypoxia and perfusate concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1alpha ...
Mehrotra P K - - 1998
Regular exercise has proved to be beneficial for the human body and the lungs are no exception. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between the quality of exercise performed and the quantitative effect of these exercises on the lungs. Pulmonary function tests of sportsmen engaged in various ...
Newhouse P A - - 1998
Stasis of viscid secretions in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to chronic infection, inflammation, and lung destruction. Chest physiotherapy (CPT) has been used for many years to assist in the removal of these secretions. However, the need for independently administered CPT exists, particularly for adolescents and the older CF patient. Two ...
Bancalari E - - 1998
Changes in absolute lung volumes are common in lung disease and result in significant impacts on gas exchange, respiratory muscle function, the sensation of dyspnoea, and limitations to maximal exercise. Though our knowledge regarding the magnitude and determinants of changes in lung volumes in health and disease has increased in ...
Espinosa F F - - 1998
The method of surfactant instillation into the lungs for treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is an important attribute of delivery, and it may determine the overall efficacy of treatment. Previous studies primarily focused on the rate at which the bolus is instilled. These findings show that rapid injections lead ...
Sanderson R - - 1998
High lung uptake of thallium-201 at stress is reported to be associated with a large number of perfusion defects and poor prognosis. This study was performed to assess whether the reversibility of stress perfusion defects was related to lung uptake. Gated planar thallium scans at stress and at redistribution from ...
Nezu K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pulmonary resection for lung cancer on postoperative recovery and limitation of exercise capacity. METHODS: Eighty-two patients (20 pneumonectomies, 62 lobectomies) underwent spirometric pulmonary tests and exercise capacity tests preoperatively, and at 3 months and more than 6 months after the operation. RESULTS: In the ...
Runciman S I - - 1998
Postnatal growth of the lung in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, was investigated using morphometric techniques with light microscopy. Lung volume, parenchymal and non-parenchymal volume densities were measured. Volume densities of parenchymal airspace and tissue and non-parenchymal conducting airways and large blood vessels were determined. Lung volume and all the ...
Sciuto A M - - 1998
Acetylenic acids such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), have been shown to be effective in preventing pulmonary edema formation (PEF). In phosgene-exposed guinea pigs, we examined the effects of ETYA on PEF, measured as real time lung weight gain (lwg). Pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), airway pressure (Paw), perfusate leukotrienes (LT) C4/D4/E4/B4, ...
Kramer G H - - 1998
The Human Monitoring Laboratory has compared the LLNL and JAERI torso phantoms using its germanium detector lung counting system by measuring the counting efficiencies for radioactive materials in the phantoms at photon energies of 17.7 keV, 59.5 keV, 121.8 keV, and 344 keV to assess the similarity (or differences) in ...
Criner G - - 1998
Since lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) reduces end-expiratory lung volume, we hypothesized that it may improve diaphragm strength. We evaluated 37 patients for pulmonary rehabilitation and LVRS. Before and 8 wk after pulmonary rehabilitation, 24 patients had spirometry, lung volumes, diffusion capacity, incremental symptom limited maximum exercise test, 6-min walk ...
Walther F J - - 1998
Synthetic surfactant peptides offer an opportunity to standardize the protein composition of surfactant. We tested the effect of phospholipids (PL) with synthetic full-length SP-B1-78 (B), mutant B (Bser), KL4 peptide (UCLA-KL4), and palmitoylated SP-C1-35 (C) on oxygenation and lung function in a surfactant-deficient rat model. Sixty-four adult rats were ventilated ...
Stiebellehner L - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an aerobic endurance training program (AET) in comparison to normal daily activities improves exercise capacity in lung transplant recipients. PATIENTS AND STUDY DESIGN: Nine lung transplant recipients (12+/-6 months after transplant) were examined. All patients underwent incremental bicycle ergometry with the work rate increased in ...
Chen J C - - 1998
Stapled lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has recently been described for treatment of emphysema. Many questions arise regarding physiologic mechanisms of response from surgical treatment of emphysema. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model for the study of lung volume reduction surgery in diffuse heterogeneous emphysema. ...
Rimensberger P C - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Beta2-integrin (CD11b/CD18) expression, an indicator of neutrophil activation, has been associated with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Leumedins act directly on leukocytes to inhibit the up-regulated expression of beta2-integrins involved in leukocyte adhesion. We examined the effect of such a new anti-inflammatory agent, NPC 15669 (N-[9H-(2,7-dimethylfluorenyl-9-methoxy)-carbonyl]-L-leucine), on ...
Marven S S - - 1998
A cohort of survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), with matched controls, was studied to assess growth, respiratory function, and exercise performance. Nineteen of 24 survivors from an 11 year period (79%) were compared with 19 matched controls. Subjects had detailed auxology, performed spirometry and cycle ergometry, and completed questionnaires ...
Kunst P W - - 1998
Ventilatory impedance changes can be measured by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Several studies have pointed out that the ventilatory-induced impedance change measured over the lungs shows a linear relationship with tidal volume. However, EIT measures the ventilatory impedance changes relative to a reference. Therefore, changes in the reference due to ...
von Bethmann A N - - 1998
Artificial mechanical ventilation represents a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive care. It is largely unknown which mediators, if any, contribute to the onset of such complications. We investigated whether stress caused by artificial mechanical ventilation leads to induction, synthesis, and release of cytokines or eicosanoids from lung ...
Epstein R M - - 1998
We have considered some of the ways in which respiration can affect the gas exchange process. The simplest relationships are purely physical and relate to the speed with which the lung and tissues can be filled or emptied. More complex relationships involve a consideration of the interplay between blood and ...
Fischel R J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Air leaks after stapled lung volume reduction operations for emphysema remain the most common postoperative complication. Cooper developed the use of bovine pericardium buttress for the staple lines in an attempt to decrease the occurrence of prolonged postoperative air leaks. However, the materials cost for a bilateral procedure may ...
Miyazaki Y - - 1998
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ONO-5046, a neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitor, on a model of acute lung injury induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-activated neutrophils in isolated perfused rabbit lungs. 120 min after TNFalpha (4,000 JRU/ml) was injected ...
Storme L - - 1998
The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may alter oxidative stress parameters and induce lung inflammation in moderate hyaline membrane disease (HMD). Eighteen moderately premature lambs (130 days gestation, term = 147 days) were randomly assigned to treatment with 20 ppm inhaled NO (n ...
Frette C - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies have given discordant results on the usefulness of the level of circulating elastin peptide (EP), a potential marker of both elastin destruction (a key phenomenon in pulmonary emphysema) and neosynthesis, for assessing structural changes in the lung extracellular matrix. The aim of the present study ...
Hillerdal G - - 1997
Emphysema is due to destruction of lung tissue but the main cause of the dyspnoea is a diminished elasticity of the lungs. Medical therapy, such as bronchodilation, corticosteroids, and treatment of intercurrent infections, can give temporary relief. Long-term oxygen treatment can improve and prolong life in patients with severe epmphysema. ...
Mink B D - - 1997
Exercise is a vital part of your treatment for lung disease. By following a regular training program, you will increase your endurance and become stronger and better able to perform the activities of daily life. Shopping, cleaning, and just moving about will become easier and more comfortable. You will be ...
Noriyuki T - - 1997
To quantify changes in tissue oxygenation of pathologic lungs, we applied a novel method using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs). In in vitro experiments, we assayed the effect of photon scattering on the absorption spectra of an in vitro system simulating structures of lung, which consists of test tube containing air in ...
Cordova F - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term stability of improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL) after lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). DESIGN: Case-series analysis. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-six patients with severe airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 of 0.67+/-0.18 L) and moderate to severe hyperinflation (mean total lung capacity ...
Umamaheswara Rao G S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) improves arterial oxygenation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) by selectively dilating pulmonary vessels perfusing ventilated lung areas. It can be hypothesized that NO uptake from the lung decreases with increasing ventilation perfusion mismatch. This study was undertaken to determine the factors influencing the ...
Larsen K R - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Measurements of postoperative spirometric values after pneumonectomy and lobectomy vary considerably, and few researchers have studied the changes in exercise capacity during maximal work after lung resection. The purpose of this study was to describe the postoperative alterations in cardiopulmonary function. METHODS: Ninety-seven consecutive patients with lung malignancy were ...
Schwaiblmair M - - 1997
In patients experiencing an acute episode of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), the alveoli and interstitium show a marked inflammation. The effects of this infiltration with effector cells on gas exchange and the cardiopulmonary system are not well characterized, and there are no data regarding cardiopulmonary exercise testing during hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The ...
Little T M - - 1997
Decompression-induced venous bubble formation has been linked to increased neutrophil counts, endothelial cell injury, release of vasoactive eicosanoids, and increased vascular membrane permeability. These actions may account for inflammatory responses and edema formation. Increasing the intracellular cAMP has been shown to decrease eicosanoid production and edema formation in various models ...
Sherman M S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function and exercise capacity in children with myelomeningocele. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective evaluation in a randomly selected cohort of 12 subjects (10 to 17 years of age) with myelomeningocele and 12 control subjects matched for age, sex, and arm span. METHODS: Spirometry, lung volumes, maximum respiratory pressures, ...
Hruda J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of long-term results of atrial correction of transposition of the great arteries (TGA), focusing on the relationship between pulmonary function and exercise tolerance. METHODS: A prospective population-based study-56 out of 60 survivors of Mustard/Senning repair, born in Bohemia in 1980-1984 (median age at surgery 0.85 years) were followed ...
Benditt J O - - 1997
Early experience suggests that lung volume reduction surgery improves exercise tolerance as measured by the 6-min walk distance in patients with emphysema. To identify the physiologic mechanism(s) by which lung volume reduction surgery improved exercise, we performed progressive cardiopulmonary exercise testing, including rest and peak exercise blood gas determinations, on ...
Westfelt U N - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread use of inhaled nitric oxide (NO), little is known of its pulmonary uptake in patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Fourteen patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and ongoing NO therapy were studied. Three doses of NO (5, 10 and 40 ppm) were given for 20 ...
Wood P G - - 1997
An increase in body temperature in the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, is accompanied by an increase in the amount of pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of proteins and lipids, with the latter consisting predominantly of phospholipid and cholesterol. This increase may result from a temperature-induced change in autonomic input to the ...
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