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Davis Michael - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Racing Alaskan sled dogs develop exercise-induced airway inflammation, similar to that reported for elite human athletes participating in cold-weather sports. These human athletes also have airway hyperresponsiveness, but airway function in sled dogs has not been measured. PURPOSE: To compare respiratory mechanical properties in trained, rested Alaskan sled dogs ...
Boulet Louis-Philippe - - 2005
PURPOSE: There is an increased prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness in elite athletes, particularly in swimmers. High intensity exercise may induce airway inflammation and subsequent remodelling in these subjects. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity training on induced-sputum cell populations in elite athletes. METHODS: Swimmers and ...
Silverman Nischom K - - 2005
Respiratory resistance (Rrs) changes during physical labor can modify the work of breathing and thus influence the time that the labor can be performed. Ideal in vivo human respiratory performance measurements should have fine temporal resolution and minimally impact the respiratory system itself. The airflow perturbation device (APD) provides respiratory ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2005
Airborne ultrafine and fine particulate matter (PM1 from fossil-fueled internal combustion engines may cause abnormal airway narrowing. Because of high PM1 exposure from ice resurfacing machines, the ice-rink athlete is especially vulnerable to PM1 toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate protection by a single dose of montelukast ...
Konduri Kameswari S - - 2005
Asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation, and airway remodeling, which may lead to progressive, irreversible lung damage. Liposomes have been used for the delivery of aerosolized asthma medications into the lungs. This method could facilitate sustained action of steroids while using only a fraction of the dosage and ...
Kanniess Frank - - 2005
Regular use of inhaled beta2-agonists might lead to tolerance as reflected in a loss of bronchoprotection. In vitro-data suggest that this might be prevented by disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Therefore, we studied the effect of the beta2-agonist reproterol in combination with DSCG. In a cross-over design, 19 subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness ...
Helenius Ilkka - - 2005
Highly trained athletes are repeatedly and strongly exposed to cold air during winter training and to many inhalant irritants and allergens all year round. Asthma occurs most commonly in athletes engaging in endurance events such as cross-country skiing, swimming, or long-distance running. As well as the type of training, a ...
Scichilone Nicola - - 2005
We have previously shown that the bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration is attenuated in individuals with COPD. This study was designed to investigate whether the impairment in this effect is associated with loss of alveolar attachments. We measured deep inspiration (DI)-induced bronchodilation in 15 individuals with and without COPD (67 ...
McKune, AJ; Department of ...
Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ECP and IgE were ...
Kaynar Hasan - - 2004
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a transient airflow obstruction that usually occurs 5 to 15 minutes after physical exertion. Although this condition is preventable, it is still underrecognized and affects the quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of EIB, to find out whether self-reported ...
Vergès Samuel - - 2004
A high prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and abnormal bronchial reactivity to various stimuli has been reported among endurance athletes. This report presents the cases of three cross-country skiers who have shown a progressive development of airway obstruction during their sport careers. The observed decline in FEV1, FEV1/FVC and/or FVC (FEV, ...
Petersen R - - 2004
A new hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) aerosol markedly increases drug delivery to the airways. Therefore, even low doses of HFA-BDP should be effective, and the present study assesses this. A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was used to compare the effect of placebo, HFA-BDP 50 microg or 100 microg given q.d. (QVAR(TM) ...
Kotaru Chakradhar - - 2005
To determine whether there are distinctions in the location and pattern of response between different bronchoprovocations, we performed high-resolution computer-assisted tomography in 10 asthmatic subjects before and after isocapnic hyperventilation of frigid air (HV) and methacholine (Meth). The luminal areas of the trachea, main stem, lobar, and segmental bronchi were ...
Halloy David J - - 2004
The aim of this work was to investigate whether the Penh index, measured using whole body barometric plethysmography, can be used as a screening parameter to evaluate the airway reactivity and the intensity of the pulmonary response to endotoxins. Penh was firstly recorded in non-sedated freely moving piglets exposed (1) ...
Morici Giuseppe - - 2004
PURPOSES: This study was designed to assess: a) whether rowing affects airway cell composition, and b) the possible relationship between the degree of ventilation during exercise and airway cells. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In nine young, nonasthmatic competitive rowers (mean age +/- SD: 16.2 +/- 1.0 yr), induced sputum samples were ...
Möller Winfried - - 2004
Spherical monodisperse ferromagnetic iron oxide particles of 1.9-microm geometric and 4.2-microm aerodynamic diameter were inhaled by 13 healthy nonsmoking subjects using the shallow bolus technique. The bolus width was 100 ml, and the penetration front depth was 150 +/- 27 ml. The mean flow rate during inhalation and exhalation was ...
Hemingson Howard B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that exposure to winter training conditions (irritants in indoor facilities and/or cold, dry air in the outdoors) can increase airway responsiveness in elite endurance athletes. OBJECTIVES: It has yet to be elucidated whether elite endurance athletes experience seasonal fluctuations in their airway responsiveness. METHODS: Eighteen ...
Parker Annie Lin - - 2004
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the characteristics of asthma and a risk factor for persistent airflow limitation. Poor response to bronchodilator may be a cause of persistent airflow limitation. Multiple factors may determine bronchodilator responsiveness, including airway reactivity to nonspecific bronchoconstrictive agents. If patients with AHR have poor bronchodilator ...
Lee P C L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chest percussion is often used to facilitate the drainage of respiratory secretions which may be removed from the airway by coughing. The cough reflex is believed to be mediated by mechanically sensitive rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). Chest percussion stimulation may stimulate RAR ...
King G G - - 2004
Asthmatic airway narrowing is heterogeneous and contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness. The present study compared heterogeneity of narrowing during methacholine challenge in asthmatics and normal subjects using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The current authors defined heterogeneity as variability in narrowing greater than the repeatability of measurement. Airways of <2 mm diameter ...
Bucchioni E - - 2004
Hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a key physiological abnormality in asthma. In clinical and research studies AHR is measured bronchial challenge, with methacholine (MCh), but more recently with adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP). In the search for markers of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients, we measured the concentrations of histamine and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) before and ...
Bein B - - 2004
Tracheal intubation with the intubating laryngeal mask airway or the Bonfils intubation fibrescope was performed in 80 patients with predicted difficult airways. Mallampati score, thyromental distance, mouth opening and mobility of the atlanto-occipital joint were used to predict difficult airways. The overall success rate, time to the first adequate lung ...
Klepac-Pulanić Tajana - - 2004
The aim of this study was to compare exercise-induced bronchial reaction between healthy control subjects and subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AA). It included 16 controls, 16 subjects with AR and 19 subjects with AA. A skin prick test, pulmonary function test, histamine challenge test and exercise ...
Boulay Marie-Eve - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling in which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) play an important role. Allergen exposure activates the inflammatory/repair process in sensitized subjects. Induced-sputum analysis is a non-invasive method that allows the assessment of changes in inflammatory and remodeling mediators ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2004
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is high among ice rink athletes and may be related to exercise ventilation of rink air pollutants. Impaired postchallenge expiratory flows are common for this population; however, baseline lung function and symptoms have not been fully evaluated. METHODS: We examined resting lung function and asthma-like symptoms ...
Gharagozlou Mohammad - - 2004
This study was conducted to evaluate whether forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) for the diagnosis of bronchial reactivity by means of the free-running exercise test and bronchodilator inhalation, could be appropriately replaced by simple measurements of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in children.We studied 108 referred symptomatic children ...
Tomari Shinya - - 2004
Reversible airflow limitation represents an important parameter for the diagnosis of bronchial asthma. The aim of this study was to design a simple and useful test for the detection of reversible airflow limitation. The subjects were 29 patients with asthma and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) < 80% ...
Schütz N - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although volatile anaesthetics afford protection against bronchospasm, their potential to reverse a sustained constriction of hyperreactive airways has not been characterized. Accordingly, we investigated the ability of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane to reverse lung constriction induced by prolonged stimulation of the muscarinic receptors in guinea pigs sensitized to ...
Sai Toshihito - - 2004
PURPOSE: This study was done to test the hypothesis that hypercapnia has a direct, inhibitory effect on swallowing. METHODS: We investigated changes in the frequency and timing of repeated swallows induced by continuous infusion of water into the pharynx before, during, and after transient airway occlusion at normocapnia and hypercapnia ...
Mitchell H W - - 2004
Allergen exposure of sensitised lungs produces bronchial hyperresponsiveness in vivo associated with airway inflammation and remodelling. It is unclear if hyperresponsiveness is also present in airways in vitro under similar conditions of drug provocation as carried out in vivo, and at different times after allergen-challenge. This study records responsiveness of ...
Patterson J E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the test of incremental respiratory endurance (TIRE) with active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT) [incorporating postural drainage (PD) and vibration] as methods of airway clearance in adults with bronchiectasis. DESIGN: A randomized crossover study in which a single ...
Pietropaoli Anthony P - - 2004
Particulate air pollution is associated with asthma exacerbations and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory causes. Ultrafine particles (particles less than 0.1 microm in diameter) may contribute to these adverse effects because they have a higher predicted pulmonary deposition, greater potential to induce pulmonary inflammation, larger surface area, and enhanced ...
Schilero Gregory J - - 2004
A previous study using spirometric methods demonstrated that 42% of subjects with tetraplegia experienced significant bronchodilation following inhalation of metaproterenol sulfate (MS). Comparative studies involving subjects with paraplegia were not performed and none has been performed in this population using body plethysmography, a more sensitive method used to assess airway ...
Otani Kenichiro - - 2004
AIM: In examining the mechanisms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), it is important to determine which factors most strongly affect the severity of EIB. We determined such factors in patients with asthma by stepwise multiple-regression analysis. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with asthma underwent pulmonary function tests, methacholine provocation test, and sputum induction. ...
Jackson Andrew C - - 2004
A deep breath (DB) during induced obstruction results in a transient reversal with a return to pre-DB levels in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects. The time course of this transient recovery has been reported to be exponential by one group but linear by another group. In the present study, we ...
Boskabady Mohammad Hossein - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The most important pathological feature of asthma is airway inflammation, which results in airway hyper-responsiveness. We hypothesized that excessive oxidation is likely to contribute to airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both acute exposure and a 30-day administration of ascorbic ...
Boskabady Mohammad Hossein - - 2003
Despite the controversy of airway responsiveness to beta2-agonist drugs in asthma, in a previous study we showed increased responsiveness of asthmatic airways to isoprenaline. Therefore, in the present study of airway sensitivity to other beta2-agonists, salbutamol and its relationship to histamine responsiveness was reexamined. The threshold bronchodilator concentrations of inhaled ...
Larbanois A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: There is theoretical evidence that specific airway conductance (SGaw) could be more reliable than forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) for assessing changes in airway calibre. We investigated the changes in FEV1 and SGaw when assessing bronchial responses to occupational agents. METHODS: SGaw and FEV1 were measured during ...
Salome C M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The perception of airway narrowing is reduced in subjects with severe asthma and may be related to the severity of airway inflammation. A study was undertaken to determine if the perception of airway narrowing changes during the reduction of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose or during an asthma exacerbation. METHODS: ...
Wang Ping-Huai - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the value of negative expiratory pressure (NEP) in the assessment of methacholine bronchoprovocation testing (BPT). DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Pulmonary function laboratory in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-nine patients with chronic cough referred from outpatient clinics for methacholine BPT. METHODS: Each subject inhaled successive doubling ...
Berkman Neville - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Leukotriene antagonist therapy in asthmatic patients alleviates symptoms and improves exercise tolerance, however the effect of these drugs on bronchial provocation tests and exhaled nitric oxide levels are less clearly established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of montelukast treatment on airway hyperresponsiveness to exercise, methacholine and adenosine-5'-monophosphate and on ...
Maghni Karim - - 2004
Subjects with occupational asthma (OA) generally present asthma symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness after cessation of exposure. We hypothesized that they are also left with airway inflammation. We assessed 133 subjects with OA at a mean interval of 8.7 years (0.5-20.8 years) after cessation of exposure by questionnaire, airway caliber, and ...
Beier Jutta - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In patients with allergic rhinitis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation may increase during pollen exposure. BHR can be assessed by adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) or methacholine challenge. It has been suggested that BHR to AMP is more closely related to airway inflammation than BHR to methacholine. Seasonal allergic rhinitis offers ...
El-Zein M - - 2003
The majority of cross-sectional studies have shown a higher prevalence of ventilatory impairment in welders while only few longitudinal studies were able to detect chronic effects on spirometry or bronchial responsiveness. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of probable occupational asthma (OA), bronchial obstruction and hyperresponsiveness ...
Moloney E D - - 2003
Airway dehydration and subsequent hyperosmolarity of periciliary fluid are considered critical events in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). It has been shown that an in vitro hyperosmolar stimulation of basophils and mast cells with mannitol can induce the release of histamine and leukotrienes. The aim of this study was to establish if ...
Agalliu Ilir - - 2003
The methacholine challenge test protocol was assessed in the reanalysis of three occupational studies. We evaluated the impact of truncating the range of methacholine on responsiveness, as defined by slope and PC(20). In original analysis, reactivity was similar for apprentices and auto body shop workers, whereas boilermakers were more responsive. ...
ElHalawani Samy M - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is present in 40 to 90% of patients with asthma. Exhaled NO (eNO) levels have been correlated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and have correlated with the degree of decrease in FEV(1) with exercise. The purpose of our study was to examine whether eNO measurements prior ...
Neill A M - - 2003
Heated humidification of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) reduces upper airway symptoms and improves initial use in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). The present study aimed to assess the effect of heated humidification of nCPAP on upper airway symptoms and initial use in obstructive sleep apnoea. This study was ...
Natalini G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) ventilation tube is narrower and shorter than the standard Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and is without the vertical bars at the end of the tube. In this randomized, crossover study, PLMA and LMA resistances were compared. METHODS: Respiratory mechanics was calculated in 26 ...
Salome C M - - 2003
After bronchoconstriction, deep inspiration (DI) causes dilatation followed by airway re-narrowing. Re-narrowing may be faster in asthmatic than nonasthmatic subjects. This study investigated the relationship between re-narrowing and the magnitude of both DI-induced dilatation and the volume-dependence of respiratory system resistance (Rrs) during tidal breathing. In 25 asthmatic and 18 ...
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