Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 765
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Kawano T A - - 2000
Thrombin generation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of thrombogenic disorders and acute coronary syndromes. Increase in mental stress has been associated with the initiation of the acute coronary syndromes, but the exact mechanism is not known. The present study examined the effects of physical exercise and mental stress ...
Westfall J A - - 2000
This study compared the effects of exertion stress and exertion stress combined with P. haemolytica infection on cells in the pulmonary capillaries and interalveolar septa adjacent to pneumonic lung. Two calves stood on an Anamill treadmill to serve as nonexercised controls and four calves were run to exhaustion (exertion-stressed) on ...
Hill B D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate an exercise-induced bovine stress syndrome under field and controlled experimental conditions. DESIGN AND PROCEDURE: In the field study, cattle affected with the stress syndrome were observed while they were grazing and during normal mustering using horses. This study served to define the clinical nature of the syndrome. ...
Cohen M C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of ordering of exercise stress tests. BACKGROUND: Because exercise stress testing is routinely used and widely available and may have an effect on subsequent evaluation of and therapy for heart disease, understanding current patterns of ordering exercise stress tests may have important implications for national health ...
Marwick Thomas H. - - 1999
In the current literature, pharmacologic stress techniques are the focus of interest and excitement regarding new technologies and new indications such as the diagnosis of viable myocardium. In contrast, exercise echocardiography has evolved less and is less amenable to the introduction of new technologies. This article reviews the indications for ...
Brody S - - 1999
The effects of psychological stress and the Valsalva maneuver on short-term variations of intraocular pressure (IOP) were studied in 49 healthy adults. Psychological stress consisted of mental arithmetic tasks presented in counterbalanced order by computer and by the experimenter. Additionally, a standardized Valsalva maneuver was performed (in counterbalanced order with ...
Ma L - - 1999
Materials for implanted heart valves face challenges unmatched for most mechanical applications. The valves must function without interruption for lifetimes in the order of 10(9) cycles in a corrosive, hostile environment. A particular carbon has been widely used for the past three decades. The mechanical behavior of this isotropic pyrolytic ...
Igić R - - 1999
The purpose of the present study was to determine if our recently introduced novel working rat heart preparation could be used to study wall stress-induced dysrhythmias. A double cannula, which consisted of an outer cannula that, was inserted in the aorta and an inner cannula that was advanced into the ...
Taylor C A - - 1999
The beneficial effect of exercise in the retardation of the progression of cardiovascular disease is hypothesized to be caused, at least in part, by the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions, including flow recirculation and low wall shear stress. In vitro and in vivo investigations have provided qualitative and limited quantitative ...
Singh A - - 1999
Healthy men exhibit a differential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to exercise stress and fall into two groups: high responders (HR) and low responders (LR). The present study examined whether HR to physical stress also exhibit higher HPA reactivity to psychological stress than LR. We examined 14 HR and 13 LR ...
MacLean N F - - 1999
The response of the upper and lower thoracic aorta to radial tensile stresses was compared with the response to circumferential and longitudinal stresses to understand the role of tensile stress in the tearing phase of an aortic dissection. Square tissue samples (1.6 by 1.6 cm) were cut from the upper ...
Talcott S T - - 1999
Physicochemical analysis of processed strained product was performed on 10 carrot genotypes grown in Texas (TX) and Georgia (GA). Carrots from GA experienced hail damage during growth, resulting in damage to their tops. Measurements included pH, moisture, soluble phenolics, total carotenoids, sugars, organic acids, and isocoumarin (6-MM). Sensory analysis was ...
Ramamurthy G - - 1999
The prognostic utility of an exercise ECG test depends upon having an adequate workload to stress the cardiac system. A negative stress test, in which there are no adverse clinical or ECG findings, and in which an adequate workload is achieved, stratifies patients into a low-risk group. The 1997 American ...
Di Massimo C - - 1999
Ten healthy nonsmoking old men (age 52-70 years, OM) and ten healthy nonsmoking young men (age 20-30 years, YM) were submitted to an exercise test on a bicycle ergometer to examine the combined influence of aging and exercise-induced stress on platelet function. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA test to ...
West J B - - 1999
The pulmonary blood-gas barrier needs to satisfy two conflicting requirements. It must be extremely thin for efficient gas exchange, but also immensely strong to withstand the extremely high stresses in the capillary wall when capillary pressure rises during exercise. The strength of the blood-gas barrier on the thin side is ...
McEwen B S - - 1999
Stress is a condition of human existence and a factor in the expression of disease. A broader view of stress is that it is not just the dramatic stressful events that exact their toll but rather the many events of daily life that elevate activities of physiological systems to cause ...
Ritola O - - 1999
Three groups of one summer old rainbow trout were exposed for 22 days either to normoxia (100%) or moderate oxygen supersaturation; 120% and 140%. After the exposure, all groups were transported for three hours in hyperoxic conditions (123% O2) thus simultaneously experiencing density and handling stress. The recovery of rainbow ...
Tuschen-Caffier B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Binge eating behavior in bulimic patients is thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of psychophysiological arousal in stressful situations. Previous results suggest that interpersonal stress and achievement challenge are perceived as particularly stressful by bulimic individuals. It is not clear, however, whether bulimic individuals respond to ...
Marlowe N - - 1998
A positive correlation between the frequency of headache and the frequency of stressful events was demonstrated in a sample of 114 headache sufferers. The strength of this relationship was shown to be moderated by the level of self-efficacy, defined as the individual's perceived capacity to exercise self-control over their cognitive, ...
Griffin J F - - 1998
In the early classic period it was suggested by Heracleitus that a static unchanged state was not the natural condition, but rather that the capacity to undergo constant change was intrinsic to all living things. After that, Empedoeles, circa 500 BC, proposed that for living organisms to survive they require ...
Barsky A J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To develop a laboratory paradigm for assessing the tendency to amplify somatic symptoms and report bodily distress. METHOD: Reports of four different cardiopulmonary symptoms were obtained during standardized, treadmill exercise, while the physiological parameters which induce these symptoms were simultaneously measured. Two indices were developed to compare symptom reporting ...
Derevenco P - - 1998
The background concerns the present-day psychobiological construct on stress and its models. Psychoneuroendocrine mechanisms, cellular and molecular alterations, oxidative and immune reactions and stress system disorder, related to physical, psychosocial and emotional stress became hot research areas. Other important directions regard occupational stress, objective and subjective assessment methods and stress ...
Hunziker P R - - 1998
The hypothesis that addition of mental stress to physical exercise would modify the circulation response to stress and improve noninvasive detection of myocardial ischemia was tested in a randomized, crossover radionuclide angiocardiographic study. Compared with physical exercise or mental stress alone, combined stress led to higher heart rates and rate-pressure ...
Zile M R - - 1998
Diastolic dysfunction is an important cause of congestive heart failure; however, the basic mechanisms causing diastolic congestive heart failure are not fully understood, especially the role of the cardiac muscle cell, or cardiocyte, in this process. Before the role of the cardiocyte in this pathophysiology can be defined, methods for ...
Eichner E R - - 1998
Exercise is a well-known stress test for uncovering heart or lung disease, but it can also stress other organs and unmask a range of medical disorders. Practical case examples are given in seven areas: anemia, headache, hematuria, gastrointestinal problems, seizure, anhidrosis, and hypothyroidism. Recognizing the exercise-induced manifestations can lead to ...
Levenson C W - - 1998
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and catecholamines are synthesized in response to stress. Adrenal NPY mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA were measured by Northern analysis 2 h after a single 20 min bout of shaker stress in exercised and sedentary male Sprague-Dawley rats. Long-term exercise (18 weeks of voluntary wheel running) ...
Sonneborn J S - - 1998
Interaction between the quality of the environment and the health of the exposed population determines the survival response of living organisms. The phenomenon of induced tolerance by exposure to threshold levels of stressors to stimulate natural defense mechanisms has potential therapeutic value. The paucity of information on predictability of individual ...
Brenner I - - 1998
This review focuses on the response of "stress" hormones to heat, exercise (single or repeated bouts), and combinations of these stimuli, with particular reference to their impact upon immune function. Very hot conditions induce a typical stress response, with secretion of catecholamines and cortisol. The catecholamines induce a demargination of ...
Mearns J - - 1998
This study investigated links between occupational stress, negative mood regulation expectancies, coping, anger, and distress. Participants were 56 police officers from two small, urban departments. They filled out the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) Scale, as well as measures of police stress, coping, anger, and distress. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed ...
Schmidt J A - - 1998
This commentary is in response to a review published earlier in this journal. It is intended to provide additional information and supplement the original paper. A short review of the failure mechanisms of polyurethane pacing lead materials is provided. Two specific degradation mechanisms, environmental stress cracking and metal ion oxidation, ...
Ditto B - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a prolonged active coping stressor on the transit of a substance from the mouth through small intestine in normal human volunteers. METHOD: Twelve healthy undergraduate males were administered 10 g of the nonabsorbable carbohydrate lactulose in two experimental sessions. In normal individuals, lactulose produces ...
Kaufmann P G - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated physiological, neuroendocrine, and psychological status and functioning of patients with coronary artery disease in order to clarify their role in the expression of symptoms during myocardial ischemia (MI), and to establish repeatability of responses to mental stress. Design and methods of the study are presented. METHODS: ...
Bradshaw R H - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To observe pigs during road journeys in order to establish whether lavender straw was likely to decrease stress and incidence of travel sickness. SUBJECTS: Forty 70-kg Large White pigs were transported by road for 2 hours, 20 animals each day, over a 2-day period. DESIGN: On day 1, ample ...
Goldfinger D A - - 1998
While psychophysiologic studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have investigated the effects of trauma-related stimuli on arousal, none have explored the development of intrusive imagery and affect states in the absence of such specific cues. The present study compares autonomic arousal during PTSD-related Rorschach responses in PTSD veterans vs. combat ...
Belkić K - - 1998
There has been at least forty empirical investigations concerning cardiovascular disease (CVD) among professional drivers (PDs). Standard cardiac risk factor status does not consistently distinguish PDs from other lower risk groups. PDs showed more than twice the overall exposure to stressful work factors compared to referents. They also showed lower ...
Kuttila M - - 1997
Associations between fluctuation of treatment need for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and age, gender, stress, and diagnostic subgrouping were analyzed in a 2-year follow-up of 391 subjects. All the studied factors were significantly associated with the treatment need for TMD at all examinations. The diagnostic subgroup (TMD arthro, TMD myo, TMD ...
Santavirta N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the activity level of the autonomic nervous system in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and to correlate this with stress. METHODS: Patients with SS (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 10) were analysed for the content of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in their ...
Pruessner J C - - 1997
Attempts to link personality traits and cortisol stress responses have often been inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to investigate this association by aggregating cortisol stress responses. Therefore, 20 healthy men were exposed to a task consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetics in front of an audience on ...
Stetson B A - - 1997
The effects of stress on exercise behavior in community-residing women exercising on their own were assessed. Participants (N = 82) completed a background questionnaire and kept exercise diaries and Weekly Stress Inventories (P. J. Brantley, G. N. Jones, E. Boudreax, & S. L. Catz, 1997) for 8 consecutive weeks. During ...
Garcia R - - 1997
The characteristics of short-term potentiation (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices were determined at various times following exposure to acute stress produced by restraint and tail-shock in mice. In slices prepared from control animals, theta-burst stimulation resulted in a large increase in evoked field ...
Johnson A T - - 1997
Previous testing has shown that visual acuity greatly influences task performance at light work rate levels. At moderate to heavy work rates, however, the Performance Rating Table (PRT) predicts almost no visual acuity effect. This experiment was performed to determine if the PRT value is realistic. Ten subjects walked on ...
Westman M - - 1997
In a quasi-experiment designed to examine the relief from job stress and burnout afforded by a vacation respite, 76 clerks completed measures of job stress and burnout twice before a vacation, once during vacation, and twice after vacation. There was a decline in burnout during the vacation and a return ...
Pedersen E M - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between wall shear stress and early atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta. DESIGN: Blinded histomorphometric studies. Comparison with in vitro data. MATERIALS: Abdominal aortic haemodynamics were simulated in a realistic pulsatile flow model. Abdominal aortas from 10 young adults with no signs of atherosclerotic disease ...
Holm J E - - 1997
When examining headache sufferers' reactivity to stress, few studies attend to differing characteristics of the environment. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the clarity/ambiguity and positive/negative valence of an event on subjects' physiological and psychological reactivity. Migraine (n = 30), tension (n = 39), and control (n = ...
Shephard R J - - 1997
The growing size of world cities and ever more competitive working conditions are thought to cause subjective stress, anxiety and depression, with a resulting decrease in the quality of life, sleep disturbances, drug and alcohol abuse and poor productivity. Acute stress may suppress immune function, leading to an increased incidence ...
Al-Kubati M A - - 1997
The aim of this study was to analyse the changes of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and their relation to changes of heart rate and blood pressure in medical students during moderate psychological stress brought about by oral examination. The changes of BRS during the stress were compared with the changes during ...
Sothmann M - - 1997
Although research on the relationship between exercise training and physiological stress reactivity is increasing, we know little about the involvement of brain neurochemistry. Moreover, the few studies that have been performed have concentrated on animals with normally functioning neurochemistry exposed to an acute stressor. Biomedical research is drawing an association ...
Yap B K - - 1996
Knowledge of the effects of episodic or short-term exercise-stress on endogenous testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels still remains fragmentary and inconclusive. In this study, an approach based on the absolute concentrations of urinary total testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and the T/LH concentration ratios, was used to profile short-term exercise-stress ...
De Brabander B - - 1996
We explored the relations among locus of control, sensation seeking, and stress (N = 68 students). Corroborating evidence was found that subjects with an external locus of control are more vulnerable to stress. Subjects scoring higher on the thrill and adventure seeking-dimension of sensation seeking reported less severe physical and ...
Niebauer J - - 1996
Experimental, epidemiologic and clinical studies have provided strong evidence that physical exercise has beneficial effects on multiple physiological variables affecting cardiovascular health (lipoprotein levels, rest blood pressure and heart rate, carbohydrate tolerance, neurohormonal activity). Regular exercise has been shown to slow the progression of cardiovascular disease and to reduce cardiovascular ...
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