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Taylor Adrian H - - 2009
The study aimed to investigate the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to eat chocolate, affect, and psychological and physiological responses to stress and a chocolate cue. Following 3 days of chocolate abstinence, 25 regular chocolate eaters, took part, on separate days, in two randomly ordered conditions, in ...
Webb Heather E - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory (CR) and stress hormone responses to a combined physical and mental stress. Eight participants (VO2(max) = 41.24 +/- 6.20 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two experimental conditions, a treatment condition including a 37 min ride at 60% of VO2(max) with participants ...
Akasaki Yukio - - 2008
The present study evaluated the effects of extent of conformity of post-cam design on contact area and stress at post-cam mechanism using 4 different posterior-stabilized prostheses. TRAC and Alpina with full-conformed post-cams exhibited the largest contact area at 90 degrees and 120 degrees . PFC sigma RPF with partial conformed ...
Liu Qin - - 2008
The hypothesis that thrombus can be induced by localized shear stresses/rates, such as in the bent/stretched microvessels, was tested both experimentally and computationally. Our newly designed in vivo experiments were performed on the microvessels (post-capillary venules, 20-50 microm diameter) of rat mesentery. These microvessels were bent/stretched with no/minimum injuries. In ...
von Känel Roland - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Acute psychosocial stress accelerates blood coagulation and elicits hemoconcentration which mechanisms are implicated in acute coronary thrombotic events. We investigated the extent to which the change in prothrombotic measures with acute stress reflects hemoconcentration and genuine activation of coagulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one middle-aged healthy men underwent three sessions ...
Perrotta A - - 2008
A growing body of evidence supports the pivotal role of the hypothalamus in the pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH). On the basis of animal studies, it has been suggested that a hypothalamic dysfunction can lead to a habituation deficit of brainstem reflex responses, as result of a stress-like condition. Taking ...
Elsner J - - 2008
Orientation of cortical microtubules (cMTs) is suggested to be affected by mechanical stress existing in cell walls. However, in mutants exhibiting helical (chiral) growth, there is a correlation between orientation of cMTs in outer tissues and helical growth direction. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of ...
Schack Henriette B - - 2008
A previous study has reported that Atlantic cod can be conditioned to detect ultrasonic sound pulses of high intensity. This capability has been proposed as a mean for detection and avoidance of echolocating toothed whales that emit intense ultrasonic clicks. In this study, we use acoustic playbacks to test the ...
Perdan Jernej - - 2008
The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of a new method for therapeutic exercise of grasping in patients with upper limb disability. The new method combines active voluntary exercise augmented with electrical stimulation and controlled by using force feedback. The feedback has two functions: automatic control ...
Zoccola Peggy M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: For some, a stressor's psychological and physiological influence ceases on removal; for others, the effects may persist through rumination. These repetitive, intrusive thoughts might prolong physiological stress responses. Previous studies produced mixed results, indicating a need to clarify the relationship between rumination and cortisol responses. The current study investigated ...
Brummett Beverly H BH Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. - - 2008
Caregiving stress is associated with negative health outcomes. Neuroendocrine functioning may be a mediator of such outcomes. The MAOA gene regulates activity of neurotransmitters involved with neuroendocrine responses to stress. Differences in polymorphisms of this gene have been shown to influence susceptibility to stress. Therefore, we examined allelic variation in ...
Davis J M - - 2008
Exercise stress is associated with increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection. We have shown that exercise stress can increase susceptibility to infection. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit infectivity and replication of a broad spectrum of viruses and ...
Linder Stephen Paul - - 2008
Exercise induced hemodynamic stress has been studied extensively using a wide range of physiological sensors. While athletes can modulate their training intensity using EKG-based heart rate monitors, there are currently no noninvasive monitors that can be used to ascertain with a high degree of certainty the hemodynamic stress an individual ...
Mello Pâmela Billig - - 2008
Here we study the effect of acute and chronic physical exercise in a treadmill and of daily stress (because forced exercise involves a degree of stress) during 2 or 8 weeks on different types of memory in male Wistar rats. The memory tests employed were: habituation in an open field, ...
Demir Hakan - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Transient left ventricular contractile dysfunction (TLVD) is observed owing to post-exercise stunning in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Pharmacological stimulation differs from exercise stress because it does not cause demand ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLVD could also be seen after pharmacological stress ...
Sfichi-Duke Liliana - - 2008
The functional and biochemical aspects of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to UV-B radiation were examined in unicellular oxygenic algae Scenedesmus obliquus. The wild type (Wt) and a chlorophyll b-less mutant (Wt-lhc) were used as a specific tool for the understanding of antenna role. Photosynthesis was monitored during and after ...
Haack Danielle - - 2008
Chronic stress may lead to neuronal atrophy and functional impairments within the CNS, and increasing evidence indicates that exercise can protect the brain from these changes. Bax is a key protein of the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl) family that complexes within the mitochondrial membrane and forms pores to initiate cellular apoptosis. ...
Armario Antonio - - 2008
There is now considerable evidence for long-lasting sequels of stress. A single exposure to high intensity predominantly emotional stressors such as immobilisation in wooden-boards (IMO) induces long-term (days to weeks) desensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to the same (homotypic) stressor, whereas the response to novel (heterotypic) stressors was enhanced. ...
Manolache L - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible role of stress before the onset/extension of lichen planus. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Forty-six outpatients with lichen planus were enrolled. The design was a case-control study (controls had skin diseases with low psychosomatic component). Stressful situations were evaluated using Holmes and Rahe's social readjustment rating scale. ...
Ohtaki Yuka - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Although post-ischemic stunning has emerged as an important marker for severe coronary artery disease (CAD), differences in stress methods may have different effects on left ventricular (LV) volumes and function. METHODS: To assess differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on the LV measurements, (99m)Tc-sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed ...
Cárcamo Héctor A - - 2008
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) may be a sensitive indicator of the stress experienced by organisms during their development. Its use in this manner is an intuitively appealing, frequently proposed, and potentially powerful tool but remains controversial partially because its underlying premise rarely has been critically tested. Such tests should include direct ...
Hébert Sylvie - - 2009
Tinnitus, a chronic internal noise, is thought to increase in intensity during or following external noise exposure. Yet there is no empirical evidence for this complaint in the extant literature. Recently, cortisol has been advanced as a useful tool for studying the physiological effects of noise on stress, but few, ...
McKinley Todd O - - 2008
Intra-articular fractures can result in articular surface incongruity and joint instability, both of which can lead to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in contact stresses and contact stress rates in incongruous human cadaveric ankles that were either stable or unstable. It was hypothesized that ...
Marks Andrew R - - 2008
The marked disruption of the homeostasis of a physiological system, be it a cell, tissue, organ, or whole organism, is more commonly known as stress. In many ways, aging can be considered the ultimate stress. However, physiological systems are constantly exposed to more acute stresses. Advances in our understanding of ...
Peguero-Pina José Javier - - 2008
Quercus coccifera L. is a Mediterranean sclerophyllous shrub with a high capacity to resist intense drought stress. Therefore, it could be used in the study of physiological changes suffered by plants at very low water potentials. A remote sensing sensor was used to measure continuously the physiological reflectance index (PRI; ...
Hayes Katherine - - 2008
Previous treadmill exercise studies showing neuroprotective effects have raised questions as to whether exercise or the stress related to it may be key etiologic factors. In this study, we examined different exercise regimens (forced and voluntary exercise) and compared them with the effect of stress-only on stroke protection. Adult male ...
Kim Hong Gi - - 2008
The stress response alters behavior, autonomic function and secretion of multiple hormones, including CRF, ACTH, and glucocorticoid, through the HPA axis. Consecutive stress exposures lead to HPA axis dysregulation such as hyperactivity in Alzheimer's disease and depression, and hypoactivity in post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present study, we established a ...
Adamec Robert - - 2008
This study examined the role of the read through variant of acetylcholinesterase (AChE-R) in lasting changes in murine affective behavior produced by a brief predator stress. AChE-R is elevated by stress in limbic cholinergic circuits implicated in anxiogenic effects of predator stress. The expression of AChE-R was blocked with a ...
Hughes Daniel C - - 2008
Stress is associated with many health maladies, including cancers. Exercise is an effective stress-management tool and is important for physical health. The number of Hispanic women who engage in enough exercise is low. Thus, promoting exercise for this population is of critical importance. Individual effectiveness of behavioral interventions can often ...
Chafin Sky - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: While exercising before a stressor has been shown to limit the magnitude of stress responses, we test the use of exercise as a coping mechanism after the stressor, to limit the duration of the stress response. DESIGN: After doing difficult mental arithmetic with harassment, male and female undergraduates (N ...
Greenwood Benjamin N - - 2008
Exercise can prevent the development of stress-related mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this effect, however, remain unknown. Recently, researchers have used animal models to begin to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects of physical activity. Using the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable ...
Karnik Rahool S - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of beta-blockers (BBs) on heart rate recovery (HRR) following exercise stress testing. HRR is a predictor of mortality following exercise stress testing and is thought to be due to reinstitution of vagal tone. Exercise testing in the presence of BBs ...
Vaccari Christopher S - - 2008
The authors sought to determine whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril has beneficial effects on vascular markers of inflammation in patients with the metabolic syndrome when exposed to exercise-induced stress. Thirty patients with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to perindopril (4 mg/d) or placebo in a double-blind fashion for ...
Jouper John - - 2008
Low-intensity qigong exercise has been suggested as an alternative to more vigorous exercise when striving for health benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-determined motivation and perceived stress are related to concentration during exercise, and to the amount of exercise carried out. Leisure-time qigong exercisers (n ...
Dolan Lianne B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Chronic physical activity results in adaptations in many aspects of human physiology, while specific training can directly influence structural changes. It remains unknown if habitual exercise influences upper extremity lymphatic function in females; thus, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare different exercise stresses on lymphatic function ...
Dhoble Abhijeet - - 2008
To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in ...
Oguri Kazuo K Faculty of Management, Shizuoka Sangyo University , - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute hypoxia alters the deoxygenation level in vastus lateralis muscle during a 30 s Wingate test, and to compare the muscle deoxygenation level between sprint athletes and untrained men. Nine male track sprinters (athletic group, VO2max 62.5 ± 4.1 ml/kg/min) and ...
Lutz Rafer S - - 2007
Blue-collar workers (N = 203) from a large food-processing plant in the southwestern U.S. completed measures of perceived stress and leisure-time exercise at an initial test session in addition to a 2-month follow-up session. Mean age of the sample participants equaled 43.61 (SD = 9.79), and 69.5% of the sample ...
Charbonnel Nathalie - - 2008
The stress response is initially adaptive, operating to maintain homeostasis. However, chronic long-term exposure to stressors may have detrimental effects. We proposed that chronic stress may be a major factor in demographic vole cycles, inducing decline in high-density populations. We monitored four populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola scherman, ...
Pieper Suzanne - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To hypothesize that increased heart rate (HR) and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) occurs not only during stressful events but also during episodes in which stress is cognitively represented, but not necessarily present, i.e., during worry. METHODS: Ambulatory HR and HRV of 73 female and male teachers were recorded ...
Richards Doug - - 2007
Numerous patients are assessed in the emergency department (ED) for chest pain suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and subsequently discharged if found to be at low risk. Exercise stress testing is frequently advised as a follow-up investigation for low-risk patients; however, compliance with such recommendations is poorly understood. We ...
Jarfelt M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Anthracyclines (AC) have contributed significantly to increased survival rate in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), although the use of these drugs is limited due to cardiotoxicity. The aim was to evaluate heart muscle function in asymptomatic adult survivors of ALL treated in early childhood in relation to the combined effects ...
Brown Gregory P - - 2007
The impact of invasive species on biodiversity has attracted considerable study, but impacts of the invasion process on the invaders themselves remain less clear. Invading species encounter conditions different from those in their ancestral habitats and are subject to intense selection for rapid dispersal. The end result may be significant ...
Boryor Andrew - - 2008
The goal of this study was to contribute to an understanding of how much expansion force is needed during a maxillary expansion (ME) and where bony reaction takes place. A finite element (FE) model of a dry human male skull was generated from CT scans. The FE model, which consists ...
Claassen, Nico
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of single dosages of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen, and of the coxib, rofecoxib, on the exercise-induced stress response. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest a role for cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in the exercise-induced cortisol and temperature response to exercise.
Greenwood Benjamin N - - 2007
Exercise can reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety in humans, but therapeutic effects of exercise in an animal model of stress-related mood disorders have yet to be demonstrated. In the current study, the authors investigated the ability of wheel running to reverse a long-lasting interference with shuttle box escape produced ...
Kane Garvan C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography has traditionally been performed under the supervision of physicians. In the last decade, at some institutions, specially trained registered nurses have taken on the task of directly supervising and conducting these stress tests with appropriate physician involvement and assistance. METHODS: The safety of 15,404 stress echocardiograms that ...
Ring Christopher - - 2008
Hematocrit has been implicated in the triggering of cardiovascular events and the development of cardiovascular disease. Studies have demonstrated the reliability of hematocrit at rest, however, data are lacking about hematocrit during repeated acute stress exposures. The current study assessed the reliability of hematocrit during rest and stress. Hematocrit was ...
Thoeringer Christoph K - - 2007
The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of ...
Simeon Daphne - - 2007
Mature defenses comprise one well-validated indicator of resilience. We investigated the relationships of resilience to trauma, attachment, temperament, cortisol, and cognitive performance in adult healthy volunteers. Participants were administered the Defense Style Questionnaire; the Relationship Questionnaire; the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Cortisol determinations included 24-h urinary, ...
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