Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1449
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Natalini G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) ventilation tube is narrower and shorter than the standard Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and is without the vertical bars at the end of the tube. In this randomized, crossover study, PLMA and LMA resistances were compared. METHODS: Respiratory mechanics was calculated in 26 ...
Salome C M - - 2003
After bronchoconstriction, deep inspiration (DI) causes dilatation followed by airway re-narrowing. Re-narrowing may be faster in asthmatic than nonasthmatic subjects. This study investigated the relationship between re-narrowing and the magnitude of both DI-induced dilatation and the volume-dependence of respiratory system resistance (Rrs) during tidal breathing. In 25 asthmatic and 18 ...
de Bisschop Claire - - 2003
Studies of airway function during exercise have produced conflicting results both in healthy and diseased subjects. Respiratory resistance (Rrs) was measured using an impulse oscillation technique. A flow/resistance curve was established for each of 16 healthy males during voluntary hyperventilation (VHV) at rest. Then, Rrs and flow were measured immediately ...
Mannix Edward T - - 2003
Athletes have a high prevalence (11-50%) of exercise-induced asthma, which may be caused by the hyperventilation accompanying repetitive bouts of strenuous exercise. We hypothesized that recreational exercisers would display a similar trend. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) bronchoprovocation (breathing 21% O2, 5% CO2, and 74% N2 at 60% of MVV for ...
Barczyk A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a novel cytokine secreted by activated human memory CD4+ T cells. In vivo IL-17 recruits neutrophils into the airways via the release of CXC chemokines (interleukin-8) from bronchial epithelial cells. Since neutrophils are implicated in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) chronic bronchitis (CB) and ...
Shin Hye-Won - - 2003
PURPOSE: After exercise, exhaled NO concentration has been reported to decrease, remain unchanged, or increase. A more mechanistic understanding of NO exchange dynamics after exercise is needed to understand the relationship between exercise and NO exchange. METHODS: We measured several flow-independent NO exchange parameters characteristic of airway and alveolar regions ...
Joos G F - - 2003
Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Direct airway challenges have been ...
Fukuoka Toshihiko - - 2003
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2), an arachidonate derivative, is a potent bronchoconstrictor; therefore, blocking TXA2 should attenuate airway narrowing. Seratrodast, a TXA2 receptor antagonist, is expected to be a potent antiasthmatic. It was reported that seratrodast reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. However, it is controversial whether it reduces airway inflammation. We studied some additional ...
Henderson A C - - 2003
During the late-phase (LP) response to inhaled allergen, mediators from neutrophils and eosinophils are released within the airways, resembling what occurs during an asthma attack. We compared the distribution of obstruction and degree of reversibility that follows a deep inspiration (DI) during early-phase (EP) and LP responses in nine asthmatic ...
Black L D - - 2003
An index of airway caliber can be tracked in near-real time by measuring airway resistance (Raw) as indicated by lung resistance at 8 Hz. These measurements require the placing of an esophageal balloon. The objective of this study was to establish whether total respiratory system resistance (Rrs) could be used ...
Davis Michael S - - 2003
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Elite winter athletes have an increased incidence of asthma, the cause of which is unknown. Strenuous exercise, particularly while breathing cold air, results in airway cooling and desiccation. We used a canine model of hyperpnea with cold, dry air to test the hypothesis that repeated cooling and desiccation of ...
Brown Robert H - - 2003
The effects of a deep inspiration (DI) in asthmatics differ from those observed in healthy subjects. When considering the effects of a DI, an implicit assumption is that all the airways are distending at the same rate as the lung parenchyma. However, with such rapid lung inflation, the ability of ...
Röhrig L - - 2003
Autoinhaled nitric oxide (NO) is produced mainly in the upper airways. Orotracheal intubation disrupts the natural autoinhalation of NO from the naso- and oropharynx. The effect of disrupting and then replacing autoinhaled NO on arterial oxygenation was investigated in intubated patients. Two groups of nine patients without lung disease were ...
Kirkness Jason P - - 2003
Upper airway (UA) patency may be influenced by surface tension (gamma) operating within the (UAL). We examined the role of gamma of UAL in the maintenance of UA patency in eight isoflurane-anesthetized supine human subjects breathing via a nasal mask connected to a pneumotachograph attached to a pressure delivery system. ...
Boulet Louis-Philippe - - 2003
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), the tendency of the airways to narrow too much and too easily in response to various stimuli, is a universal feature of asthma, although it is not exclusive to this disease. Airway responsiveness shows a unimodal distribution in the general population and might vary with time, increasing ...
Aitken Moira L - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sputum induction (SI) is a noninvasive tool for sampling inflamed airways. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal duration of collection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The hypothesis was that the duration of SI collection would quantitatively and qualitatively alter the content of the ...
Bar-Yishay Ephraim - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The mid-portion of the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve is often described by values of the mean forced expired flow as lung volume decreases from 75% to 25% of vital capacity (ie, forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase [FEF(25-75)]). It is common practice to report also forced expired flow at ...
Khatri Sumita B - - 2003
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels are high in asthmatic subjects and increase with exacerbations. We hypothesized that higher levels of NO observed during asthma exacerbations are due to increased synthesis of NO. Exhaled NO and peak flows were measured in 11 asthmatic and 9 healthy control subjects before and after ...
Melo Raul E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. We and others have shown that there is a late-phase response 3 to 8 hours after exercise in a subset of asthmatic patients. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the protective effect of montelukast on immediate-phase and late-phase responses after exercise challenges. ...
Cockcroft Donald W - - 2003
Inhalation challenges with direct-acting stimuli histamine and methacholine are widely used to measure airway responsiveness. Three widely used methods (2-min tidal breathing method, breath-activated dosimeter method, hand-held manual nebulizer) are described. Careful standardization is important so as to best differentiate normal from increased airway responsiveness and to permit comparison between ...
Willemse B W - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: There are many settings in which a spacer device is not available for the administration of bronchodilator. Therefore, we tested whether a paper disposable cup is as effective as a commercially produced spacer to administer bronchodilator. METHODOLOGY: Randomised controlled trial. 50 subjects aged 16-50 years who had wheeze and ...
Bonsignore M R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cells are increased in the airways of endurance athletes, but their role in causing exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and bronchoconstriction, or their possible long-term consequences, are uncertain. AIM: To put the results of athlete studies in perspective, by analysing the pathogenesis of airway cell changes and their impact on ...
Evans Kenda L J - - 2003
Airway dysfunction in asthma is characterized by hyperresponsiveness, heterogeneously narrowed airways, and closure of airways. To test the hypothesis that airway constriction in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized OVA-intranasally challenged (OVA/OVA) mice produces mechanical responses that are similar to those reported in asthmatic subjects, respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and elastance (Edyn,rs) spectra were ...
Baggot M Gerard - - 2002
Fifty odd years ago, in his historic book, 'The Silent World,' Jacques Cousteau told us that scuba divers breathing compressed air were apt to get a 'high,' which he called, 'Rapture of the Deep,' and a form of cerebral arrest, which he termed, 'Nitrogen Narcosis'. Furthermore, these submarine soloists, also ...
Prieto L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported that the levels of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) in asthmatics are similar to those in subjects with allergic rhinitis, and it has been postulated that atopic status might be the determinant of enhanced nitric oxide production in asthma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was ...
Godon P - - 2002
Eosinophilic airway inflammation is one of the hallmarks of asthma. Sputum eosinophilia has been suggested as a predictor of the response to inhaled corticosteroids in asthma. This study sought to investigate the proportion of steroid-naive uncontrolled asthmatics without significant sputum eosinophilia (< or = 1%) and to examine whether sputum ...
Wallin A - - 2002
In a recent placebo-controlled study in mild atopic asthmatics, we observed a significant decrease in eosinophils in the bronchial submucosa, after 2 months oftreatment with inhaled formoterol and budesonide. Biopsy material from each treatment group; formoterol (24 microg bid), budesonide (400 microg b. i. d.) and placebo has been further ...
Kanazawa H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the bronchial microcirculation has the potential to contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatic subjects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is highly expressed in asthmatic airways, increases vascular permeability. The relationship between VEGF levels in induced sputum and the ...
Leme A S - - 2002
Techniques for collecting exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) recommend the use of antibacterial filters of 0.3 m. The aim of the present study was to compare the measurements of ENO obtained with two different filtering devices. Air samples from 17 asthmatic and 17 non-asthmatic subjects were collected by a recommended off-line ...
Asai Kazuhisa - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has recently attracted considerable attention as a component of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in asthmatic airways, and its contribution to airway remodeling has been reported. Although angiogenesis is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, the relative ...
Weinfeld Dan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A change in neural responsiveness may occur as the result of allergic inflammation in the lower airways as well as in the upper airways. In the lower airways, capsaicin cough sensitivity is known to reflect sensory neural reactivity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish whether allergic ...
Maktabi Mazen A - - 2002
We describe three patients with difficult airways in which fiberoptic endotracheal intubation was used to insert breathing tubes into the patients' windpipes. Airway injury occurred during the use of this technique. Although largely a safe technique, care should be exercised when anesthesiologists choose equipment and when they perform this technique.
Crimi Emanuele - - 2002
Deep breaths taken before inhalation of methacholine attenuate the decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity in healthy but not in asthmatic subjects. We investigated whether this difference also exists by using measurements not preceded by full inflation, i.e., airway conductance, functional residual capacity, as ...
Kotaru Chakradhar - - 2003
To determine whether drying and hypertonicity of the airway surface fluid (ASF) are involved in thermally induced asthma, nine subjects performed isocapnic hyperventilation (HV) (minute ventilation 62.2 +/- 8.3 l/min) of frigid air (-8.9 +/- 3.3 degrees C) while periciliary fluid was collected endoscopically from the trachea. Osmolality was measured ...
Prieto Luis - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVE:s: To determine the effect of cessation of exposure to pollen on airway responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in subjects with pollen-induced rhinitis, and to explore the relationship between changes in airway responsiveness and changes in exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) levels. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were studied during the pollen ...
Suman Oscar E - - 2002
We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO), a known mild bronchodilator that can be released by several cell types within pulmonary airways, might protect airways during exercise in asthmatic subjects. We studied 17 individuals with documented exercise-induced asthma (screening exercise evaluation) on 2 study days: after treatment with inhaled NO synthase ...
Vianna Elcio O - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Exercise is one of the most common triggers of asthmatic symptoms. Many factors, including hyperventilation, determine the prevalence and severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). However, the influence of time of day has not been adequately described. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare morning and evening EIB and minute ventilation during ...
Lambert R K - - 2002
Immature rabbits have greater maximal airway narrowing and greater maximal fold increases in airway resistance during bronchoconstriction than mature animals. We have previously demonstrated that excised immature rabbit lungs have more distensible airways, a lower shear modulus, and structural differences in the relative composition and thickness of anatomically similar airways. ...
Sundblad B M - - 2002
Deep inhalations cause a transient relaxation of the peripheral airways smooth muscles in non-asthmatic subjects. It has been claimed that the airway response to deep inhalations may be different in asthmatic subjects in whom deep inhalations should rather cause bronchoconstriction. The aim of the present study was to find out ...
Kanazawa Hiroshi - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The bronchial microcirculation has the potential to contribute to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatic patients. This study was designed to determine whether increase in airway vascular permeability is associated with the severity of EIB in asthmatic patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: ...
Prieto Luis - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine differences in exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) between subjects with allergic rhinitis with and without increased responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with the order of challenge tests randomized. SETTING: Specialist allergy unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight subjects without asthma ...
Shinkai Masaharu - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The precise anatomic sites contributing to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) are still unknown. The present study was designed to analyze profiles of eNO by referring to the He exhalation curve and examining the effects of breath-holding and expiratory flow rates on eNO. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy volunteers and patients with ...
Moloney Edward - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Airway dehydration triggers exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in virtually all patients with active asthma. We are not aware of any investigations of airway dehydration in patients with naturally occurring asthma exacerbations. We wish to investigate whether airway dehydration occurs in acute asthmatic patients in the emergency department, and its functional significance. ...
Henriksen Anne Hildur - - 2002
Among asthmatics, exercise-induced wheeze (EIW) is a frequent symptom, and 40-77% of asthmatics demonstrate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). In the North-Trøndelag population-based survey of 8,571 adolescents (YOUNG-HUNT), 26% reported wheeze during the previous 12 months (current wheeze). Of those subjects, 50% reported EIW. The aim of the present study was to ...
Dahlén Barbro - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction induced by physical exercise is a common feature in asthma, and conventional treatments do not offer optimal protection. There is thus a need for additional therapies for optimal control of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). OBJECTIVE: The influence of treatment with the antihistamine loratadine and the antileukotriene zafirlukast alone ...
Hedenstierna G - - 2002
Pulmonary gas exchange is regularly impaired during general anaesthesia with mechanical ventilation. This results in decreased oxygenation of blood. Major causes are collapse of lung tissue (atelectasis) and airway closure. Collapsed lung tissue is present in 90% of all subjects, both during spontaneous breathing and after muscle paralysis, and whether ...
Hawksworth Richard J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Secondary to the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the albuterol (Ventolin, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (MDI) has been formulated in a non-ozone-depleting propellant, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 134a. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of albuterol HFA to albuterol CFC and placebo HFA in protecting patients from exercise-induced bronchospasm ...
Richter K - - 2002
The onset of bronchoprotection as obtained by various beta2-agonists has not been examined in a comparitive study. In this study, the onset of bronchodilation and protection against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics after inhalation of the long-acting beta2-agonists formoterol and salmeterol and the short-acting beta2-agonist terbutaline were measured. Twenty-five subjects with ...
Chitano Pasquale - - 2002
Our laboratory has previously shown that maturation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility may play a role in the airway hyperresponsiveness displayed by juveniles of many species, including humans (Chitano P, Wang J, Cox CM, Stephens NL, and Murphy TM. J Appl Physiol 88: 1338-1345, 2000). ASM relaxation, which could ...
Koh Y I - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that atopy may be associated with exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in asthma. However, it is not clear whether atopy is related to EIB, regardless of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to methacholine, because asthmatic subjects often show AHR to exercise and methacholine simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether atopy is ...
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