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Results 401 - 450 of 766
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Cohen Daniel D - - 2002
AIMS: To assess normal variations of uroflowmetry in middle-aged asymptomatic male urologists and to analyse the influence of stress, caffeine intake, and sexual activity. METHODS: Thirty-one male urologists from Quebec and Ontario were recruited for this study. All were healthy, not taking any current medications known to interfere with lower ...
Pawlow Laura A - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to examine whether acute relaxation training, conducted on two separate occasions, would be associated with reliable reductions in subjective and physiological indices of stress. Forty-six experimental subjects were led through Abbreviated Progressive Relaxation Training (APRT) exercises during two laboratory sessions spaced exactly 1 week ...
Kelty Jonathan D - - 2002
As with other tissues, exposing the mammalian CNS to nonlethal heat stress (i.e., thermal preconditioning) increases levels of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) such as Hsp70 and enhances the viability of neurons under subsequent stress. Using a medullary slice preparation from a neonatal mouse, including the site of the neural network that ...
Zuckerman-Levin N - - 2001
Glucocorticoids are required for the normal functioning of chromaffin cells and their capacity to produce epinephrine. This was modeled in a unique clinical syndrome of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency due to unresponsiveness to ACTH. The working hypotheses were that in patients with isolated glucocorticoid deficiency, adrenomedullary epinephrine would be suppressed despite ...
Bobko N - - 2001
The purpose was to reveal the effects of stress on the parameters of cognitive performance and cardiovascular system activities in controllers working 12-hour shifts. Sixteen controllers were studied, and altogether 384 subject observations were acquired. A 5-point scale was used to estimate the perceived level of stress experienced by the ...
Jørgensen E H - - 2001
In the present study we investigated the effect of stress and cortisol on cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression in Arctic charr exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Expression of hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A was monitored 8 d after a single oral dose of BaP (10 mg/kg fish) and compared to that in unexposed ...
Birmes P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare the relation between peritraumatic dissociation and acute stress and the early development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in victims of general crime. METHOD: A total of 48 subjects were assessed within 24 hours of the trauma, using the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire Self-Report Version (PDEQ-SRV). They were ...
LaManca J J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular responses of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to healthy control subjects when performing stressful cognitive tasks before and after strenuous exercise. METHOD: Beat-by-beat blood pressure and electrocardiogram were recorded on 19 women with CFS and 20 healthy nonexercising ...
Altemus M - - 2001
Despite clear exacerbation of several skin disorders by stress, the effect of psychologic or exertional stress on human skin has not been well studied. We investigated the effect of three different stressors, psychologic interview stress, sleep deprivation, and exercise, on several dermatologic measures: transepidermal water loss, recovery of skin barrier ...
Shender B S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: As the Gz capabilities of tactical helicopters increase, the risk to unprotected helicopter aircrew resulting from the physiologic response to transitions from -1 Gz (push) to +4.5 Gz (pull) loads needs to be addressed. METHODS: There were 9 volunteers who participated in a study conducted at the Veridian Operations ...
Tesseromatis C - - 2001
Exercise produces changes of drug levels in plasma and increases the concentration of free fatty acids (FFAs), which may interfere with drug-protein binding. FFAs seem to play an antagonistic role to drugs since they have a strong binding capacity to serum albumin. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...
Paavonen K J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the effects of mental and physical stress on long QT syndrome (LQTS) patients. DESIGN: Case-control study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QT intervals were measured from lead V3. Serum potassium and plasma catecholamine concentrations were also monitored. PATIENTS: 16 patients with type 1 LQTS (LQT1), 14 with ...
Altemus M - - 2001
Accumulating evidence indicates that gonadal steroids modulate functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been closely linked to the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. However, the effect of the natural menstrual cycle on HPA axis responsivity to stress has not been clearly described. In nine healthy women, metabolic and ...
Wu X L - - 2001
Two cellulose-fermenting methanogenic enrichment cultures originating from rice soil, one at 15 degrees C with Methanosaeta and the other at 30 degrees C with Methanosarcina as the dominant acetoclastic methanogen, both degraded cellulose anaerobically via propionate, acetate and H2 to CH4. The degradation was a two-stage process, with CH4 production ...
Critchley H D - - 2001
The mechanisms by which cognitive processes influence states of bodily arousal are important for understanding the pathogenesis and maintenance of stress-related morbidity. We used PET to investigate cerebral activity relating to the cognitively driven modulation of sympathetic activity. Subjects were trained to perform a biofeedback relaxation exercise that reflected electrodermal ...
Zachariah S G - - 2001
Interface pressures and shear stresses within the socket, in standing and walking, were measured for two unilateral, male, trans-tibial amputee subjects, during two sessions each. The ratios of equal weight-bearing standing stresses to peak walking stresses showed regional variation, ranging from 0.24:1 for pressure over the anterior region to 1.01:1 ...
Wrona D - - 2001
The study examined cortisol (COR) involvement in stress-related changes in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC). The relationship between blood COR level, phasic changes in NKCC, and the number of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) was examined in pigs during the course of 4-h immobilization stress (IMB) and for 6 days after ...
Salmon P - - 2001
Until recently, claims for the psychological benefits of physical exercise have tended to precede supportive evidence. Acutely, emotional effects of exercise remain confusing, both positive and negative effects being reported. Results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are more consistent in indicating that aerobic exercise training has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects ...
Crouse L J - - 2001
Stress echocardiography has evolved into a widely practiced and accepted method for the noninvasive assessment of the status of the coronary anatomy. Furthermore, this modality incorporates the ability to assess left ventricular function, valvular structure and function, intracardiac masses, the pericardium, and hemodynamics. The extent to which this tool can ...
Kniest A - - 2001
There is preclinical evidence that CRH is released in response to a glutamatergic stimulation. However, it is not clear, whether glutamate plays a role in the physiological stress response. We tested whether the antiglutamatergic drug riluzole dampens the response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system to both a mental and a ...
Johnsen E L - - 2001
This study examined the contribution of imagery ability to psychological and physiological responses to stress and relaxation. Individuals (N = 176) participated in two study sessions. In the first session, participants completed the Creative Imagination Scale and were block-randomized to a stress or relaxation condition based on imaging scores. During ...
Bredberg K - - 2001
The anaerobic sulfur-reducing archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated regarding its capacity to desulfurize rubber material. The microorganism's sensitivity towards common rubber elastomers and additives was tested and several were shown to be toxic to P. furiosus. The microorganism was shown to utilize sulfur in vulcanized natural rubber and an increase ...
Benton D - - 2001
There have been previous reports that supplements of phosphatidylserine (PS) blunted the release of cortisol in response to exercise stress and that it improved mood. The present study extended these observations by considering whether PS supplementation influenced subjective feelings of stress and the change in heart rate when a stressful ...
Stein Franklin - - 2001
Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and ...
Driessen M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Based on findings of stress-induced neural disturbances in animals and smaller hippocampal volumes in humans with posttraumatic stress disorder), we hypothesized that patients with borderline personality disorders (BPD), who often are victims of early traumatization, have smaller volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala. We assumed that volumes of ...
West J B - - 2000
The pulmonary blood-gas barrier is an extraordinary bioengineering structure because of its vast area but extreme thinness. Despite this, almost no attention has been given to its mechanical properties. The remarkable area and thinness come about because gas exchange occurs by passive diffusion. However, the barrier also needs to be ...
Korhonen P A - - 2000
Six trained Standardbred trotters exercised on a racetrack on 2 days with a 3-day interval. On both exercise days the horses trotted three different exercise bouts with increasing intensity with 60-min intervals. Exercise-induced stress was manifested as leucocytosis, an increase in the neutrophil:lymphocyte (N:L) ratio, and increased capacity to produce ...
Bartholomew J B - - 2000
This study was designed to assess the effect of performance feedback on stress reactivity after recovery from maximal exercise. Forty competitive athletes were recruited to complete a maximal exercise test. Performance feedback was manipulated after the exercise test to give four groups: (1) high performance, (2) low performance, (3) accurate ...
Sanders J E - - 2000
To evaluate the effects of changes in cadence, prosthetic componentry, and time on interface pressures and resultant shear stresses in trans-tibial amputee case studies. Interface stresses were monitored using custom-designed instrumentation at 13 sites on three subjects with unilateral trans-tibial amputation walking with patellar-tendon-bearing prosthetic limbs. Previous studies suggested that ...
Moraska A - - 2000
Exercise training produces a vast array of physiological adaptations, ranging from changes in metabolism to muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. Researchers studying the physiological effects of exercise often use animal models that employ forced exercise regimens that include aversive motivation, which could activate the stress response. This study examined the effect of ...
Holberton R L - - 2000
The dark-eyed junco (junco hyemalis) exhibits differential migration in autumn that, in general, results in females overwintering south of males, and young within each sex overwintering north of older birds. Individuals overwintering at higher latitudes face less predictable and more challenging environmental conditions. Rapid increases in circulating levels of the ...
João I - - 2000
Stress echocardiography is widely used in the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has been the preferred method, but many centers have adopted exercise stress echocardiography, which can visualize myocardial motion during physiologic stress testing. The complications of this method in the post-myocardial infarction period are the same ...
Gruntenko N E - - 2000
Juvenile hormone (JH) degradation was studied under normal and stress conditions in young and matured females of Drosophila melanogaster strains having mutations in different genes involved in responses to stress It was shown that (1) the impairment in heat shock response elicits an alteration in stress-reactivity of the JH system; ...
Dishman R K - - 2000
In a test of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cortical and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) interaction during familiar and novel stress, we previously reported that treadmill exercise training led to blunted plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) response to acute treadmill running but a hyper-responsiveness of ACTH after novel immobilization. In this follow-up analysis, we examined whether those ...
Kim D S - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to understand bacteria profile modification and its applications in subsurface biological operations such as biobarrier formation, in situ bioremediation, and microbial-enhanced oil recovery. Biomass accumulation and evolution in porous media were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. To study both nutrient-rich and carbon-source-depleted conditions, Leuconostoc ...
Cransberg P H - - 2000
1. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stockperson attitude and behaviour; bird behaviour and productivity in the chicken meat industry. 2. No relationship between stockperson attitude and behaviour was observed, which is in contrast to studies in the pig and dairy industries. 3. Evidence is ...
Lutgendorf S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Although stress is known to modulate the inflammatory response, there has been little experimental examination of the effects of stress and stress reduction on inflammation in humans. In particular, the effects of stress and relaxation on neurogenic inflammation have been minimally studied. This study examines the effects of three ...
Villa-Caballero L - - 2000
Oxidative stress has been involved in the pathogenic process of a variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus. The production of oxidative reactive products has been involved in biochemical changes in bio-molecules that might produce tissue damage directly related to some of the main vascular complications in the diabetic patient. On ...
Morgan C A CA - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Clinical models of the human response to intense, acute stress have been limited to laboratory settings or cross sectional characterizations. As a result, data about the sensitivity of the human neuroendocrine activation to realistic stressors of varying magnitudes are limited. The U.S. Army survival course offers a unique opportunity ...
Al-Hassan M - - 2000
This study examined the utility of Janis and Mann's [Janis, I. L. & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: a psychological analysis conflict, choice and commitment. New York, NY: Free press.] decisional conflict theory (DCT) in predicting decisions to exercise following hospitalization for a myocardial infarction (MI). A structured interview of ...
Negrão A B - - 2000
The biological response to stress involves the activation of two main neuroendocrine components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathoadrenal medullary systems. Looking at the responses to stressors in a laboratory setting, e.g., cortisol production after exercising on a treadmill, is a valid and controlled way to study how people react ...
Yui K - - 2000
The significance of increased sensitivity to stress associated with noradrenergic hyperactivity involving dopaminergic change in spontaneous recurrences of methamphetamine (MAP) psychosis (flashbacks) was examined. Plasma monoamine metabolite levels were assayed in 18 subjects with flashbacks who had been exposed to stressful events plus MAP-induced frightening psychotic symptoms (N = 11) ...
Dougall A L - - 2000
The cumulative effects of trauma were examined in 108 workers at the site of a major air disaster at 4 time points over a year following the crash. The influence of trauma history on chronic distress and physiological arousal associated with the crash were examined. Stress levels were expected to ...
Skirka N - - 2000
BACKGROUND: This study addresses the issue of why under conditions of stress some people stay physically and psychologically healthy while others become ill. Being able to deal with stress, to cope with the pressures of daily life, and yet stay healthy, is seen as a function of such factors as ...
Singh V - - 2000
Air flowing through a pipe exerts frictional stress on the walls of the pipe. Frictional stress of more than 40 N/m2 (velocity equivalent of air 113 m/s) is known to cause acute endothelial damage in blood vessels. The frictional stress in airways during coughing may be much greater, however, since ...
Parsons P A - - 2000
Non-linear fitness gradients with maxima between extremes are expected for any environmental variable to which free-living populations are exposed. For exceedingly toxic agents, including ionizing radiation, such deviations from linearity are close to zero exposure and are conventionally called hormesis. Accordingly, hormesis is an extreme version of the non-linear fitness ...
Kellmann M - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose was to investigate changes in stress and recovery during preparation for the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. METHODS: Eleven elite rowers of the German National Rowing Team completed four times the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport). The eight rowers who competed at the Olympic Games filled out the RESTQ-Sport ...
Yui K - - 2000
We examined increased sensitivity to stress in relation to spontaneous recurrences of methamphetamine (MAP) psychosis (i.e., flashbacks). Plasma monoamine metabolite levels were assayed in: 26 flashbackers, of whom 11 were on neuroleptics before and during the study, and the other 15 received neuroleptics in the course of the study; 18 ...
Butler P J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relative contributions of the rate of change and the magnitude of shear stress to endothelium-mediated arteriolar dilation. METHODS: A feedback control system was designed in which shear stress (tau) and the temporal shear gradient (TSG) were prescribed and dynamically controlled in isolated rat cremaster 1A arterioles. ...
Minois N - - 2000
Every organism has to deal with exposure to stresses. Animals have developed various strategies to cope with stress. It appears that the developed resistance to stress is often related to longevity. Some scientists have advanced the hypothesis that the stress response may also counteract the negative effects of aging, and ...
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