Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1447
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Tirouvanziam Rabindra - - 2006
Neutrophilic airway inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). As high oxidant producers, airway neutrophils contribute largely to the systemic redox imbalance seen in CF. In turn, this chronic and profound imbalance can impact circulating neutrophils before their migration into airways. Indeed, in 18 CF patients with stable disease, ...
Torchio Roberto - - 2006
We examined the effects of chest wall strapping (CWS) on the response to inhaled methacholine (MCh) and the effects of deep inspiration (DI). Eight subjects were studied on 1 day with MCh inhaled without CWS (CTRL), 1 day with MCh inhaled during CWS (CWSon/on), and 1 day with MCh inhaled ...
Brown Robert H - - 2006
We hypothesized that structural airway remodeling contributes to airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma. Small, medium, and large airways were analyzed by computed tomography in 21 asthmatic volunteers under baseline conditions (FEV1 = 64% predicted) and after maximum response to albuterol (FEV1 = 76% predicted). The difference in pulmonary function between ...
Anderson Sandra D - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To remind readers that evaporative water loss from the airway surface is the stimulus for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. To emphasize that recruitment of the peripheral airways determines severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. To draw attention to the potential for injury of the epithelium and for plasma exudation to contribute ...
Shafik M T - - 2006
Many new supraglottic airway devices have been recently introduced, their development motivated by the need for a single-use equivalent to the original re-usable laryngeal mask airway. We performed a randomised cross-over study in spontaneously breathing patients comparing the re-usable Laryngeal Mask Airway-Classic (LMA) and the disposable Soft Seal Laryngeal Mask ...
de Boer A H - - 2006
In this study, the in vitro fine particle deposition from a multi dose dry powder inhaler (Novolizer) with air classifier technology has been investigated. It is shown that different target values for the fine particle fraction (fpf<5 microm) of the same drug can be achieved in a well-controlled way. This ...
Petrigni G - - 2006
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biopolymer, member of the family of the glycosaminoglicanes (GAGs) is one of the major natural components of the connective amorphous matrix. The lungs, together with skin and intestine, contain >50% of HA of the body: it provides to several biologic functions and presents the unique capacity ...
Ko F W S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with esoinophilic airway inflammation and overproduction of T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-related cytokines. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin and Th2-specific macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) in the adult asthmatic airway. Eotaxin and MDC levels were determined in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) obtained from adult patients ...
Evans Tina M - - 2006
Airway responses were compared following 6-minute eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation and 6-minute exercise challenges by examining resting and post-challenge impulse oscillometry and spirometry variables. Twenty-two physically active individuals with probable exercise-induced bronchoconstriction took part in this study. Impulse oscillometry and spirometry were performed at baseline and for 20 minutes post-challenge at ...
Gotshall Robert W - - 2006
Airway calibre is an important determinant of air flow and respiratory work both at rest and during exercise. While much is understood about control of airway calibre at rest, less is known about the dynamics and changes in airway resistance during exercise, especially in those with asthma. This article provides ...
Malinovschi Andrei - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A positive association between IgE sensitisation and exhaled NO levels has been found in several studies, but there are no reports on the compartment of the lung that is responsible for the increase in exhaled NO levels seen in IgE-sensitised subjects. METHODS: The present study comprised 288 adult subjects ...
Puthucheary Zudin A - - 2006
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) detects airway inflammation. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used for tissue hypoxia, but can cause lung damage. We measured eNO following inhalation of oxygen at different tensions and pressures. Part 1, eNO was measured before and after HBOT. Part 2, normal subjects breathed 40% oxygen. Baseline ...
Burki Nausherwan K - - 2006
We have shown that intravenous adenosine in normal subjects does not cause bronchospasm, but causes dyspnea, most likely by an effect on vagal C fibers in the lungs [Burki et al. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98:180-5]. Since airways inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity are features of asthma, it is possible that ...
Scichilone Nicola - - 2005
PURPOSE: The effects of endurance training on airway responsiveness in nonasthmatic subjects are poorly defined. We hypothesized that airway responsiveness may differ between none-lite endurance athletes and sedentary subjects, and studied healthy, nonelite runners and sedentary controls by single-dose methacholine challenges carried out in the absence of deep inspirations, in ...
Witten Allyson - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can enhance airway inflammation after allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects. METHODS: Fifteen house-dust-mite (HDM)-sensitive asthmatic subjects were exposed for 3 hours to filtered air or 0.4 ppm NO2, followed by inhalational challenge with HDM allergen. Markers of inflammation were measured in ...
Branconnier Matthew P - - 2005
HYPOTHESIS: Albuterol delivered during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation is affected by use of a nebulizer or metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and whether the leak port is in the hose or the mask. METHODS: A lung model that simulated spontaneous breathing at 20 breaths/min was used. A bi-level positive-airway-pressure ventilator (Respironics S/T30) was ...
Rouhos A - - 2005
This study was conducted to evaluate how bronchial responsiveness to direct and indirect stimuli relate to nitric oxide producing airway inflammation, and whether the relationship differs between atopic and nonatopic patients with various degrees of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a group of otherwise homogenous young men. We studied ...
Choi Inseon S IS Department of Allergy, Chonnam National University Medical School and Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Gwangju, Korea. - - 2005
Changes in airway mucosal osmolarity are an underlying mechanism of bronchoconstrictive responses to exercise and hypertonic saline (HS). The purpose of this study was to examine whether an osmotic challenge test using HS can predict exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in asthma patients. Thirty-six young male asthmatic patients underwent bronchial challenge tests ...
Smith M J - - 2005
In contrast to early epidemiological evidence offering links between eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) and microimpurities of L-tryptophan-containing dietary supplements (LTCDS), this account shows why reliance on a finite impurity from one manufacturer is both unnecessary and insufficient to explain the etiology of EMS. Excessive histamine activity has induced blood eosinophilia and ...
Shin Hye-Won - - 2006
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is highly dependent on exhalation flow; thus exchange dynamics of NO have been described by multicompartment models and a series of flow-independent parameters that describe airway and alveolar exchange. Because the flow-independent NO airway parameters characterize features of the airway tissue (e.g., wall concentration), they should ...
Boskabady M H - - 2006
There are reports regarding harmful effect of long-term use of beta2-agonist drugs on asthma severity and airway responsiveness. In the present study, the responses of guinea pig trachea with intact and denuded epithelium (groups 1 and 2, n = 10) to methacholine as EC50 were measured in tissues nonincubated or ...
Koopmans Julia G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Adding a long-acting beta(2)-agonist to inhaled corticosteroids results in better symptomatic asthma control than increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroids. OBJECTIVE: Investigating whether adding the long-acting beta(2)-agonist salmeterol to the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone propionate has an effect on allergen-induced allergic inflammation in asthma. METHODS: Bronchial allergen challenges were performed ...
Berry M A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Assessment of eosinophilic airway inflammation may be helpful in the management of asthma. Nitric oxide (NO) has potential advantages as a tool to monitor airway inflammation although little is known about the relationship between NO and eosinophilic airway inflammation and the factors which influence it. METHODS: We set out ...
Ritz Thomas - - 2005
Emotional stimuli can cause airway constriction; however, it is uncertain whether a dimensional or categorical model of emotion can better describe airway changes. Also, little is known about the affective modulation of respiration and vagal activity, which can influence airway tone. We studied changes in oscillatory resistance (Ros), respiration, and ...
Kunz L I Z - - 2006
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide that is present in human tissues and body fluids. HA has various functions, including a barrier effect, water homeostasis, stabilizing the extracellular matrix, increased mucociliary clearance and elastin injury prevention. It may therefore exert prophylactic activity in the treatment of asthma. We tested the ...
Farid Reza - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a course of aerobic exercise on pulmonary function and tolerance of activity in asthmatic patients. Among the asthmatic patients, 36 patients (M= 16, F= 20) were chosen after clinical examinations, pulmonary function test, skin prick test (SPT) for ...
Hallstrand Teal S - - 2005
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common cause of symptoms in a subgroup of asthmatic subjects. The pathobiology that makes this group of asthmatic subjects susceptible to bronchoconstriction after a brief period of exercise remains poorly understood. We sought to determine whether there are differences in lower airway inflammation and production ...
Yu Jinho - - 2005
Airway hypersensitivity is routinely evaluated by measuring the concentration (PC20) of inhaled methacholine or histamine that causes a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). It has been suggested that a percentage fall in forced vital capacity (FVC) measured at the PC20 dose of inhaled agonist (deltaFVC) ...
Mirsadraee M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The lung is one of the most exposable organs to chemical warfare agents such as sulfur mustard gas. Pulmonary complications as a result of this gas range from severe bronchial stenosis to mild or no symptoms. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) which is usually assessed as response to inhaled methacholine is ...
Haverkamp H C - - 2005
Twenty-one subjects with asthma underwent treadmill exercise to exhaustion at a workload that elicited approximately 90% of each subject's maximal O2 uptake (EX1). After EX1, 12 subjects experienced significant exercise-induced bronchospasm [(EIB+), %decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s = -24.0 +/- 11.5%; pulmonary resistance at rest vs. postexercise ...
Haverkamp H C - - 2005
We determined the relations among gas exchange, breathing mechanics, and airway inflammation during moderate- to maximum-intensity exercise in asthmatic subjects. Twenty-one habitually active (48.2 +/- 7.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) maximal O2 uptake) mildly to moderately asthmatic subjects (94 +/- 13% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s) performed treadmill exercise to exhaustion ...
Kawai M - - 2005
Therapeutic equivalence between procaterol hydrochloride dry powder inhaler (Meptin DPI) and procaterol hydrochloride metered-dose inhaler (Meptin MDI), the currently marketed formulation, was assessed in 16 patients with bronchial asthma. The study was conducted in a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind crossover manner, using forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) as ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of impulse oscillometry (IOS) to measure airway calibre change is not fully established. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate lung function change after eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH), and to compare IOS indices with spirometric maximal expiratory flow measurements. METHODS: Twenty subjects (10 airway hyperresponsive [AHR+] and 10 normal [AHR--]) underwent ...
Scichilone Nicola - - 2005
Deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection and bronchodilation are impaired in asthma. We evaluated the effect of inhaled glucocorticosteroids on these phenomena. Two groups of subjects with asthma, 9 with moderate/severe hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and 12 with mild/borderline hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, received inhaled fluticasone (880 microg daily) for 12 weeks. Serial bronchoprovocations were ...
Boulet Louis-Philippe - - 2006
RATIONALE: We still do not know why some subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) experience no respiratory symptoms. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to compare pulmonary function, perception of bronchoconstriction, and airway inflammation in atopic subjects with mild recently diagnosed (<5 years, n=30) or longer-standing (5 years or more, n=30) symptomatic asthma ...
Mickleborough Timothy D - - 2005
PURPOSE: Recent studies have supported a role for dietary salt as a modifier of the severity of exercise-induced asthma. The main aim of this study was to demarcate a possible mechanism by which dietary salt modification may alter exercise-induced airway narrowing in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Twenty-four patients participated in a ...
Pichon A - - 2005
In healthy subjects changes in airway calibre during exercise are conflicting and smaller than in asthmatics. Methodological differences could explain the discrepancies between the results obtained in healthy subjects. Therefore, our aim was to assess during exercise the changes in airway diameter and the effects of 200 microg salbutamol (SAL) ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2005
Localized morphometric deformations of small airways and alveoli during respiration have several biomechanical and physiological implications. We developed fast synchrotron radiation CT system to visualize the small airways and alveoli of an intact mouse lung without fixation and dehydration, and analyzed their localized morphometric deformations between functional residual capacity (FRC) ...
Dodd Jonathan D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of inhaled beta-agonists on sub-maximal and maximal exercise capacity, breathing pattern, dyspnoea, leg-discomfort and spirometry in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). OBJECTIVES: Eight patients performed two maximal incremental cycle-ergometry tests on separate days with inhaled placebo or salbutamol (600 microg) administered before each test in ...
Berkman N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Bronchial provocation tests such as exercise, methacholine (MCH), and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges are used extensively in the diagnosis of asthma. A study was undertaken to determine whether exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) can be used to diagnose asthma in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms and to compare this test with ...
Csoma Z - - 2005
In asthmatic patients, airway obstruction provoked by exercise challenge is accompanied by an increase in plasma adenosine level. In this study, the current authors investigated if exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was associated with local changes of adenosine concentration in the airways. Oral exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection (5-min duration) and forced expiratory ...
Abraham William M WM Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Miami at Mount Sinai Medical Center, 4300 Alton Road, Miami Beach, FL 33140, USA. - - 2005
During a Florida red tide, brevetoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis become aerosolized and cause airway symptoms in humans, especially in those with pre-existing airway disease (e.g., asthma). To understand these toxin-induced airway effects, we used sheep with airway hypersensitivity to Ascaris suum antigen as a surrogate for asthmatic ...
Nabe Takeshi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma model, in which delayed-type hypersensitivity-like asthmatic airway obstruction is elicited restrictively in the lung, has never been developed. METHODS: Guinea pigs were percutaneously sensitized with TDI. For the challenges, once every 2 weeks for a total of 5 times, TDI mists were delivered directly to ...
Xue Z Z James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Sect. of Pediatric Pulmonology, ROC 4270, 702 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, - - 2005
Active, nonanesthetized, tracheotomized rabbits were subjected to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for 4 days to determine the effects of chronic mechanical strain on lung and airway function. Rabbits were maintained for 4 days at a CPAP of 6 cmH(2)O (high CPAP), at a CPAP of 0 cmH(2)O (low CPAP), ...
Rundell K W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is common in elite athletes. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) is a laboratory test recommended for the identification of EIB in athletes, secondary to a field exercise challenge. Montelukast attenuates EIB, but its protective effect against airway narrowing from EVH has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To ...
Paech M J - - 2005
We performed a randomised, crossover, single-blind trial among 168 patients, to compare the single-use SoftSeal and LMA Unique laryngeal mask airways in spontaneously breathing adults. Size-3 and -4 laryngeal mask airways, inserted by experienced anaesthetists, performed equivalently for successful first-time placement (148 (91%) vs 155 (96%) for the SoftSeal and ...
Carraro Silvia - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It is recognized that airway inflammation has a central role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but how it relates to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between EIB and baseline concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) and other ...
Anderson Sandra D - - 2005
There is still active debate on the acute mechanism of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Although it is unlikely that vasoconstriction and hyperemia of the bronchial vasculature are essential events for EIB, it is likely that this vasculature enhances the airway response to dehydration and contributes to the pathogenesis of EIB, particularly ...
Wiester Mildred J - - 2005
Diverse agonists used for airway challenges produce a stereotypic sequence of immediate functional responses (e.g., bronchoconstriction, gas trapping, hypoxemia, etc.) at the time such reactions are triggered. The reaction incorporates both pulmonary and cardiac changes that clearly interact in an orchestrated fashion taking the subject (or animal model) through the ...
Jeon Y - - 2005
The cross-section of the mainstem bronchi is not completely round. For preoperative selection of a double-lumen endobronchial tube size, it may be necessary to measure the mediolateral and the anteroposterior bronchial diameters, which can be measured respectively on chest radiograph and computed tomography. With Internal Review Board approval and patients' ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >